Modena is a city and comune on the south side of the Po Valley, in the Province of Modena in the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy. An ancient town, seat of an archbishop, it is known for its automotive industry since the factories of the famous Italian sports car makers Ferrari, De Tomaso, Lamborghini and Maserati are, or were, located here and all, except Lamborghini, have headquarters in the city or nearby. One of Ferrari's cars, the 360 Modena, was named after the town itself; the University of Modena, founded in 1175 and expanded by Francesco II d'Este in 1686, has traditional strengths in economics and law and is the second oldest athenaeum in Italy. Italian military officers are trained at the Military Academy of Modena, housed in the Baroque Ducal Palace; the Biblioteca Estense houses 3,000 manuscripts. The Cathedral of Modena, the Torre della Ghirlandina and Piazza Grande are a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1997. Modena is known in culinary circles for its production of balsamic vinegar.
Famous Modenesi include Mary of the Queen consort of England and Scotland. Modena lies on the Pianura Padana, is bounded by the two rivers Secchia and Panaro, both affluents of the Po River, their presence is symbolized by the Two Rivers Fountain by Giuseppe Graziosi. The city is connected to the Panaro by the Naviglio channel; the Apennines begin some 10 kilometres from the city, to the south. The commune is divided into four circoscrizioni; these are: Centro storico Crocetta Buon Pastore San Faustino Modena has a humid subtropical climate, with continental influences. It has an average annual precipitation of 809 millimetres. Summers are warm and winters are chilly and wetter, with the possibility of snowfall; this climate is described by the Köppen climate classification as Cfa. From 1946 to 1992, Modena had an uninterrupted consecutive series of Communist mayors. From the 1990s, the city has been governed by center-left coalitions. At the April 2006 elections, the city of Modena gave about 50% of its votes to the Democratic Party.
The legislative body of the municipality is the City Council, composed by 35 members elected every five years. Modena's executive body is the City Committee composed by 9 assessors, the deputy-mayor and the mayor; the current mayor of Modena is member of the Democratic Party of Italy. The territory around Modena was inhabited by the Villanovans in the Iron Age, by Ligurian tribes and the Gaulish Boii. Although the exact date of its foundation is unknown, it is known that it was in existence in the 3rd century BC, for in 218 BC, during Hannibal's invasion of Italy, the Boii revolted and laid siege to the city. Livy described it as a fortified citadel; the outcome of the siege is not known, but the city was most abandoned after Hannibal's arrival. Mutina was refounded as a Roman colony in 183 BC, to be used as a military base by Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, causing the Ligurians to sack it in 177 BC. Nonetheless, it was rebuilt, became the most important centre in Cisalpine Gaul, both because of its strategic importance and because it was on an important crossroads between Via Aemilia and the road going to Verona.
In the 1st century BC Mutina was besieged twice. The first siege was by Pompey in 78 BC; the city surrendered out of hunger, Brutus fled, only to be slain in Regium Lepidi. In the civil war following Caesar's assassination, the city was besieged again, this time by Mark Antony, in 44 BC, defended by Decimus Junius Brutus. Octavian relieved the city with the help of the Senate. Cicero called it Mutina splendidissima in his Philippics; until the 3rd century AD, it kept its position as the most important city in the newly formed province Aemilia, but the fall of the Empire brought Mutina down with it, as it was used as a military base both against the barbarians and in the civil wars. It is said that Mutina was never sacked by Attila, for a dense fog hid it, but it was buried by a great flood in the 7th century and abandoned; as of December 2008, Italian researchers have discovered the pottery center where the oil lamps that lit the ancient Roman empire were made. Evidence of the pottery workshops emerged in Modena, in central-northern Italy, during construction work to build a residential complex near the ancient walls of the city.
