Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the worlds sixth-largest country by total area, the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu to the north-east, and New Zealand to the south-east. Australias capital is Canberra, and its largest urban area is Sydney, for about 50,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians, who spoke languages classifiable into roughly 250 groups. The population grew steadily in subsequent decades, and by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored, on 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated, forming the Commonwealth of Australia. Australia has since maintained a liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy comprising six states.
The population of 24 million is highly urbanised and heavily concentrated on the eastern seaboard, Australia has the worlds 13th-largest economy and ninth-highest per capita income. With the second-highest human development index globally, the country highly in quality of life, education, economic freedom. The name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis a name used for putative lands in the southern hemisphere since ancient times, the Dutch adjectival form Australische was used in a Dutch book in Batavia in 1638, to refer to the newly discovered lands to the south. On 12 December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office that it be formally adopted, in 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known officially as Australia. The first official published use of the term Australia came with the 1830 publication of The Australia Directory and these first inhabitants may have been ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. The Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, were originally horticulturists, the northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited sporadically by fishermen from Maritime Southeast Asia.
The first recorded European sighting of the Australian mainland, and the first recorded European landfall on the Australian continent, are attributed to the Dutch. The first ship and crew to chart the Australian coast and meet with Aboriginal people was the Duyfken captained by Dutch navigator, Willem Janszoon. He sighted the coast of Cape York Peninsula in early 1606, the Dutch charted the whole of the western and northern coastlines and named the island continent New Holland during the 17th century, but made no attempt at settlement. William Dampier, an English explorer and privateer, landed on the north-west coast of New Holland in 1688, in 1770, James Cook sailed along and mapped the east coast, which he named New South Wales and claimed for Great Britain. The first settlement led to the foundation of Sydney, and the exploration, a British settlement was established in Van Diemens Land, now known as Tasmania, in 1803, and it became a separate colony in 1825. The United Kingdom formally claimed the part of Western Australia in 1828.
Separate colonies were carved from parts of New South Wales, South Australia in 1836, Victoria in 1851, the Northern Territory was founded in 1911 when it was excised from South Australia
The Toyota Corolla is a line of subcompact and compact cars manufactured by Toyota. Introduced in 1966, the Corolla was the best-selling car worldwide by 1974 and has one of the best-selling cars in the world since then. In 1997, the Corolla became the best selling nameplate in the world, Toyota reached the milestone of 40 million Corollas sold over eleven generations in July 2013. The series has several major redesigns. The name Corolla is part of Toyotas naming tradition of using names derived from the Toyota Crown for sedans, the Corolla has always been exclusive in Japan to Toyota Corolla Store locations, and manufactured in Japan with a twin, called the Toyota Sprinter until 2000. In Japan and much of the world, the hatchback companion since 2006 has been called the Toyota Auris, prior to the Auris, Toyota used the Corolla name on the hatchback bodystyle in various international markets. Early models were mostly rear-wheel drive, while models have been front-wheel drive, the Corollas traditional competitors have been the Nissan Sunny, introduced the same year as the Corolla in Japan and the Honda Civic.
The Corollas chassis designation code is E, as described in Toyotas chassis, Corollas are manufactured in Japan at the original Toyota Takaoka location built in 1966. Various production facilities have been built in Brazil, China, Pakistan, South Africa, Thailand, Turkey, production has previously been carried out in Australia and the United Kingdom. Production in the United States ended in March 2010, production resumed the following year after the Toyota Motor Manufacturing Mississippi plant was opened in November 2011 in Blue Springs, Mississippi. The RunX and Allex was replaced by the Auris in 2006, a luxury version of the Auris installed with V6 engines was briefly sold at Japanese Toyota dealerships Toyota Store and Toyopet Store locations as the Blade, which was discontinued in 2012. A compact MPV named the Corolla Verso has released in European markets. Its Japanese counterpart is the Corolla Spacio, which has been discontinued as of the 10th generation, the Corolla Rumion is sold in the US-market as the Scion xB.
