Commonwealth of the Philippines
The Commonwealth of the Philippines was the administrative body that governed the Philippines from 1935 to 1946, aside from a period of exile in the Second World War from 1942 to 1945 when Japan occupied the country. It replaced the Insular Government, a United States territorial government, was established by the Tydings–McDuffie Act; the Commonwealth was designed as a transitional administration in preparation for the country's full achievement of independence. During its more than a decade of existence, the Commonwealth had a strong executive and a Supreme Court, its legislature, dominated by the Nacionalista Party, was at first unicameral, but bicameral. In 1937, the government selected Tagalog – the language of Manila and its surrounding provinces – as the basis of the national language, although it would be many years before its usage became general. Women's suffrage was adopted and the economy recovered to its pre-Depression level before the Japanese occupation in 1942; the Commonwealth government went into exile from 1942 to 1945, when the Philippines was under Japanese occupation.
In 1946, the Commonwealth ended and the Philippines claimed full sovereignty as provided for in Article XVIII of the 1935 Constitution. The Commonwealth of the Philippines was known as the "Philippine Commonwealth", or as "the Commonwealth", it had official names in Tagalog: Spanish: Commonwealth de Filipinas. The 1935 constitution specifies "the Philippines" as the country's short form name and uses "the Philippine Islands" only to refer to pre-1935 status and institutions. Under the Insular Government, both terms had official status; the pre-1935 U. S. territorial administration, or Insular Government, was headed by a governor general, appointed by the president of the United States. In December 1932, the U. S. Congress passed the Hare–Hawes–Cutting Act with the premise of granting Filipinos independence. Provisions of the bill included reserving several military and naval bases for the United States, as well as imposing tariffs and quotas on Philippine exports; when it reached him for possible signature, President Herbert Hoover vetoed the Hare–Hawes–Cutting Act, but the American Congress overrode Hoover's veto in 1933 and passed the bill over Hoover's objections.
The bill, was opposed by the Philippine Senate President Manuel L. Quezon and was rejected by the Philippine Senate; this led to the creation and passing of a new bill known as Tydings–McDuffie Act, or Philippine Independence Act, which allowed the establishment of the Commonwealth of the Philippines with a ten-year period of peaceful transition to full independence – the date of, to be on the 4th July following the tenth anniversary of the establishment of the Commonwealth. A Constitutional Convention was convened in Manila on July 30, 1934. On February 8, 1935, the 1935 Constitution of the Commonwealth of the Philippines was approved by the convention by a vote of 177 to 1; the constitution was approved by President Franklin D. Roosevelt on March 23, 1935 and ratified by popular vote on May 14, 1935. On 17 September 1935, presidential elections were held. Candidates included former president Emilio Aguinaldo, the Iglesia Filipina Independiente leader Gregorio Aglipay, others. Manuel L. Quezon and Sergio Osmeña of the Nacionalista Party were proclaimed the winners, winning the seats of president and vice-president, respectively.
The Commonwealth Government was inaugurated on the morning of November 15, 1935, in ceremonies held on the steps of the Legislative Building in Manila. The event was attended by a crowd of around 300,000 people; the new government embarked on ambitious nation-building policies in preparation for economic and political independence. These included national defense, greater control over the economy, the perfection of democratic institutions, reforms in education, improvement of transport, the promotion of local capital, industrialization, the colonization of Mindanao. However, uncertainties in the diplomatic and military situation in Southeast Asia, in the level of U. S. commitment to the future Republic of the Philippines, in the economy due to the Great Depression, proved to be major problems. The situation was further complicated by the presence of agrarian unrest, of power struggles between Osmeña and Quezon after Quezon was permitted to be re-elected after one six-year term. A proper evaluation of the policies' effectiveness or failure is difficult due to Japanese invasion and occupation during World War II.
Japan launched a surprise attack on the Philippines on December 8, 1941. The Commonwealth government drafted the Philippine Army into the U. S. Army Forces Far East, which would resist Japanese occupation. Manila was declared an open city to prevent its destruction, it was occupied by the Japanese on January 2, 1942. Meanwhile, battles against the Japanese continued on the Bataan Peninsula and Leyte until the final surrender of United States-Philippine forces in May 1942. Quezon and Osmeña were escorted by troops from Manila to Corregidor, left for Australia prior to going to the U. S. where they set up a government in exile, based at the Shoreham Hotel, in Washington, D. C; this government participated in the Pacific War Council as well as the Declaration by United Nations. Quezon died from it, with Osmeña succeeding him as president; the main general headquarters of the Philippine Commonwealth Army, located on the military station in Ermita, was closed down on December 24, 1941. Upon arrival of the Japanese
The Philippine Revolution called the Tagalog War by the Spanish, was a revolution and subsequent conflict fought between the people and insurgents of the Philippines and the Kingdom of Spain - including its Spanish Empire and Spanish colonial authorities in the Spanish East Indies. The Philippine Revolution began in August 1896, when the Spanish authorities discovered the Katipunan, an anti-colonial secret organization; the Katipunan, led by Andrés Bonifacio, was a liberationist movement whose goal was independence from the 333 years of colonial control from Spain through armed revolt. The organization began to influence much of the Philippines. During a mass gathering in Caloocan, the leaders of the Katipunan organized themselves into a revolutionary government, named the newly established government "Haring Bayang Katagalugan", declared a nationwide armed revolution. Bonifacio called for an attack on the capital city of Manila; this attack failed. In particular, rebels in Cavite led by Mariano Álvarez and Emilio Aguinaldo won major early victories.