"We found a large ancient Roman dumping filled with pottery scraps. There were vases, bricks, but most of all, hundreds of oil lamps, each bearing their maker's name", Donato Labate, the archaeologist in charge of the dig, stated, its exiles founded a new city a few miles to the northwest, still represented by the village of Cittanova. About the end of the 9th century, Modena
Verona is a city on the Adige river in Veneto, with 258,108 inhabitants. It is one of the seven provincial capitals of the region, it is the third largest in northeast Italy. The metropolitan area of Verona covers an area of 1,426 km2 and has a population of 714,274 inhabitants, it is one of the main tourist destinations in northern Italy, because of its artistic heritage and several annual fairs and operas, such as the lyrical season in the Arena, the ancient amphitheater built by the Romans. Two of William Shakespeare's plays are set in Verona: Romeo and Juliet and The Two Gentlemen of Verona, it is unknown if Shakespeare visited Verona or Italy, but his plays have lured many visitors to Verona and surrounding cities. The city has been declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO because of its urban structure and architecture; the precise details of Verona's early history remain a mystery. One theory is. With the conquest of the Valley of the Po, the Veronese territory became Roman. Verona became a Roman colonia in 89 BC.
It was classified as a municipium in 49 BC, when its citizens were ascribed to the Roman tribe Poblilia or Publicia. The city became important. Stilicho defeated Alaric and his Visigoths here in 403. But, after Verona was conquered by the Ostrogoths in 489, the Gothic domination of Italy began. Theoderic the Great was said to have built a palace there, it remained under the power of the Goths throughout the Gothic War, except for a single day in 541, when the Byzantine officer Artabazes made an entrance. The defections that took place among the Byzantine generals with regard to the booty made it possible for the Goths to regain possession of the city. In 552 Valerian vainly endeavored to enter the city, but it was only when the Goths were overthrown that they surrendered it. In 569, it was taken by Alboin, King of the Lombards, in whose kingdom it was, in a sense, the second most important city. There, Alboin was killed by his wife in 572; the dukes of Treviso resided there. Adalgisus, son of Desiderius, in 774 made his last desperate resistance in Verona to Charlemagne, who had destroyed the Lombard kingdom.
Verona became the ordinary residence of the kings of Italy, the government of the city becoming hereditary in the family of Count Milo, progenitor of the counts of San Bonifacio. From 880 to 951 the two Berengarii resided there. Otto I ceded to Verona the marquisate dependent on the Duchy of Bavaria; when Ezzelino III da Romano was elected podestà in 1226, he converted the office into a permanent lordship. In 1257 he caused the slaughter of 11,000 Paduans on the plain of Verona. Upon his death, the Great Council elected Mastino I della Scala as podestà, he converted the "signoria" into a family possession, though leaving the burghers a share in the government. Failing to be re-elected podestà in 1262, he effected a coup d'état, was acclaimed capitano del popolo, with the command of the communal troops. Long internal discord took place before he succeeded in establishing this new office, to, attached the function of confirming the podestà. In 1277, Mastino della Scala was killed by the faction of the nobles.
The reign of his son Alberto as capitano was a time of incessant war against the counts of San Bonifacio, who were aided by the House of Este. Of his sons, Bartolomeo and Cangrande I, only the last shared the government. By war or treaty, he brought under his control the cities of Padua and Vicenza. At this time before the Black death the city was home to more than 40,000 people. Cangrande was succeeded by sons of Alboino. Mastino continued his uncle's policy, conquering Brescia in 1332 and carrying his power beyond the Po, he purchased Lucca. After the King of France, he was the richest prince of his time, but a powerful league was formed against him in 1337 – Florence, the Visconti, the Este, the Gonzaga. After a three years war, the Scaliger dominions were reduced to Vicenza. Mastino's son Cangrande II was a cruel and suspicious tyrant, he was killed by his brother Cansignorio, who beautified the city with palaces, provided it with aqueducts and bridges, founded the state treasury. He killed his other brother, Paolo Alboino.