Toyota frequently combines the sales figures of the Corolla sedan and Matrix, the Pontiac Vibe, which is the General Motors badged version of the Matrix, shares the Corolla platform. The Pontiac Vibe was exported from Fremont, California to the Japanese market where it was sold as the Toyota Voltz, the Corolla liftback of Toyota Australia was badged as simply the T-18. The five-door liftback was sold with the Corolla Seca name in Australia, the Daihatsu Charmant was produced from the E30 to the E70 series. The Tercel platform was used for the Corolla II hatchback in Japan. The first Corolla generation was introduced in October 1966 with the new 1100 cc K pushrod engine, the Corolla Sprinter was introduced as the fastback version in 1968, and exclusive to a Toyota Japan dealership retail outlet called Toyota Auto Store
The Supercars Championship is a touring car racing category based in Australia and run as an International Series under Fédération Internationale de lAutomobile regulations. Supercars events take place in all Australian states and the Northern Territory, an international round is held in New Zealand, while events have previously been held in China, the United Arab Emirates and the United States. A non-championship event is held in support of the Australian Grand Prix. The series is broadcast in 137 countries and has an average event attendance of over 100,000, the vehicles used in the series are loosely based on road-going, four-door saloon cars. Cars are custom made using a chassis, with only certain body panels being common between the road cars and race cars. To ensure parity between each make of car, many components are utilised. All cars must use a 5. 0-litre, naturally aspirated V8 engine, originally only for Ford Falcons and Holden Commodores, the New Generation V8 Supercar regulations, introduced in 2013, opened up the series to more manufacturers.
Nissan were the first new manufacturer to commit to the series with four Nissan Altimas, Volvo entered the series in 2014 with Garry Rogers Motorsport racing the Volvo S60. The concept of a formula centred around V8-engined Fords and Holdens for the Australian Touring Car Championship had been established as early as mid-1991, however, CAMS was waiting to see what the FIA did with its proposed international formula for 2.5 and 2. 0-litre touring cars. The new rules for the ATCC were announced in November 1991, during 1992, CAMS looked at closing the performance gap between the classes, only to have protests from Ford and Holden, who didnt want to see their cars beaten by the smaller cars. In June 1992, the structure was confirmed, Class A, Australian-produced 5. 0-litre V8-engined Fords. Class B,2. 0-litre cars complying with FIA Class II Touring Car regulations, Class C, normally aspirated two-wheel drive cars complying with 1992 CAMS Group 3A Touring Car regulations. This class would only be eligible in 1993, both the Ford EB Falcon and Holden VP Commodore ran American-based engines which were restricted to 7,500 rpm and a compression ratio of 10,1.
The V8s were first eligible to compete in the races of 1992. Cars from all three classes would contest the 1993 Australian Touring Car Championship as well as non-championship Australian touring car events such as the Bathurst 1000, for the purposes of race classification and points allocation, cars competed in two classes, Over 2, 000cc. Originally the 2. 0-litre class cars competed in a race to the V8s. This was changed for the round of 1993, after there were only nine entrants in the 2. 0-litre class for the first round at Amaroo Park. After round five at Winton, Holden was granted a new front, the BMWs were allowed a new splitter and a full DTM-specification rear wing
Alfa Romeo 75
The Alfa Romeo 75, sold in North America as the Milano, is a compact executive car produced by the Italian automaker Alfa Romeo between 1985 and 1992. The 75 was commercially successful, in only three years,236,907 cars were produced, and by the end of production in 1992. The Alfa Romeo 75 was the last model released before Alfa Romeo was acquired by Fiat, the 75 was introduced in May 1985 to replace the Giulietta, and was named to celebrate Alfas 75th year of production. The body, designed by head of Alfa Romeo Centro Stile Ermanno Cressoni, was styled in a wedge shape, tapering at the front with square headlights. At the 1986 Turin Auto Salon, a prototype 75 estate was to be seen and this version was, never listed for sale, being cancelled after Fiat took control of Alfa Romeo. The car, dubbed the 75 Turbo Wagon, was made by Italian coachbuilder Rayton Fissore using a 75 Turbo as the basis. Two estate versions were to be found at the 1987 Geneva Motor Show, one was this Turbo Wagon, the 75 featured some unusual technical features, most notably the fact that it was almost perfectly balanced from front to rear.
