Guglielmo Giovanni Maria Marconi, 1st Marquis of Marconi FRSA was an Italian inventor and electrical engineer, known for his pioneering work on long-distance radio transmission, development of Marconi's law, a radio telegraph system. He is credited as the inventor of radio, he shared the 1909 Nobel Prize in Physics with Karl Ferdinand Braun "in recognition of their contributions to the development of wireless telegraphy". Marconi was an entrepreneur and founder of The Wireless Telegraph & Signal Company in the United Kingdom in 1897, he succeeded in making an engineering and commercial success of radio by innovating and building on the work of previous experimenters and physicists. In 1929, Marconi was ennobled as a Marchese by King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy, and, in 1931, he set up the Vatican Radio for Pope Pius XI. Marconi was born into the Italian nobility as Guglielmo Giovanni Maria Marconi in Bologna on 25 April 1874, the second son of Giuseppe Marconi and his Irish wife Annie Jameson.
Marconi had a brother, a stepbrother, Luigi. Between the ages of two and six and his elder brother Alfonso lived with their mother in the English town of Bedford. Marconi did not go on to formal higher education. Instead, he learned chemistry and physics at home from a series of private tutors hired by his parents, his family hired additional tutors for Guglielmo in the winter when they would leave Bologna for the warmer climate of Tuscany or Florence. Marconi noted an important mentor was professor Vincenzo Rosa, a high school physics teacher in Livorno. Rosa taught the 17-year-old Marconi the basics of physical phenomena as well as new theories on electricity. At the age of 18 and back in Bologna, Marconi became acquainted with University of Bologna physicist Augusto Righi, who had done research on Heinrich Hertz's work. Righi permitted Marconi to attend lectures at the university and to use the University's laboratory and library. From youth, Marconi was interested in electricity. In the early 1890s, he began working on the idea of "wireless telegraphy"—i.e. the transmission of telegraph messages without connecting wires as used by the electric telegraph.
This was not a new idea. A new development came from Heinrich Hertz, who, in 1888, demonstrated that one could produce and detect electromagnetic radiation. At the time, this radiation was called "Hertzian" waves, is now referred to as radio waves. There was a great deal of interest in radio waves in the physics community, but this interest was in the scientific phenomenon, not in its potential as a communication method. Physicists looked on radio waves as an invisible form of light that could only travel along a line of sight path, limiting its range to the visual horizon like existing forms of visual signaling. Hertz's death in 1894 brought published reviews of his earlier discoveries including a demonstration on the transmission and detection of radio waves by the British physicist Oliver Lodge and an article about Hertz's work by Augusto Righi. Righi's article renewed Marconi's interest in developing a wireless telegraphy system based on radio waves, a line of inquiry that Marconi noted other inventors did not seem to be pursuing.
At the age of 20, Marconi began to conduct experiments in radio waves, building much of his own equipment in the attic of his home at the Villa Griffone in Pontecchio, Italy with the help of his butler Mignani. Marconi built on Hertz's original experiments and, at the suggestion of Righi, began using a coherer, an early detector based on the 1890 findings of French physicist Edouard Branly and used in Lodge's experiments, that changed resistance when exposed to radio waves. In the summer of 1894, he built a storm alarm made up of a battery, a coherer, an electric bell, which went off when it picked up the radio waves generated by lightning. Late one night, in December 1894, Marconi demonstrated a radio transmitter and receiver to his mother, a set-up that made a bell ring on the other side of the room by pushing a telegraphic button on a bench. Supported by his father, Marconi continued to read through the literature and picked up on the ideas of physicists who were experimenting with radio waves.
He developed devices, such as portable transmitters and receiver systems, that could work over long distances, turning what was a laboratory experiment into a useful communication system. Marconi came up with a functional system with many components: A simple oscillator or spark-producing radio transmitter. In the summer of 1895, Marconi moved his experiments outdoors on his father's estate in Bologna, he tried different arrangements and shape
Jordan Christian Haerter was a United States Marine, posthumously awarded the Navy Cross for actions performed alongside Jonathan T. Yale during the Iraq War. Jordan C. Haerter was born in Southampton, New York, on July 30, 1988. Haerter was raised in Sag Harbor and graduated from Pierson High School in 2006. In September 2006, he reported to Marine Corps Recruit Depot Parris Island and qualified as an expert on the rifle range and had the highest score in his company. After boot camp, he was assigned to 1st Battalion, 9th Marines, 2nd Marine Division, in Camp Lejeune, North Carolina. Haerter's unit deployed to Iraq in March 2008, they were turning over with 2nd Battalion, 8th Marines at Joint Security Station Nasser in the city of Ramadi in Al Anbar Province. On April 22, 2008, Lance Corporal Haerter was standing guard with a Marine from 2/8, Corporal Jonathan Yale, two Iraqi policemen at the Entry Control Point of the compound, which looked down an alleyway. At 7:45 in the morning, a suicide truck bomb turned down the alleyway and barrelled towards the entrance point.