A power struggle among the revolutionaries led to Bonifacio's death in 1897, with command shifting to Aguinaldo, who led the newly formed revolutionary government. That year, the revolutionaries and the Spanish signed the Pact of Biak-na-Bato, which temporarily reduced hostilities. Aguinaldo and other Filipino officers exiled themselves in the British colony of Hong Kong in southeast China. However, the hostilities never ceased. On April 21, 1898, after the sinking of USS Maine in Havana Harbor and prior to its declaration of war on April 25, the United States launched a naval blockade of the Spanish colony island of Cuba, off its southern coast of the peninsula of Florida; this was the first military action of the Spanish–American War of 1898. On May 1, the U. S. Navy's Asiatic Squadron, under Commodore George Dewey, decisively defeated the Spanish Navy in the Battle of Manila Bay seizing control of Manila. On May 19, unofficially allied with the United States, returned to the Philippines and resumed attacks against the Spaniards.
By June, the rebels had gained control of nearly all of the Philippines, with the exception of Manila. On June 12, Aguinaldo issued the Philippine Declaration of Independence. Although this signified the end date of the revolution, neither Spain nor the United States recognized Philippine independence; the Spanish rule of the Philippines ended with the Treaty of Paris of 1898, which ended the Spanish–American War. In the treaty, Spain ceded control of other territories to the United States. There was an uneasy peace around Manila, with the American forces controlling the city and the weaker Philippines forces surrounding them. On February 4, 1899, in the Battle of Manila, fighting broke out between the Filipino and American forces, beginning the Philippine–American War. Aguinaldo ordered "hat peace and friendly relations with the Americans be broken and that the latter be treated as enemies". In June 1899, the nascent First Philippine Republic formally declared war against the United States; the Philippines would not become an internationally recognized independent state until 1946.
The main influx of revolutionary ideas came at the start of the 19th century, when the Philippines was opened for world trade. In 1809, the first English firms were established in Manila, followed by a royal decree in 1834 which opened the city to world trade; the Philippines had been governed from Mexico since 1565, with colonial administrative costs sustained by subsidies from the galleon trade. Increased competition with foreign traders brought the galleon trade to an end in 1815. After its recognition of Mexican independence in 1821, Spain was forced to govern the Philippines directly from Madrid and to find new sources of revenue to pay for the colonial administration. At this point, post-French Revolution ideas entered the country through literature, which resulted in the rise of an enlightened principalia class in the society; the 1868 Spanish Revolution brought the autocratic rule of Queen Isabella II to an end. The autocratic government was replaced by a liberal government led by General Francisco Serrano.
In 1869, Serrano appointed Carlos María de la Torre as the 91st governor-general. The leadership of de la Torre introduced the idea of liberalism to the Philippines; the election of Amadeo of Savoy to the throne of Spain led to the replacement of de la Torre in 1871. In 1872, the government of the succeeding governor-general, Rafael de Izquierdo, experienced the uprising of Filipino soldiers at the Fort San Felipe arsenal in Cavite el Viejo. Seven days after the mutiny, many people were tried. Three of these were secular priests: José Burgos, Mariano Gómez and friar Jacinto Zamora, who were hanged by Spanish authorities in Bagumbayan, their execution had a profound effect on many Filipinos. Many Filipinos who were arrested for possible rebellion were deported to Spanish penal colonies; some of them, managed to escape to Hong Kong, Singapore, London and some parts of Spain. These people met other exiles who had escaped from penal colonies. Bound together by common fate, they established an organization known as the Propaganda Movement.
