Turin is a city and an important business and cultural centre in northern Italy. It is the capital city of Piedmont and of the Metropolitan City of Turin, was the first Italian capital from 1861 to 1865; the city is located on the western bank of the Po River, in front of Susa Valley, is surrounded by the western Alpine arch and Superga Hill. The population of the city proper is 875,698 while the population of the urban area is estimated by Eurostat to be 1.7 million inhabitants. The Turin metropolitan area is estimated by the OECD to have a population of 2.2 million. The city used to be a major European political centre. From 1563, it was the capital of the Duchy of Savoy of the Kingdom of Sardinia ruled by the House of Savoy, the first capital of the Kingdom of Italy from 1861 to 1865. Turin is sometimes called "the cradle of Italian liberty" for having been the birthplace and home of notable individuals who contributed to the Risorgimento, such as Cavour. Though much of its political significance and importance had been lost by World War II, Turin became a major European crossroad for industry and trade, is part of the famous "industrial triangle" along with Milan and Genoa.

Turin is ranked third after Milan and Rome, for economic strength. With a GDP of $58 billion, Turin is the world's 78th richest city by purchasing power; as of 2018, the city has been ranked by GaWC as a Gamma World city. Turin is home to much of the Italian automotive industry, with the headquarters of Fiat and Alfa Romeo; the city has a rich culture and history, being known for its numerous art galleries, churches, opera houses, parks, theatres, libraries and other venues. Turin is well known for its Renaissance, Rococo, Neo-classical, Art Nouveau architecture. Many of Turin's public squares, castles and elegant palazzi such as the Palazzo Madama, were built between the 16th and 18th centuries. A part of the historical center of Turin was inscribed in the World Heritage List under the name Residences of the Royal House of Savoy. In addition, the city is home to museums such as the Museo Egizio and the Mole Antonelliana which in turn hosts the Museo Nazionale del Cinema. Turin's attractions make it one of the world's top 250 tourist destinations and the tenth most visited city in Italy in 2008.

The city hosts some of Italy's best universities, academies and gymnasia, such as the University of Turin, founded in the 15th century, the Turin Polytechnic. Turin is well known as the home of the Shroud of Turin, the football teams Juventus F. C. and Torino F. C. and as host of the 2006 Winter Olympics. The Taurini were an ancient Celto-Ligurian Alpine people, who occupied the upper valley of the Po River, in the center of modern Piedmont. In 218 BC, they were attacked by Hannibal as he was allied with their long-standing enemies, the Insubres; the Taurini chief town was captured by Hannibal's forces after a three-day siege. As a people they are mentioned in history, it is believed that a Roman colony was established after 28 BC under the name of Julia Augusta Taurinorum. Both Livy and Strabo mention the Taurini's country as including one of the passes of the Alps, which points to a wider use of the name in earlier times. In the 1st century BC, the Romans founded Augusta Taurinorum; the typical Roman street grid can still be seen in the modern city in the neighbourhood known as the Quadrilatero Romano.

Via Garibaldi traces the exact path of the Roman city's decumanus which began at the Porta Decumani incorporated into the Castello or Palazzo Madama. The Porta Palatina, on the north side of the current city centre, is still preserved in a park near the Cathedral. Remains of the Roman-period theatre are preserved in the area of the Manica Nuova. Turin reached about 5,000 inhabitants at all living inside the high city walls. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the town was conquered by the Heruli and the Ostrogoths, recaptured by the Romans, but conquered again by the Lombards and the Franks of Charlemagne; the Contea di Torino was founded in the 940s and was held by the Arduinic dynasty until 1050. After the marriage of Adelaide of Susa with Humbert Biancamano's son Otto, the family of the Counts of Savoy gained control. While the title of count was held by the Bishop as count of Turin it was ruled as a prince-bishopric by the Bishops. In 1230–1235 it was a lordship under the Marquess of Montferrat, styled Lord of Turin.

At the end of the 13th century, when it was annexed to the Duchy of Savoy, the city had 20,000 inhabitants. Many of the gardens and palaces were built in the 15th century; the University of Turin was founded during this period. Emmanuel Philibert known under the nickname of Iron Head, made Turin the capital of the Duchy of Savoy in 1563. Piazza Reale and Via Nuova were added along with the first enlargement of the walls, in the first half of the 17th century. In the second half of that century, a second enlargement of the walls was planned and executed, with the building of the arcaded Via Po, connecting Piazza Castello with the bridge on the Po through the regular street grid. In 1706, during the Battle of Turin, the French besieged the city for 117 days without conquering it. By the Treaty of Utrecht the Duke of Savoy acquired Sicily, soon traded fo

Fred Bodsworth

Charles Frederick Bodsworth was a Canadian writer and amateur naturalist. Born in Port Burwell, Bodsworth worked as a journalist for the St. Thomas Times-Journal, The Toronto Star, Maclean's, where he served as assistant editor. From 1964 to 1967, he was president of the Federation of Ontario Naturalists. Bodsworth received the Matt Cohen Prize in 2002 for his writing, he died at Scarborough General Hospital in Toronto. Bodsworth was predeceased by his wife Margaret Banner; the Port Burwell branch of the Elgin County Library was renamed in his honour in 2005. The Last of the Curlews ISBN 0-7710-9874-X, ISBN 1-887178-25-2 The Strange One The Atonement of Ashley Morden The Sparrow's Fall Pacific Coast


Movits! is a Swedish music group from Luleå. The group plays swing mixed with hip hop, their debut album Äppelknyckarjazz translated as Apple swiper jazz or scrumping jazz, was released in November 2008 and has been recognized by national Swedish newspaper Dagens Nyheter. In the United States the album Äppelknyckarjazz is released by Comedy Central Records; the name Movits! alludes to Fader Movitz, a character in the Epistles of Fredman by Swedish 18th-century poet and composer Carl Michael Bellman. The band, replaced the last character of the name z with an s in order to avoid being associated with Swedish bands playing dansband style music, such as Lasse Stefanz, Svänzons or Larz-Kristerz. On July 27, 2009, Movits! was featured on the American satirical news show The Colbert Report. The band was interviewed and performed their song "Fel del av gården". Colbert mentioned on his show on 30 July 2009, that the band's album Äppelknyckarjazz had gained significant popularity on and claimed that their appearance on his program was responsible for their newfound popularity.

The band is made up of brothers Johan Jivin' Rensfeldt, Anders Rensfeldt and saxophonist Joakim'One-Take' Nilsson. 2007: "Swing för hyresgästföreningen" 2008: "Äppelknyckarjazz" 2008: "Fel del av gården" 2009: "Spela mig på radion" 2009: "Ta på dig dansskorna" 2011: "Skjut mig i huvet" 2011: "Na na nah!" 2011: "Sammy Davis Jr" 2013: "Röksignaler" 2013: "Nitroglycerin" 2013: "Limousin" 2015: "Placebo" 2015: "Dansa i regnet" 2016: "Självantänd" 2018: "Gumbo" 2019: "Himlen faller ner" 2019: "Lemonad" Official website First We Take Manhattan - Tour Vlog website Movits!'s channel on YouTube