The Iraqi policemen ran from the gate while Yale opened fire on the vehicle. The two Marines managed to bring the truck to a stop just a few feet from their position. Just six seconds after the truck entered the alleyway, it detonated with 2,000 pounds of explosives and killed both Haerter and Yale as they continued firing their weapons. Haerter was the first resident of Sag Harbor to be killed in action since World War II. Haerter and Yale were credited with stopping the truck from crashing through the gate and saving the lives of more than 50 Marines and Iraqi policemen and were recommended for the Navy Cross by General John F. Kelly, their families were presented with their Navy Crosses on February 20, 2009. Haerter was buried in Oakland Cemetery in Sag Harbor
Ljubomir "Ljubo" Miloš was a Croatian public official, a member of the Ustashe of the Independent State of Croatia during World War II. He served as commandant of the Jasenovac concentration camp on several occasions and was responsible for various atrocities committed there during the war, he sought refuge in Austria. In 1947, he returned to Yugoslavia with the intention of starting an anti-communist uprising, he was soon charged with war crimes. Miloš was found guilty on all counts and hanged in August 1948. Miloš was born in Bosanski Šamac on 25 February 1919, he finished secondary school in Subotica. He worked as a municipal clerk. On 6 April 1941, Axis forces invaded Yugoslavia. Poorly equipped and poorly trained, the Royal Yugoslav Army was defeated; the country was dismembered and the extreme Croat nationalist and fascist Ante Pavelić, in exile in Benito Mussolini's Italy, was appointed Poglavnik of an Ustaše-led Croatian state – the Independent State of Croatia. The NDH combined all of modern-day Croatia, all of modern-day Bosnia and Herzegovina and parts of modern-day Serbia into an "Italian-German quasi-protectorate".
NDH authorities, led by the Ustaše militia, subsequently implemented genocidal policies against the Serb and Romani population living within the borders of the new state. Miloš arrived in Zagreb in June 1941 and met with his first cousin, Ustaše commander Vjekoslav Luburić. Luburić made him his right-hand man and used his influence to get Miloš a position within the Ustaše Supervisory Service, which ran the Jasenovac concentration camp. In October, Miloš was promoted to the rank of First Lieutenant. Miloš was responsible for the safety of Croatian politician Vladko Maček during his imprisonment, from 15 October 1941 to 15 March 1942. Maček seeing Miloš, before going to bed, always made the sign of the cross, asked him if he "feared God's punishment" for the atrocities he committed in the camp. Miloš replied, "Say nothing to me. I know, but I will burn for Croatia."Miloš was transferred to the Đakovo concentration camp in early 1942, but returned to Jasenovac and reassumed the position of camp commander in the spring.
He seemed to compete with the other commanding officers in the camp to see who could torture and kill the most inmates. Miloš dressed in a white robe and pretended to be a doctor in front of sick inmates, he would sometimes take those applying to be hospitalized, line them up against a wall and slit their throats with a slaughtering knife. He seemed "very proud" of this "ritual slaughter of the...". Witness Milan Flumiani recalled: soon as the seventeen of us arrived at Jasenovac, Ustaše beat us with rifle butts and took us to the Brick Factory, where Ljubo Miloš had lined up two groups, while we arrived as a special third group. Maričić asked Ljubo Miloš, "who should I aim at first?", Miloš replied, "where there’s more of them", both of them pointed automatic rifles at the 40 men from the first two groups and shot them all. After that, he asked the first man from our group why he came here, when that man replied that he was guilty of being born a Serb, he shot him on the spot, he picked out Laufer, a lawyer from Zagreb, asked him what he was, when he replied, he called him out like this — "I like lawyers much, come closer" — and killed him right away.
He found out that a third man was a doctor from Zagreb, he ordered him to examine the first two men and to establish whether they were dead. When the doctor confirmed that they were, he turned to the fourth man and when he found out that he too was a doctor, he "forgave" the whole group. Miloš raised a wolfhound and trained it to assault inmates. During the summer of 1942, he travelled to Italy to complete a law enforcement course in Turin, but returned to the NDH after only ten days. In September, he assumed the role of assistant-camp commander. Troops under Miloš's command raided several villages near Jasenovac in October 1942, looted countless homes, arrested hundreds of Serb peasants and deported them to the camps. NDH authorities learned about the raids shortly after and arrested Miloš, he was not imprisoned long, as Luburić ordered his release on 23 December 1942. In January 1943, Miloš was stationed in Mostar, he returned to Zagreb in April 1943. In September, he was named commander of Lepoglava prison.
By the end of World War II, Miloš had attained the rank of Major. He fled Yugoslavia at the beginning of May 1945, withdrew through Austria to Allied-controlled northern Italy with help from the Roman Catholic church, he soon established links with Croatian émigrés there. He illegally crossed the Yugoslav–Hungarian border in 1947 with the intention of infiltrating Croatia with anti-communist guerrillas known as Crusaders. Miloš was arrested by Yugoslav authorities on 20 July 1947, charged with war crimes and tried the following year. During his trial, he confessed to killing Jasenovac inmates and testified that the Ustaše had drawn up plans for the extermination of Serbs long before 1941. Miloš was found guilty on all counts on 20 August 1948 and sentenced to death by the Supreme Court of the People's Republic of Croatia, he was hanged in Zagreb the same day