This was achieved by using transaxle schema — mounting the standard five-speed gearbox in the connected to the rear differential. The engine crankshaft was bolted directly to the two-segment driveshaft which ran the length of the underside from the block to the gearbox. The shaft segments were joined with elastomeric doughnuts to prevent vibration, the 2.0 L Twin Spark and the 3.0 Litre V6 were equipped with limited slip differential. The 75 featured a then-advanced dashboard-mounted diagnostic computer, called Alfa Romeo Control, capable of monitoring the engine systems and alerting the drivers of potential faults. The 75 engine range at launch featured four-cylinder 1. 6-,1. 8- and 2. 0-litre petrol carbureted engines, a 2. 0-litre intercooled turbodiesel made by VM Motori, and a 2. 5-litre fuel injected V6. In 1986, the 75 Turbo was introduced, which featured a fuel-injected 1779 cc twin-cam engine using Garrett T3 turbocharger and oil cooler. In 1987, a 3. 0-litre V6 was added to the range, with fuel injection and variable valve timing this engine produced 148 PS.
This was the first production engine to use variable valve timing, in North America, where the car was known as the Milano, only the 2.5 and 3.0 V6s were available, from 1987 to 1989. The North American 2. 5-litres were fundamentally different from their European counterparts, due to federal regulations, some modifications were required. Most noticeable from the outside were the America bumpers, with the typical rubber accordions in them, these bumpers had thick shock-absorbing material inside them and in addition, they were mounted to the vehicle on shock absorbers. To accommodate these shock absorbers, the America-bodies were slightly different from the European ones, the car was available with a 3-speed ZF automatic gearbox option for the 2.5 V6
General Motors Holden, generally known as Holden, has been an Australian automobile manufacturer that operated in Australia with its headquarters in Port Melbourne, Victoria. The company was founded in 1856 as a manufacturer in South Australia. In 1908 it moved into the field, before becoming a subsidiary of the United States-based General Motors in 1931. After becoming a subsidiary of GM, the company was named General Motors-Holdens Ltd, becoming Holden Ltd in 1998, by 2018 it will have ceased manufacturing vehicles in Australia. Holden has offered the locally produced range of Commodore vehicles, supplemented by imported GM models, Holden has offered badge engineered models in sharing arrangements with Chevrolet, Nissan, Suzuki and Vauxhall Motors. In 2013 the vehicle lineup consisted of models from GM Korea, GM Thailand, GM in the US, and self-developed Commodore, Holden distributed the European Opel brand in Australia in 2012 until the Opel brands Australian demise in mid-2013. Since 1994, all Australian-built Holden vehicles were manufactured at Elizabeth, South Australia, production or assembly plants were operated in all mainland states of Australia, with GMs New Zealand subsidiary Holden New Zealand operating a plant until 1990.
The consolidation of car production at Elizabeth was completed in 1988, although Holdens involvement in exports has fluctuated since the 1950s, the declining sales of large cars in Australia led the company to look to international markets to increase profitability. Holden will retain their design centre, but with reduced staffing, since 2010 Holden has incurred losses due to the strong Australian dollar, and government grants have been reduced. In May 2014 GM reversed their decision to abandon the Lang Lang Proving Ground, in 1852, James Alexander Holden emigrated to South Australia from Walsall, England and in 1856 established J. A. Holden & Co, a business in Adelaide. Frost joined the business as a partner and J. A. Holden & Co became Holden & Frost Ltd. Edward Holden, James grandson, from there, the firm evolved through various partnerships and, in 1908, Holden & Frost moved into the business of minor repairs to car upholstery. The company began to produce complete motorcycle sidecar bodies in 1913, after 1917, wartime trade restrictions led the company to start full-scale production of vehicle body shells.
Holden founded a new company in 1919, Holdens Motor Body Builders Ltd specialising in car bodies, by 1923, HMBB were producing 12,000 units per year. During this time, HMBB was the first company to assemble bodies for Ford Australia until their Geelong plant was completed, from 1924, HMBB became the exclusive supplier of car bodies for GM in Australia, with manufacturing taking place at the new Woodville, South Australia, plant. These bodies were made to suit a number of imported from manufacturers such as Chevrolet. In 1930 alone, the still independent Woodville plant built bodies for Austin, Chrysler, DeSoto, Hillman, Hupmobile, the last of this line of business was the assembly of Hillman Minx sedans in 1948
Tom Walkinshaw Racing
Tom Walkinshaw Racing was an auto racing team and engineering firm founded in 1976, in Kidlington, near Oxford, England by touring car racer Tom Walkinshaw. The company initially handled privateer work before entering works touring car racers for manufacturers such as Mazda, the relationship continued and by 1988, TWR-Jaguar had taken its first Le Mans victory in a V12-powered XJR-9. Further success followed with a Le Mans win in 1990, TWR and Jaguar formed JaguarSport initially to build tuned versions of Jaguar road-cars, culminating in the production of the XJ220 and XJR-15 supercars at a new facility at Bloxham. With Jaguar falling under Fords control in 1989, the TWR relationship declined and by 1994, JaguarSport had been liquidated, TWR nonetheless continued to achieve racing success with other manufacturers, notably winning Le Mans again in 1996 and 1997 in a Porsche-powered WSC-95. However, it was the costs resulting from the purchase of the Formula 1 team Arrows in 1996 that led to the demise of TWR in 2002, the UK assets and facility were bought by Menard Competition Technologies.
