Grunge is a rock music genre and subculture that emerged during the mid-1980s in the Pacific Northwest U. S. state of Washington in Seattle and nearby towns. The early grunge movement revolved around Seattle's independent record label Sub Pop and the region's underground music scene; the owners of Sub Pop marketed Northwestern punk rock shrewdly and the media was encouraged to describe it as "grunge", which came to mean a punk and metal hybrid style of music. By the early 1990s its popularity had spread, with grunge bands appearing in California emerging in other parts of the United States and in Australia, building strong followings and signing major record deals. Grunge was commercially successful in the early to mid-1990s, due to releases such as Nirvana's Nevermind and In Utero, Pearl Jam's Ten, Soundgarden's Badmotorfinger, Alice in Chains' Dirt, Stone Temple Pilots' Core and Radiohead's Pablo Honey; the success of these bands boosted the popularity of alternative rock and made grunge the most popular form of rock music at the time Although most grunge bands had disbanded or faded from view by the late 1990s, they influenced modern rock music, as their lyrics brought conscious issues into pop culture and added introspection and an exploration of what it means to be true to oneself.
Grunge was an influence on genres such as post-grunge and nu metal. Grunge fuses elements of punk rock and heavy metal, featuring the distorted electric guitar sound used in both genres, although some bands performed with more emphasis on one or the other. Like these genres, grunge uses electric guitar, bass guitar and vocals. Grunge incorporates influences from indie rock bands such as Sonic Youth. Lyrics are angst-filled and introspective addressing themes such as social alienation, self-doubt, neglect, betrayal and emotional isolation, psychological trauma and a desire for freedom. A number of factors contributed to grunge's decline in prominence. During the mid-to-late 1990s, many grunge bands became less visible. Nirvana's Kurt Cobain, labeled by Time as "the John Lennon of the swinging Northwest," appeared unusually tortured by success and struggled with an addiction to heroin before his death at the age of 27 in 1994; the word "grunge" is American slang for "someone or something, repugnant" and for "dirt".
The word was first recorded as being applied to Seattle musicians in July 1987 when Bruce Pavitt described Green River's Dry as a Bone EP in a Sub Pop record company catalogue as "gritty vocals, roaring Marshall amps, ultra-loose GRUNGE that destroyed the morals of a generation". Although the word "grunge" has been used to describe bands since the 1960s, this was the first association of grunge with the grinding, sludgy sound of Seattle, it is expensive and time consuming to get a recording to sound clean, so for those northwestern bands just starting out it was cheaper for them to leave the sound dirty and just turn up their volume. This dirty sound, due to low budgets, unfamiliarity with recording, a lack of professionalism may be the origin of the term "grunge"; the "Seattle scene" refers to that city's alternative music movement, linked to the University of Washington and The Evergreen State College. Evergreen is a progressive college which does not use a conventional grading system and has its own radio station, KAOS.
Seattle's remoteness from Los Angeles led to a perceived purity of its music. The music of these bands, many of which had recorded with Seattle's independent record label Sub Pop, became labeled as "grunge". Nirvana's frontman Kurt Cobain, in one of his final interviews, credited Jonathan Poneman, cofounder of Sub Pop, with coining the term "grunge" to describe the music; the term "Seattle sound" became a marketing ploy for the music industry. In September 1991, the Nirvana album Nevermind was released, bringing mainstream attention to the music of Seattle. Cobain loathed the word "grunge" and despised the new scene, developing, feeling that record companies were signing old "cock-rock" bands who were pretending to be grunge and claiming to be from Seattle; some bands associated with the genre, such as Soundgarden, Pearl Jam and Alice in Chains, have not been receptive to the label, preferring instead to be referred to as "rock and roll" bands. Ben Shepherd from Soundgarden stated that he "hates the word" grunge and hates "being associated with it."
Seattle musician Jeff Stetson states that when he visited Seattle in the late 1980s and early 1990s as a touring musician, the local musicians did not refer to themselves as "grunge" performers or their style as "grunge" and they were not flattered that their music was being called "grunge". Rolling Stone noted the genre's lack of a clear definition. Robert Loss acknowledges the challenges of defining "grunge". Roy Shuker states that the term "obscured a variety of styles." Stetson states that grunge was not a movement, "monolithic musical genre", or a way to react to 1980s-era metal pop. Stetson states. Mark Yarm, author of Everybody Loves Our Town: An Oral History of Grunge, pointed out vast differences between grunge bands, with some being punk and others being metal-based. In 1984 the punk rock band Black Flag went visiting small towns across the US to bring punk to the more remote parts of the country. By this time their music had become slow and sludgy, less like the Sex Pistols and more like Black Sa
Muirgius mac Tommaltaig was a King of Connacht from the Uí Briúin branch of the Connachta. He was the great-grandson of a previous king; the death of his father Tommaltach mac Murgail is recorded in the annals where he is called king of Mag nAi. Muirgius was of the Síl Muiredaig sept of the Uí Briúin, he reigned from 792 to 815. The annals state that his reign began after Battle of Sruth Cluana Argai in 792 when he defeated Cináed mac Artgail, of the Síl Cathail sept, slain. In 793 we find him imposing the Law of Saint Commán of Roscommon in conjunction with abbot Aildobur upon the three Connachta at Cruachu. Another important battle in 792 was the battle of Ard Maiccrime in Sligo Co. where the Ui Ailello where delivered their death blow. Among the slain were Cathmug mac Flaithbertaig of the Cenél Coirpri and Cormac son of Dub dá Crích of the Uí Briúin Bréifne; the Annals of the Four Masters states. The Ui Briun profited by the decline of the Ui Ailello and a branch of the Sil Muiredaig occupied Mag Luirg.
