The Guggenheim Museum Bilbao is a museum of modern and contemporary art designed by Canadian-American architect Frank Gehry, located in Bilbao, Basque Country, Spain. The museum was inaugurated on 18 October 1997 by King Juan Carlos I of Spain, with an exhibition of 250 contemporary works of art. Built alongside the Nervion River, which runs through the city of Bilbao to the Cantabrian Sea, it is one of several museums belonging to the Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation and features permanent and visiting exhibits of works by Spanish and international artists, it is one of the largest museums in Spain. One of the most admired works of contemporary architecture, the building has been hailed as a "signal moment in the architectural culture", because it represents "one of those rare moments when critics and the general public were all united about something." The museum was the building most named as one of the most important works completed since 1980 in the 2010 World Architecture Survey among architecture experts.
In 1991, the Basque government suggested to the Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation that it would fund a Guggenheim museum to be built in Bilbao's decrepit port area, once the city's main source of income; the Basque government agreed to cover the US$100 million construction cost, to create a US$50 million acquisitions fund, to pay a one-time US$20 million fee to the Guggenheim and to subsidize the museum's US$12 million annual budget. In exchange, the Foundation agreed to manage the institution, rotate parts of its permanent collection through the Bilbao museum and organize temporary exhibitions; the museum was built at a cost of US$89 million. About 5,000 residents of Bilbao attended a preopening extravaganza outside the museum on the night preceding the official opening, featuring an outdoor light show and concerts. On 18 October 1997 the museum was opened by Juan Carlos I of Spain; the Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation selected Frank Gehry as the architect, its director, Thomas Krens, encouraged him to design something daring and innovative.
The curves on the exterior of the building were intended to appear random. The interior "is designed around a large, light-filled atrium with views of Bilbao's estuary and the surrounding hills of the Basque country"; the atrium, which Gehry nicknamed The Flower because of its shape, serves as the organizing center of the museum. When the Guggenheim Museum Bilbao opened to the public in 1997, it was hailed as one of the world's most spectacular buildings in the style of Deconstructivism, a masterpiece of the 20th century. Architect Philip Johnson described it as "the greatest building of our time", while critic Calvin Tomkins, in The New Yorker, characterized it as "a fantastic dream ship of undulating form in a cloak of titanium," its brilliantly reflective panels reminiscent of fish scales. Herbert Muschamp praised its "mercurial brilliance" in The New York Times Magazine; the Independent calls the museum "an astonishing architectural feat". The museum is seamlessly integrated into the urban context, unfolding its interconnecting shapes of stone and titanium on a 32,500-square-meter site along the Nervión River in the ancient industrial heart of the city.
With a total 24,000 m2, of which 11,000 m2 are dedicated to exhibition space, it had more exhibition space than the three Guggenheim collections in New York and Venice combined at that time. The 11,000 m2 of exhibition space are distributed over nineteen galleries, ten of which follow a classic orthogonal plan that can be identified from the exterior by their stone finishes; the remaining nine galleries are irregularly shaped and can be identified from the outside by their swirling organic forms and titanium cladding. The largest gallery measures 130 meters long. In 2005, it housed Richard Serra's monumental installation The Matter of Time, which Robert Hughes dubbed "courageous and sublime"; the building was constructed on time and budget, rare for architecture of this type. In an interview in Harvard Design Magazine, Gehry explained. First, he ensured that what he calls the "organization of the artist" prevailed during construction, to prevent political and business interests from interfering with the design.
Second, he made sure he had a realistic cost estimate before proceeding. Third, he used computer visualizations produced by Rick Smith employing Dassault Systemes' CATIA V3 software and collaborated with the individual building trades to control costs during construction. KLM Royal Dutch Airlines donated $1,000,000 towards its construction; this museum is a colossal construction, which used more than 25,000 tons of concrete, or 10,000 cubic meters, why it requires deep and solid foundations. The foundation was laid on reinforced concrete piles driven into the bedrock at an average depth of 14 meters; the building is based in the clay of the bed of the nearby river “Ria de Bilbao”. In total, 665 pilings were driven to anchor the building to the ground; the base of the building is covered with beige limestone from the Huéscar quarries near Granada, cut from 5 cm thick slabs. The building is clear thanks to the walls, specially treated to protect the interior from the effects of the sun; the glass of the windows has been treated to prevent light from damaging the exposed pieces.