The facilities were used as Arrows Grand Prix International, Super Aguri, the Australian part of the business was sold to Holden. TWR started by modifying BMW3.0 CSLs, but soon was contracted to head Mazdas works program in the British Touring Car Championship, the TWR developed RX-7, with Win Percy in the driving seat, won the title in both 1980 and 1981. Walkinshaw himself took a win in the Spa 24 Hours, success in the latter series with both cars led to a partnership to develop a Jaguar prototype for Group C racing, for use in both the World Sportscar Championship and the IMSA GT Championship. As Bob Tullius Group 44 initially ran Jaguar powered cars in IMSA, however, it soon became clear that a single partner could successfully run in both WSCC and IMSA and so by 1988 TWR had secured the contract to run in both series. TWR Jaguar cars won the WSCC outright in 1987,1988 and 1991 and won the prestigious 24 Hours of Le Mans and the 24 Hours of Daytona in 1988 and 1990. The series started in 1985 with XJR-6, designed by Tony Southgate, with a built from carbon-fibre.
Although this car won both the WSCC Drivers and Manufacturers championship, Jaguar decided that it no longer had any interest in WSCC due to rule changes. For IMSA in 1991, TWR ran the XJR-16, a development of the XJR-10 turbo car, in spite of six wins in fourteen races, TWR-Jaguar was placed second overall to the more consistent Nissan team. In 1991, in parallel with production of the XJR-14, TWR developed the £500,000 XJR-15 for privateers and this was raced in its own series, the Jaguar Intercontinental Challenge, supporting F1 races at Monaco and Spa. The winning driver, Armin Hahne, took a US$1m prize, the car was road-legal, the only road-car to be fully designed and built by TWR. TWR modified its Jaguar XJR-14 design into the TWR WSC-95 for Porsche, in 1997, Nissan Motorsports turned to Tom Walkinshaw Racing to help them develop the Nissan R390 GT1 race car to compete in sports car racing. In the 199824 Hours of Le Mans, Nissan was able to achieve success with all four of their cars finishing the race, placing 3rd, 5th, 6th.
Raul Boesel, Martin Brundle and Teo Fabi each won the WSCC Drivers Championship, a number of prominent motor-racing engineers made careers at TWR, including Roger Silman, Tony Southgate and Ross Brawn
Mitsubishi Lancer Evolution
The Mitsubishi Lancer Evolution, known as the Lancer Evo or just Evo, was a sports sedan manufactured by Mitsubishi Motors that is based on the normal Lancer. There have been ten official versions to date, and the designation of model is most commonly a Roman numeral. All use two litre, turbocharged engines and all-wheel drive systems, Japanese-spec cars were limited by a gentlemens agreement to advertise no more than 280 PS, a mark already reached by Evolution IV. Therefore, each subsequent version has unofficially evolved above the power figures. Various versions available in markets, particularly the UK, have official power outputs up to 446 PS. The tenth and final generation of the Lancer Evolution was launched in Japan in 2007, \ The Evolution II was upgraded in December 1993, and was produced until February 1995. This Evolution has a 50 l fuel tank, Power output was increased to 256 PS from the same engine and torque was unchanged for both GSR and RS models. February 1995 saw the arrival of the Evolution 3, which had several improvements over the previous models, more aggressive styling and a new nose moulding improved the air supply to the radiator and brakes.