These émigrés used their writings to condemn Spanish abuses and seek reforms to the colonial government. José Rizal's novels, Noli Me Tángere and El Filibusterismo (The Fi
Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralin Marcos Sr. was a Filipino politician and kleptocrat, the tenth President of the Philippines from 1965 to 1986. A leading member of the far-right New Society Movement, he ruled as a dictator under martial law from 1972 until 1981, his regime was infamous for its corruption and brutality. Marcos claimed an active part in World War II, including fighting alongside the Americans in the Bataan Death March and being the "most decorated war hero in the Philippines". A number of his claims were found to be false and the United States Army documents described Marcos's wartime claims as "fraudulent" and "absurd". Marcos started as an attorney served in the Philippine House of Representatives from 1949 to 1959 and the Philippine Senate from 1959 to 1965, he was elected President in 1965, presided over a growing economy during the beginning and intermediate portion of his 20-year rule, but ended in loss of livelihood, extreme poverty, a crushing debt crisis. Marcos placed the Philippines under martial law on September 23, 1972, during which he revamped the constitution, silenced the media, used violence and oppression against the political opposition, communist rebels, ordinary citizens.
Martial law was ratified by 90.77% of the voters during the Philippine Martial Law referendum, 1973 though the referendum was marred with controversy. Public outrage led to the snap elections of 1986. Allegations of mass cheating, political turmoil, human rights abuses led to the People Power Revolution in February 1986, which removed him from power. To avoid what could have been a military confrontation in Manila between pro- and anti-Marcos troops, Marcos was advised by US President Ronald Reagan through Senator Paul Laxalt to "cut and cut cleanly", after which Marcos fled to Hawaii. Marcos was succeeded by Corazon "Cory" Aquino, widow of the assassinated opposition leader Senator Benigno "Ninoy" Aquino Jr. who had flown back to the Philippines to face Marcos. According to source documents provided by the Presidential Commission on Good Government, the Marcos family stole US$5–10 billion; the PCGG maintained that the Marcos family enjoyed a decadent lifestyle, taking away billions of dollars from the Philippines between 1965 and 1986.
His wife Imelda Marcos, whose excesses during the couple's conjugal dictatorship made her infamous in her own right, spawned the term "Imeldific". Two of their children, Imee Marcos and Ferdinand "Bongbong" Marcos Jr. are still active in Philippine politics. Ferdinand Edralin Marcos was born on September 11, 1917, in the town of Sarrat, Ilocos Norte, to Mariano Marcos and Josefa Edralin, he was baptized into the Philippine Independent Church, but was first baptized in the Roman Catholic Church at the age of three. Marcos studied law at the University of the Philippines, he excelled in both curricular and extra-curricular activities, becoming a valuable member of the university's swimming and wrestling teams. He was an accomplished and prolific orator and writer for the student newspaper. While attending the UP College of Law, he became a member of the Upsilon Sigma Phi, where he met his future colleagues in government and some of his staunchest critics; when he sat for the 1939 Bar Examinations, he received a near-perfect score of 98.8%, but allegations of cheating prompted the Philippine Supreme Court to re-calibrate his score to 92.35%.
He graduated cum laude. He was elected to the Pi Gamma Mu and the Phi Kappa Phi international honor societies, the latter giving him its Most Distinguished Member Award 37 years later. In Seagrave's book The Marcos Dynasty, he mentioned that Marcos possessed a phenomenal memory and exhibited this by memorizing complicated texts and reciting them forward and backward such as the 1935 Constitution of the Philippines. Senator Miriam Defensor-Santiago, in an interview with the Philippine Star on March 25, 2012, shared her experience as a speech writer to President Marcos: "One time, the Secretary of Justice forgot to tell me that the President had requested him to draft a speech that the President was going to deliver before graduates of the law school, and on the day the President was to deliver the speech, he remembered because Malacañang was asking for the speech, so he said,'This is an emergency. You just have to produce something.' And I just dictated the speech. He liked long speeches. I think, 20 or 25 pages.
And in the evening, I was there, of course. President Marcos recited the speech from memory." In December 1938, Ferdinand Marcos was prosecuted for the murder of Julio Nalundasan. He was not the only accused from the Marcos clan. Nalundasan, one of the elder Marcos's political rivals, had been shot and killed in his house in Batac on September 21, 1935 – the day after he had defeated Mariano Marcos a second time for a seat in the National Assembly. According to two witnesses, the four had conspired to assassinate Nalundasan, with Ferdinand Marcos pulling the trigger. In late January 1939, they were denied bail and in the year, they were convicted. Ferdinand and Lizardo received the death penalty for premeditated murder, while Mariano and Pio were found guilty of contempt of court; the Marcos family took their appeal to the Supreme Court of the Philippines, which overturned the lower court's decision on 22 October 1940, acquitting them of all charges except contempt. Marcos' military service during World War II has been the subject of debate and controversy, both in the Philippines and in international military circles.