The Annals of Innisfallen refer to Colla mac Fergusso as king at his death obit who may have been a rival to Muirgius. In 796 we find Muirgius defeated at the battle of Áth Féne on the northern border of Ciarraige in his home territory, his reign though appears uncontested after the battle of Dún Gainiba in 799 where Muirgius was victorious in a battle among the Connachta. That year Gormgal, abbot of Armagh imposed the Law of Saint Patrick on Connacht. Muirgius turned his attention to the south and in 802 he destroyed the fortress at Loch Riach in the Uí Maine territory of Maenmag; the next year the Cruithne Sogain tribe revolted against their Uí Maine overlords in this region in 803. Muirgius had imposed his son Cormac as abbot of Baslick, a church of the Ciarraige Aí but Cormac was slain by this tribe in 805. In revenge Muirgius devastated their lands that year. In 810 two of his sons Tadg and Flaithnia were slain by the Luigni of Corann and in revenge Muirgius devastated their lands. In 812 he slaughtered the Calraige of Mag Luirg and invaded the south of Connaught.
Muirgius was hostile to the ambitions of the high-king Áed Oirdnide mac Néill of the Cenél nEógain and in 805 Muirgius gave refuge to the Leinster king Fínsnechta Cethardec mac Cellaig, deposed by Aed. In 808 Muirgius gave support to Conchobar mac Donnchada, the king of Mide of the Clann Cholmáin in his revolt against Aed Ordnide and advanced with the Connacht army as far as the assembly grounds of Tailtiu, but on the appearance of Aed's army the allies dispersed. Aed, however confined his vengeance to the Mide territory. Viking attacks occurred on the coast of Connacht during his reign. In 812 the men of Umall slaughtered Viking raiders but the men of Conmaicne were slaughtered by raiders that year. In 813 the Vikings slaughtered the men of Umall and slew their king Dúnadach. Muirgius continued to seek support from the church and in 811 Nuado, abbot of Armagh visited Connacht with the casket of Saint Patrick and his Law. In 814 the abbot of Echdruim, Máel Dúin was slain by the Uí Maine. Aughrim was a daughter church of Clonmacnoise and that year Muirgius and Foirchellach, abbot of Clonmacnoise led a retaliatory expedition into Uí Maine territory south of the Suck River.
The annals record. Muirgius had the Law of Saint Ciarán of Clonmacnoise raised over Connacht in 814 at Cruachu; this law was imposed at an assembly at Cruachu held by Muirgius Besides his slain sons Cormac and Flaithnia. Another son Máel Dúin was slain fighting the Vikings in 838. Muirgius' brothers Diarmait mac Tommaltaig and Finsnechta mac Tommaltaig were kings of Connacht. Kings of Connacht CELT: Corpus of Electronic Texts at University College Cork
Rock Stars Kill is a compilation of various artists released by Kill Rock Stars on September 1, 1994. The compilation was released as a vinyl LP with accompanying 7″ single, CD. Side oneTourettes – "Horse Girl" Cupid Go-go mobile Club – "M. P. Skulkers" Starpower – "Megablot" Boredoms – "Pukulee & Rikulee" Helium with The Bird of Paradise – "Puffin Stars" Spinanes – "Stupid Crazy" Team Dresch – "Seven" Mukilteo Fairies – "We Are Not Your Entertainers" Severed Lethargy – "Rev"Side twoRancid – "Brixton" Free Kitten – "Feed the Tree" Universal Order of Armageddon – "Painfully Obvious" The Pee Chees – "Patty Coahulla" Star Pimp – "Roche Limit" Pell Mell – "Don the Beachcomber" Smog – "37 Pushups" Kathleen Hanna – "I Wish I Was Him"7″ single, side oneStar Sign Scorpio – "Eskinaut" Hattifatteners – "North Pole" Grouse Mountain Skyride – "Pretty Polly"7″ single, side twoGod Is My Co-Pilot – "Anatomically Correct" Fifth Column – "Detoxkiller" Fleabag – "Pusdog" Tourettes – "Horse Girl" Cupid Go-go mobile Club – "M.
P. Skulkers" Starpower – "Megablot" Boredoms – "Pukulee & Rikulee" Helium with The Bird of Paradise – "Puffin Stars" Spinanes – "Stupid Crazy" Team Dresch – "Seven" Mukilteo Fairies – "We Are Not Your Entertainers" God Is My Co-Pilot – "Anatomically Correct" Severed Lethargy – "Rev" Rancid – "Brixton" Free Kitten – "Feed the Tree" Universal Order of Armageddon – "Painfully Obvious" The Pee Chees – "Patty Coahuila: Star Pimp – "Roche Limit" Pell Mell – "Don the Beachcomber" Smog – "37 Pushups" Star Sign Scorpio – "Eskinaut" Hattifatteners – "North Pole" Grouse Mountain Skyride – "Pretty Polly" Fifth Column – "Detox Killer" Fleabag – "Pusdog" Kathleen Hanna – "I Wish I Was Him" Allmusic review of Rock Stars Kill