New side skirts and rear bumper moldings and a rear spoiler were added to reduce lift. Improved engine had higher compression ratio than before, and new turbocharger compressor, the Lancer platform was completely changed in 1996, and along with it, the Evolution, which had become extremely popular throughout the world. The engine and transaxle was rotated 180° to better balance the weight, there were two versions available, The RS and GSR. The RS version was produced as a car with a limited-slip front differential. It came with GLX seats and a choice of either 16 or 17 OZ light weight racing wheels. The RS had wind up windows, optional air conditioning in some models, and a few extra brace bars to strengthen the chassis, one behind the front grill and the other across the boot floor. The GSR and the RS shared a new twin scroll turbocharger which helped to improve response and increase power to 280 PS at 6,500 rpm and 330 N·m torque at 4,000 rpm. Much of the improvements for this generation were used in the second generation Mitsubishi RVR sold only in Japan.
Many aspects of the car were changed such as, The interior was upgraded in the GSR version with a class of Recaro seat. The body kit had flared arches at the front and rear, the track was widened by 10 mm, the wheel offset changed from ET45 to ET38 along with the wheel diameter which rose from 16 to 17 to accommodate Brembo brakes which were added to enhance braking
British Touring Car Championship
The British Touring Car Championship is a touring car racing series held each year in the United Kingdom, currently organised and administered by TOCA. It was established in 1958 as the British Saloon Car Championship and was renamed as the British Touring Car Championship in 1987. The championship has run to various national and international regulations over the years including FIA Group 2, FIA Group 5, FIA Group 1, FIA Group A, FIA Super Touring. A lower-key Group N series for production cars ran from 2000 until 2003, the championship was initially run with a mix of classes, divided according to engine capacity, racing simultaneously. The new one-class system was popular with manufacturers from the beginning with six manufacturer supported teams from BMW, Mitsubishi, Toyota, to this day, the super touring era during the 1990s is still looked at as the most successful period of the BTCC. The high number of manufacturer-backed teams provided very close competition and hard fought racing on track, in order to reduce the costs to compete in the championship, the organisers introduced new regulations for the 2001 season.
The BTC Touring regulations cut costs dramatically but both manufacturer and spectator interest was low, the Super 2000 rules were observed for the overall championship from the 2007 season. The 2000s saw cheaper cars than the Supertouring era, with factory teams. In 2009, the BTCC released details of its Next Generation Touring Car specification, the NGTC specification aimed to cut costs by reducing reliance on WTCC/S2000 equipment, due to increasing costs/complexity and concerns as to its future sustainability and direction. Currently, the cars used are a mix of 2, S2000 cars continued running in the Jack Sears Trophy until the 2014 season. BTCC teams are a mixture of manufacturer entries and independent teams such as BTC Norlin, in 2010, following Vauxhalls decision to pull out of the series, there were two new works teams, run by RML, and Honda, run by Team Dynamics. This included finishing all 30 championship races that year, something no other driver has achieved before or since and this ended Vauxhalls run of 4 victories in the drivers and teams championships between 2001 and 2004.
Neal and Dynamics were victorious in 2006, before Vauxhall won the 2007 title with Italian Fabrizio Giovanardi. Team Dynamics achieved the first overall race win in the Supertouring era when Neal won a round of the 1999 BTCC at Donington park. These cost reductions saw a rise in independent entries – teams or individuals entering cars purchased from the teams when they update their chassis. With the introduction of the NGTC rules, all share a number of common components provided through a contract with RML Group. This has allowed many independent teams to enter without the need for manufacturer support, and negating the need to source ex-works cars. Teams can install an engine from their marques broad family of cars, or opt to lease an engine from TOCA, to further keep costs in check, the BTCC uses a single tyre supplier, with Dunlop the current supplier of rubber to all the teams
The terminology can be used to describe forms of competition of two-wheeled motorised vehicles under the banner of motorcycle racing, and includes off-road racing such as motocross. Four- wheeled motorsport competition is governed by the Fédération Internationale de lAutomobile. In 1894, a French newspaper organised a race from Paris to Rouen and back, in 1900, the Gordon Bennett Cup was established. Closed circuit racing arose as open road racing, on roads, was banned. Brooklands was the first dedicated motor racing track in the United Kingdom, following World War I, European countries organised Grand Prix races over closed courses. In the United States, dirt track racing became popular, after World War II, the Grand Prix circuit became more formally organised. In the United States, stock car racing and drag racing became firmly established, motorsports ultimately became divided by types of motor vehicles into racing events, and their appropriate organisations. Open-wheel racing is a set of classes of vehicles, with their wheels outside of.