Fratricide seems to have become a family custom, for Antonio, Cansignorio's natural brother, slew his brother Bartolomeo, thereby arousing the indignation of the people, who deserted him when Gian Galeazzo Visconti of Milan made war on him. Having exhausted all his resources, he fled from Verona at midnight, thus putting an end to the Scaliger domination, however, survived in its monuments; the year 1387 is the year of the famous Battle of Castagnaro, between Giovanni Ordelaffi, for Verona, John Hawkwood, for Padua, the winner. Antonio's son Canfrancesco attempted in vain to recover Verona. Guglielmo, natural son of Cangrande II, was more fortunate; the last representatives of the Scaligeri live
Charles Emmanuel II, Duke of Savoy
Charles Emmanuel II. He was Marquis of Saluzzo, Count of Aosta, Geneva and Nice, as well as claimant king of Cyprus and Armenia. At his death in 1675 his second wife Marie Jeanne Baptiste of Savoy-Nemours acted as Regent for their nine-year-old son, he was born in Turin to Victor Amadeus I, Duke of Savoy, Christine of France. His maternal grandparents were his second wife Marie de' Medici. In 1638 at the death of his older brother Francis Hyacinth, Duke of Savoy, Charles Emmanuel succeeded to the duchy of Savoy at the age of 4, his mother governed in his place, after reaching adulthood in 1648, he invited her to continue to rule. Charles Emmanuel continued a life of pleasure, far away from the affairs of state, he became notorious for his persecution of the Vaudois culminating in the massacre of 1655, known as Piedmontese Easter. The massacre was so brutal that it prompted the English poet John Milton to write the sonnet On the Late Massacre in Piedmont. Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector, called for a general fast in England and proposed to send the British Navy if the massacre was not stopped while gathering funds for helping the Waldensians.
Sir Samuel Morland was commissioned with that task. He wrote The History of the Evangelical Churches of the Valleys of Piemont; the 1655 massacre was only the beginning of a series of conflicts, the Savoyard–Waldensian wars, that saw Waldensian rebels use guerrilla warfare tactics against ducal military campaigns to enforce Roman Catholicism upon the entire population. Only after the death of his mother in 1663, did he assume power, he was not successful in gaining a passage to the sea at the expense of Genoa, had difficulties in retaining the influence of his powerful neighbour France. But he improved commerce and wealth in the Duchy, developing the port of Nice and building a road through the Alps towards France, he reformed the army, which until was composed of mercenaries: he formed instead five Piedmontese regiments and recreated cavalry, as well as introducing uniforms. He restored fortifications, he constructed many beautiful buildings for instance the Palazzo Reale. He died on 12 June 1675.
He is buried at Turin Cathedral. Charles Emmanuel first fell in love with her. However, his mother disagreed with the pairing, encouraged him to marry Françoise Madeleine d'Orléans, daughter of his maternal uncle Gaston, Duke of Orléans, the younger brother of his mother Christine Marie, they were married 3 April 1663. The couple had no issue, his mother died at the end of 1663, his first wife died at the start of 1664. This left him free to get married on 20 May 1665 to Marie Jeanne of Savoy, they had one son: Victor Amadeus II of Sardinia, future King of Sicily and Sardinia. 20 June 1634 – 4 October 1638 His Highness Prince Charles Emmanuel of Savoy 4 October 1638 – 12 June 1675 His Highness the Duke of Savoy Oresko, Robert. "Maria Giovanna Battista of Savoy-Nemours: daughter and Regent of Savoy". In Campbell Orr, Clarissa. Queenship in Europe 1660-1815: The Role of the Consort. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 16–55. ISBN 0-521-81422-7
Cambridge University Press
Cambridge University Press is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge. Granted letters patent by King Henry VIII in 1534, it is the world's oldest publishing house and the second-largest university press in the world, it holds letters patent as the Queen's Printer. The press mission is "to further the University's mission by disseminating knowledge in the pursuit of education and research at the highest international levels of excellence". Cambridge University Press is a department of the University of Cambridge and is both an academic and educational publisher. With a global sales presence, publishing hubs, offices in more than 40 countries, it publishes over 50,000 titles by authors from over 100 countries, its publishing includes academic journals, reference works and English language teaching and learning publications. Cambridge University Press is a charitable enterprise that transfers part of its annual surplus back to the university. Cambridge University Press is both the oldest publishing house in the world and the oldest university press.