It is clad in titanium plates, arrang
A statue menhir is a type of carved standing stone created during the European Neolithic. The statues consist of a vertical slab or pillar with a stylised design of a human figure cut into it, sometimes with hints of clothing or weapons visible, they are most found in southern and western France, Corsica, Sardinia and the Alps. A group from the Iron Age is known in Liguria and Lunigiana. There are two in Guernsey, La Gran' Mère du Chimquière, a detailed example in the churchyard of Parish of Saint Martin, another known as La Gran' Mère in the Parish of Castel; the latter is an earlier, less detailed example found buried underneath the porch of the parish church. Kurgan stele Megalithic art Website about statue menhirs in southern France Southern France Megaliths A. Soutou, "La ceinture des statues-menhirs du Haut-Languedoc: essai de datation", in Bulletin de la Société préhistorique française, 1959, Vol. 56 Issue 11-12, pp. 715-721 Maillé, M. 2010 - Hommes et femmes de pierre, Statues-menhirs du Rouergue et du Haut Languedoc, AEP, monographie, 538 pages, 2010.
Martínez, P.. Martínez, P. 2011, La estatua-menhir del Pla de les Pruneres Complutum, 2011, Vol. 22: 71-87. Universidad Complutense de Madrid. Madrid. Moya, A.. B. 2010, Èssers de pedra. Estàtues-menhirs i esteles antropomorfes a l'art megalític de Catalunya Cypsela núm 18, pp 11–41. Museu d'Arqueologia de Catalunya, Girona. Servelle, Ch. 2009 - « Étude pétroarchéologique et technologique de la statue-menhir du Baïssas, Le Bez, Tarn », Archéologie Tarnaise, n° 14, 2009, p. 115-121, 4 fig. Vaquer, J. et Maillé, M. 2011 - « Images de guerrier au Néolithique final - Chalcolithique dans le midi de la France: les poignards – figurations sur les statues-menhirs rouergates et objets réels », in L’armement du guerrier dans les sociétés anciennes: de l’objet à la tombe, Actes de la table ronde internationale et interdisciplinaire, Sens, CEREP, 4 juin 2009. Dijon, éd. universitaires de Dijon, p. 103-120
The New Zealand five-dollar note was first issued on 10 July 1967 when New Zealand decimalised its currency, changing from the New Zealand pound to the New Zealand dollar. The notes depicted Queen Elizabeth II; the first $5 notes were issued alongside the first $1, $2, $10, $20, $100 notes with the introduction of the New Zealand dollar 10 July 1967. Unlike the other notes issued, the $5 note did not have an equivalent pound bank note predecessor, having been equal in worth to £2 and 10 shillings. On the front of the notes Queen Elizabeth II is pictured. There is a watermark of Captain James Cook. On the back of the note is a tui, a bird that eats nectar; the plant the bird is perched on is a kowhai, a tree with honey blossoms. The colours and Elizabeth II's portrait were the only major changes; the old notes were overhauled and have the same portraits and design as the fourth issue. There is a metallic strip, a latent image was added as well; this note is different from the fourth series. The Reserve Bank of New Zealand issued a plastic note intended to last four times longer than the former cotton paper paper banknote.
The Bank stated that plastic notes are non-porous, meaning that they will not absorb liquids and therefore remain much cleaner. The notes had better security features than the cotton-based ones, with the aim of better deterring counterfeiting; the design of the note did not change markedly from its paper predecessor. The explorer Sir Edmund Hillary was depicted on the front, with Aoraki / Mount Cook, the tallest mountain in New Zealand 12,316 feet, shown on the left hand side. Hillary was one of the first two individuals known to have reached the summit of Mount Everest, the first to have been to the South Pole, the North Pole and the summit of Everest. One of the Ferguson tractors driven by Hillary to the pole could be seen in the lower left corner, next to the transparent window. Hillary is the only New Zealander to appear on a banknote during his or her lifetime, in defiance of the established convention that, apart from the current head of state, only people who have died are depicted. On the reverse of the bill featured a scene from Campbell Island, south of Stewart Island / Rakiura.
The penguin shown on the note is the hoiho, native to New Zealand. Bulbinella rossii known as the Ross lily, with yellow flower heads, was featured. New $5 and $10 banknotes were released in October 2015 as part of the Series 7 banknote release; the remaining three banknote denominations in Series 7 were released in May 2016. The polymer note has a watermark of Elizabeth II on the right side. There are two transparent windows with images of a fern, on the left, on the right; when held up to the light the window will show a "5" in its center, images of ferns printed on each side will line up perfectly. When the note is put under UV Light a yellow patch should appear with the number "5" through the use of fluorescent dyes