However, in North America, the IndyCar series is their pinnacle open-wheeled racing series, more recently, new open-wheeled series have been created, originating in Europe, which omit the Formula moniker, such as GP2 and GP3. Former Formula series include Formula 5000 and Formula Two, the formula regulations contain a very strict set of rules which govern vehicle power and size. In the United States, Indy Car is a class of single seat paved track racing and its premier race is the Indianapolis 500. Enclosed wheel racing is a set of classes of vehicles, where the wheels are primarily enclosed inside the bodywork of the vehicle, sports car racing is a set of classes of vehicles, over a closed course track, including sports cars, and specialised racing types. The premiere race is the 24 Hours of Le Mans which takes place annually in France during the month of June, sports car racing rules and specifications differentiate in North America from established international sanctioning bodies. Stock car racing is a set of vehicles, that race over a speedway track, while once stock cars, the vehicles are now purpose built, but resemble the body design and shape of production cars. NASCAR was organised in 1947, to flat track oval racing of production cars.
Daytona Beach and Road Course was founded where land speed records were set on the beach, touring car racing is a set of vehicles, modified street cars, that race over closed purpose built race tracks and street courses. Motorsport was an event at the 1900 Summer Olympics
The Mercedes-Benz W201 was the first compact executive car from Mercedes-Benz introduced in 1982, positioned below the E-Class—and marketed under variants of the Mercedes-Benz 190 nameplate. The W201 enjoyed strong sales in Europe but fared poorly in the United States, Series production ended 13 April 1993 after the manufacture of approximately 1.8 million examples. The 190 and its variants were succeeded in the executive car segment by the C-Class. Mercedes spent over £600 million researching and developing the 190 and subsequently said it was massively over-engineered and it marked a new venture for Mercedes-Benz, finally giving it a new smaller model to compete with the likes of the BMW3 Series. The W201-based 190 was introduced in November 1982, and was sold in right-hand drive for the UK market from September 1983. Local red tape in Bremen prevented Daimler-Benz from building the 190 there, the 190 E model uses the Bosch KE-Jetronic Multi-Point Fuel Injection to meter fuel instead of the carburetor of 190 models.
Thanks to their fuel injection system,190 E models made more power and were more efficient when compared to non-fuel injected 190 models. In 1982, the first available models were the 190 and 190 E, each was fitted with an M1021,997 cc displacement engine. The 190 was fitted with an M102.92190 hp engine, in September 1983, the 190 E2.3 was released for the North American market only, fitted with a 113 hp M102.961 engine. This reduction in power was due to the standards in the North American market at the time. The intake manifold and fuel system were refined in 1984. The carbureted 190 was revised in 1984 as well, increasing its rating to 105 hp.1984 saw the arrival of the 2. 3-16 Cosworth. Fitted with the M103.940 engine, the 190 E2.6 provided 160 hp with a catalyst and 164 hp without, in the North American market, the 190 E2.6 was sold until 1993, the end of the W201 chassiss production. From 1992-1993 the 2.6 was available as a special Sportline model, with an upgraded suspension, the 190 E2.3 was sold until 1988, went on a brief hiatus until it was sold again from 1991 until 1993.
The W201190 D is known for its reliability and ruggedness with many examples doing more than 500,000 miles without any major work. The 190 D was available in three different engines, the 2.0 was the baseline, and was never marketed in North America. The 2.2, with the power as the 2.0, was introduced in September 1983. It was only available in model years 1984 and 1985, and only in the USA, the 2.5 was available in the late 80s and early 90s
Ford Windsor engine
The Ford Windsor engine is a series of automobile V8 engines built by the Ford Motor Company beginning in July 1961. The engine was discontinued in new vehicles in 2001, but remains available for purchase from Ford Racing, the Windsor designation is a retroactive name for the family of engines sharing a common basic engine block design. Ford adopted the designation specifically to distinguish the 335 cu in version from the Cleveland 335-family engine that had the same displacement, the engine was designed as a successor to the Ford Y-block engine. Production began in 1961 for installation in the 1962 model year Ford Fairlane, from the mid-1970s through the 1990s, the Windsor engine was marinized for use in smaller recreational boats. For the 1991 model year, Ford began phasing in their new 4. 6/5.4 L Modular V8 engine, in 1996, Ford replaced the 5.0 L pushrod Windsor V8 with the Modular 4.6 L in the Mustang. Its use continued until 1997 in the F-150 pickup truck, until 2001 in the Explorer SUV, the small-block engine that was identified as the Windsor engine was introduced in the 1962 Ford Fairlane.