It originated from letters patent granted to the University of Cambridge by Henry VIII in 1534, has been producing books continuously since the first University Press book was printed. Cambridge is one of the two privileged presses. Authors published by Cambridge have included John Milton, William Harvey, Isaac Newton, Bertrand Russell, Stephen Hawking. University printing began in Cambridge when the first practising University Printer, Thomas Thomas, set up a printing house on the site of what became the Senate House lawn – a few yards from where the press's bookshop now stands. In those days, the Stationers' Company in London jealously guarded its monopoly of printing, which explains the delay between the date of the university's letters patent and the printing of the first book. In 1591, Thomas's successor, John Legate, printed the first Cambridge Bible, an octavo edition of the popular Geneva Bible; the London Stationers objected strenuously. The university's response was to point out the provision in its charter to print "all manner of books".
Thus began the press's tradition of publishing the Bible, a tradition that has endured for over four centuries, beginning with the Geneva Bible, continuing with the Authorized Version, the Revised Version, the New English Bible and the Revised English Bible. The restrictions and compromises forced upon Cambridge by the dispute with the London Stationers did not come to an end until the scholar Richard Bentley was given the power to set up a'new-style press' in 1696. In July 1697 the Duke of Somerset made a loan of £200 to the university "towards the printing house and presse" and James Halman, Registrary of the University, lent £100 for the same purpose, it was in Bentley's time, in 1698, that a body of senior scholars was appointed to be responsible to the university for the press's affairs. The Press Syndicate's publishing committee still meets and its role still includes the review and approval of the press's planned output. John Baskerville became University Printer in the mid-eighteenth century.
Baskerville's concern was the production of the finest possible books using his own type-design and printing techniques. Baskerville wrote, "The importance of the work demands all my attention. Caxton would have found nothing to surprise him if he had walked into the press's printing house in the eighteenth century: all the type was still being set by hand. A technological breakthrough was badly needed, it came when Lord Stanhope perfected the making of stereotype plates; this involved making a mould of the whole surface of a page of type and casting plates from that mould. The press was the first to use this technique, in 1805 produced the technically successful and much-reprinted Cambridge Stereotype Bible. By the 1850s the press was using steam-powered machine presses, employing two to three hundred people, occupying several buildings in the Silver Street and Mill Lane area, including the one that the press still occupies, the Pitt Building, built for the press and in honour of William Pitt the Younger.
Under the stewardship of C. J. Clay, University Printer from 1854 to 1882, the press increased the size and scale of its academic and educational publishing operation. An important factor in this increase was the inauguration of its list of schoolbooks. During Clay's administration, the press undertook a sizeable co-publishing venture with Oxford: the Revised Version of the Bible, begun in 1870 and completed in 1885, it was in this period as well that the Syndics of the press turned down what became the Oxford English Dictionary—a proposal for, brought to Cambridge by James Murray before he turned to Oxford. The appointment of R. T. Wright as Secretary of the Press Syndicate in 1892 marked the beginning of the press's development as a modern publishing business with a defined editorial policy and administrative structure, it was Wright who devised the plan for one of the most distinctive Cambridge contributions to publishing—the Cambridge Histories. The Cambridge Modern History was published
Parma is a city in the northern Italian region of Emilia-Romagna famous for its architecture, art, prosciutto and surrounding countryside. It is home to the University of Parma, one of the oldest universities in the world. Parma is divided into two parts by the stream of the same name; the district on the far side of the river is Oltretorrente. Parma's Etruscan name was adapted by Romans to describe the round shield called Parma; the Italian poet Attilio Bertolucci wrote: "As a capital city it had to have a river. As a little capital it received a stream, dry". Parma was a built-up area in the Bronze Age. In the current position of the city rose a terramare; the "terramare" were ancient villages built of wood on piles according to a defined scheme and squared form. During this age the first necropolis were constructed; the city was most founded and named by the Etruscans, for a parma was a Latin borrowing, as were many Roman terms for particular arms, Parmeal and Parmnial are names that appear in Etruscan inscriptions.
Diodorus Siculus reported that the Romans had changed their rectangular shields for round ones, imitating the Etruscans. Whether the Etruscan encampment was so named because it was round, like a shield, or whether its situation was a shield against the Gauls to the north, is uncertain; the Roman colony was founded in 183 BC, together with Mutina. Parma had a certain importance as a road hub over the Via Claudia, it had a forum, in. In 44 BC, the city was destroyed, Augustus rebuilt it. During the Roman Empire, it gained the title of Julia for its loyalty to the imperial house; the city was subsequently sacked by Attila, given by the Germanic king Odoacer to his followers. During the Gothic War, Totila destroyed it, it was part of the Byzantine Exarchate of Ravenna and, from 569, of the Lombard Kingdom of Italy. During the Middle Ages, Parma became an important stage of the Via Francigena, the main road connecting Rome to Northern Europe. Under Frankish rule, Parma became the capital of a county. Like most northern Italian cities, it was nominally a part of the Holy Roman Empire created by Charlemagne, but locally ruled by its bishops, the first being Guibodus.
In the subsequent struggles between the Papacy and the Empire, Parma was a member of the Imperial party. Two of its bishops became antipopes: Càdalo, founder of the cathedral, as Honorius II. An independent commune was created around 1140. After the Peace of Constance confirmed the Italian communes' rights of self-governance, long-standing quarrels with the neighbouring communes of Reggio Emilia and Cremona became harsher, with the aim of controlling the vital trading line over the Po River; the struggle between Guelphs and Ghibellines was a feature of Parma too. In 1213, her podestà was the Guelph Rambertino Buvalelli. After a long stance alongside the emperors, the Papist families of the city gained control in 1248; the city was besieged in 1247–48 by Emperor Frederick II, however crushed in the battle that ensued. Parma fell under the control of Milan in 1341. After a short-lived period of independence under the Terzi family, the Sforza imposed their rule through their associated families of Pallavicino, Sanvitale and Da Correggio.
These created a kind of new feudalism, building castles throughout the city and the land. These fiefs evolved into independent states: the Landi governed the higher Taro's valley from 1257 to 1682; the Pallavicino seignory extended over the eastern part of today's province, with the capital in Busseto. Parma's territories were an exception for Northern Italy, as its feudal subdivision continued until more recent years. For example, Solignano was a Pallavicino family possession until 1805, San Secondo belonged to the Rossi well into the 19th century. Between the 14th and the 15th centuries, Parma was at the centre of the Italian Wars; the Battle of Fornovo was fought in its territory. The French held the city in 1500–1521, with a short Papal parenthesis in 1512–1515. After the foreigners were expelled, Parma belonged to the Papal States until 1545. In that year the Farnese pope, Paul III, detached Parma and Piacenza from the Papal States and gave them as a duchy to his illegitimate son, Pier Luigi Farnese, whose descendants ruled in Parma until 1731, when Antonio Farnese, last male of the Farnese line, died.