Displacing 221 cu in, it was designed to save weight, the engine uses a separate aluminum timing chain cover, which differentiates it from the 335-series Cleveland engines that use an integrated timing cover. All Windsor engines use two-valve-per-cylinder heads, with 2V and 4V designations indicating the number of barrels in the carburetor, the valves are in-line and use straight six-bolt valve covers. Coolant is routed into the block by the intake manifold, two additional displacements were produced during the engine’s history. A351 cu in model was offered beginning in 1969 and continuing until 1996, the 351W uses a taller block than the other engines in the series to avoid excessively short connecting rods. Additionally, briefly in the early 1980s, a debored 4.2 L displacement engine was produced as Ford struggled with emissions, in response to the Chevrolet Camaros success in the SCCA Trans-Am series, Ford engineers developed a new racing engine from the Windsor series small block. The first attempt mated a tunnel-port head to a 289 cu in block, the next iteration of the engine mated an improved head design to the 302 cu in block, producing the famous Boss 302.
The heads from the Boss 302 became the heads on the 335-series Cleveland engines. As the 1980s drew to a close, Ford begin the design of a new small-block V8 to replace the venerable Windsor design, the Modular 4. 6L OHC V8 debuted in the 1991 Lincoln Town Car, signaling the eventual demise of the Windsor. Through the rest of the decade, Ford gradually shifted V8 applications to the Modular engine, even as the Windsor neared the end of its life, development continued, with new cylinder heads introduced for the Ford Explorer in 1997. Sale in new vehicles ended with the 2001 Ford Explorer, but the continued to be offered for sale as a crate engine from Ford Racing. An advanced, thinwall-casting design, it was 24 in wide,29 in long and it weighed only 470 lb dry despite its cast iron construction, making it one of the lightest and most compact V8 engines of its class. The 221 Ford was possibly one of the lightest iron V8 engines ever produced. e, the need for larger-diameter clutches, for example
Ford Mustang (third generation)
The third-generation Mustang was produced by Ford from 1978 to 1993. Built on Ford’s Fox platform, it evolved through a number of sub-models, trim levels and it underwent updates for 1987, and for a time seemed destined for replacement with a front wheel drive Mazda platform. However, company executives were swayed by consumer opinions and the wheel drive Mustang stayed. Enthusiasts group the generation into two segments, the 1979-1986 cars, with their quad headlight arrangement, and the 1987-1993 cars, production ended with the introduction of the fourth-generation Mustang for the 1994 model year. The 1979 model year Mustang was based on the larger Fox platform that was developed for the Ford Fairmont. The larger body meant the interior offered space for four passengers, especially in the back seat, as well as a larger capacity trunk. Body styles included a coupe and hatchback, two trim levels were available and included the base model and the more luxurious Ghia model. In addition to the base & Ghia trim levels, a Cobra appearance package made its debut, there was no rear spoiler on the 1979 models.
The 1980 Cobra and the 1981 Cobras had a makeover in the department as a new front bumper and air dam, full length cowl type hood scoop. Also included in the 80/81 Cobra package were colorful body length decals, COBRA hood decal, COBRA side window decals, all trim was now Blacked out, including the door handles, keylocks and sail panels. On May 27th,1979, the all-new Mustang was chosen as the Official Pace Car of the Indianapolis 500, Ford commemorated this event with with a mid-year addition Indy 500 Pace Car model. The two-tone Pewter and Black colors were complimented with Orange and Red graphics, the front end featured a unique front air dam with fog lights, and a full length cowl type hood scoop, while the rear end got the new for 79 rear spoiler. The black interior featured Recaro seats with patterned Black and White inserts, available were the 2.3 L Turbo with mandatory four-speed manual transmission or the 5.0 L V8 with either an overdrive 4-speed manual or three-speed automatic transmission.
The production cars included a sunroof, the three actual pace cars were fitted with a T-roof by Cars & Concepts of Brighton, MI. The T-roof option would not become an option until the 1981 model year. In 1982, the Cobra model was dropped in favor of the Mustang GT, the GT included the front air dam with fog lamps and the rear spoiler from the 79 Pace Car and the 1980 &1981 Cobras. However, the full length hood scoop from those models did not carry over, only four colors were offered on the GT model and they consisted of Dark Red, Bright Red and Black. As in many years, the 5.0 engine was not tied only to the performance flagship GT