In 1594 a constitution was promulgated, the University enhanced and the Nobles' College founded. The war to reduce the barons' power continued for several years: in 1612 Barbara Sanseverino was executed in the central square of Parma, together with six other nobles charged of plotting against the duke. At the end of the 17th century, after the defeat of Pallavicini and Landi the Farnese duke could hold with firm hand all Parmense territor
Biblioteca Nacional de España
The Biblioteca Nacional de España is a major public library, the largest in Spain, one of the largest in the world. It is located on the Paseo de Recoletos; the library was founded by King Philip V in 1712 as the Palace Public Library. The Royal Letters Patent that he granted, the predecessor of the current legal deposit requirement, made it mandatory for printers to submit a copy of every book printed in Spain to the library. In 1836, the library's status as Crown property was revoked and ownership was transferred to the Ministry of Governance. At the same time, it was renamed the Biblioteca Nacional. During the 19th century, confiscations and donations enabled the Biblioteca Nacional to acquire the majority of the antique and valuable books that it holds. In 1892 the building was used to host the Historical American Exposition. On March 16, 1896, the Biblioteca Nacional opened to the public in the same building in which it is housed and included a vast Reading Room on the main floor designed to hold 320 readers.
In 1931 the Reading Room was reorganised, providing it with a major collection of reference works, the General Reading Room was created to cater for students and general readers. During the Spanish Civil War close to 500,000 volumes were collected by the Confiscation Committee and stored in the Biblioteca Nacional to safeguard works of art and books held until in religious establishments and private houses. During the 20th century numerous modifications were made to the building to adapt its rooms and repositories to its expanding collections, to the growing volume of material received following the modification to the Legal Deposit requirement in 1958, to the numerous works purchased by the library. Among this building work, some of the most noteworthy changes were the alterations made in 1955 to triple the capacity of the library's repositories, those started in 1986 and completed in 2000, which led to the creation of the new building in Alcalá de Henares and complete remodelling of the building on Paseo de Recoletos, Madrid.
In 1986, when Spain's main bibliographic institutions - the National Newspaper Library, the Spanish Bibliographic Institute and the Centre for Documentary and Bibliographic Treasures - were incorporated into the Biblioteca Nacional, the library was established as the State Repository of Spain's Cultural Memory, making all of Spain's bibliographic output on any media available to the Spanish Library System and national and international researchers and cultural and educational institutions. In 1990 it was made an Autonomous Entity attached to the Ministry of Culture; the Madrid premises are shared with the National Archaeological Museum. The Biblioteca Nacional is Spain's highest library institution and is head of the Spanish Library System; as the country's national library, it is the centre responsible for identifying, preserving and disseminating information about Spain's documentary heritage, it aspires to be an essential point of reference for research into Spanish culture. In accordance with its Articles of Association, passed by Royal Decree 1581/1991 of October 31, 1991, its principal functions are to: Compile and conserve bibliographic archives produced in any language of the Spanish state, or any other language, for the purposes of research and information.
Promote research through the study and reproduction of its bibliographic archive. Disseminate information on Spain's bibliographic output based on the entries received through the legal deposit requirement; the library's collection consists of more than 26,000,000 items, including 15,000,000 books and other printed materials, 4,500,000 graphic materials, 600,000 sound recordings, 510,000 music scores, more than 500,000 microforms, 500,000 maps, 143,000 newspapers and serials, 90,000 audiovisuals, 90,000 electronic documents, 30,000 manuscripts. The current director of the Biblioteca Nacional is Ana Santos Aramburo, appointed in 2013. Former directors include her predecessors Glòria Pérez-Salmerón and Milagros del Corral as well as historian Juan Pablo Fusi and author Rosa Regàs. Given its role as the legal deposit for the whole of Spain, since 1991 it has kept most of the overflowing collection at a secondary site in Alcalá de Henares, near Madrid; the Biblioteca Nacional provides access to its collections through the following library services: Guidance and general information on the institution and other libraries.
Bibliographic information about its collection and those held by other libraries or library systems. Access to its automated catalogue, which contains close to 3,000,000 bibliographic records encompassing all of its collections. Archive consultation in the library's reading rooms. Interlibrary loans. Archive reproduction. Biblioteca Digital Hispánica, digital library launched in 2008 by the Biblioteca Nacional de España List of libraries in Spain Media related to Biblioteca Nacional de España at Wikimedia Commons Official site Official web catalog