Marcos, who had received ROTC training, was activate
Malacañan Palace is the official residence and principal workplace of the President of the Philippines located in the capital city of Manila. The Palace is in fact a complex of buildings built in Bahay na bato and neoclassical style; the original structure was built in 1750 by Don Luís Rocha as a summer house along the Pasig River. It was purchased by the state in 1825 as the summer residence for the Spanish Governor-General. After the June 3, 1863 earthquake destroyed the Palacio del Gobernador in the walled city of Manila, it became the Governor-General's official residence. After sovereignty over the Islands was ceded to the United States in 1898, it became the residence of the American Governors, with General Wesley Merritt being the first. Since 1863, the Palace has been occupied by eighteen Spanish Governors-General, fourteen American Military and Civil Governors, the Presidents of the Philippines; the Palace had been enlarged and refurbished several times since 1750. Most the Palace complex was again drastically remodeled and extensively rebuilt during the term of Ferdinand Marcos.
Among the presidents of the present Fifth Republic, only Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo has lived in the main Palace, with all others residing in nearby properties that form part of the larger Palace complex. The Palace has been seized several times as the result of protests starting with the People Power Revolution, the 1989 coup attempt; the earliest document to address the building's roots was the Compendio de la Historia de Filipinas written in 1877 by Spanish historian Felipe de Govantes, in which he stated that the term Malacañán meant "place of the fisherman". This was again referenced in the 1895 Historia general de Filipinas by José Montero y Vidal and the Historia de Filipinas by Manuel Artigas y Cuerva in 1916. In 1972, Ileana Maramag in her work on Malacañan history supplied the Tagalog word: mamalakáya, which means fisherman; the original denomination for the location is believed to be Mamalakáya-han, with the Tagalog suffix -han meaning "place of" simplified by the Spanish colonial authorities as Malacañán and adapted according to the Spanish orthography.
During the Spanish colonial era, Spanish language books that were published at the time spelled the word as Malacañang. The name was changed to "Malacañan" during the American occupation of the Philippines from 1898 until 1946 for ease of pronunciation despite the fact that "-ng" as a final sound is familiar in the English language. However, after the inauguration of President Ramon Magsaysay on December 30, 1953, the Philippine government changed the name to Malacañang: Residence of the President of the Philippines in honor of Palace's historical roots. During the administration of Corazon Aquino, for historical reasons, government policy has been introduced to distinguish both terms; the heading Malacañan Palace is reserved for official documents signed by the President, while those delegated to and signed by subordinates use the heading Malacañang. The Spanish Captains-General and the Governors-General resided at the Palacio del Gobernador fronting the city square in the walled city of Intramuros in Manila.
Malacañang Palace was built as a casita in 1750 – made of adobe, with interiors panelled with finest narra and molave. It sits in a 16 hectare land owned by Spanish aristocrat Don Antonio V. Rocha, it was subsequently sold to Col. José Miguel Formento on November 16, 1802 for a sum of thousand pesos, it was sold to the government upon his death in January 1825. It became the temporary summer residence of the Governors-General when the heat became unbearable in Intramuros with its gardens and a verandah along the wide river. Rafael de Echague y Berminghan Governor of Puerto Rico, became the first Spanish Governor-General to reside in the Palace. Finding the place too small, a wooden two-story building was added to the back of the original structure, as well as smaller buildings for aides and porters, as well as stables, carriage sheds and a boat landing for river-borne visitors. Between 1875 and 1879, reconstruction and expansion resumed after the Palace was hit by more earthquakes and fire. An 1869 earthquake hit Malacañang, repairs were made urgent.
Posts and supports were replaced. Balconies are reinforced. Cornices are provided for the roof. Roofing was replaced with galvanized-iron roofing to lighten loads to the walls; the interior was refurbished. By the end of Spanish rule in 1898, Malacañang Palace was a rambling complex of wooden buildings that had sliding capiz windows and azoteas. In 1880, an earthquake occurred again. Porticos were added to the facade to shelter waiting carriages. In 1885, the flagpole was installed in front of the palace. Decaying woodwork, stuck shell windows, leaking roofs, loose kitchen tiles, drooped stables – these are some of the reflected deterioration due to numerous natural phenomena. A total of Php 22,000 was spent for reconstruction; when the Philippines came under the Amer
In European academic traditions, fine art is art developed for aesthetics or beauty, distinguishing it from applied art, which has to serve some practical function, such as pottery or most metalwork. The five main fine arts were painting, architecture and poetry, with performing arts including theatre and dance; the old master print and drawing were included as related forms to painting, just as prose forms of literature were to poetry. Today, the range of what would be considered fine arts includes additional modern forms, such as film, video production/editing and conceptual art. One definition of fine art is "a visual art considered to have been created for aesthetic and intellectual purposes and judged for its beauty and meaningfulness painting, drawing, watercolor and architecture." In that sense, there are conceptual differences between the applied arts. As conceived, as understood for much of the modern era, the perception of aesthetic qualities required a refined judgment referred to as having good taste, which differentiated fine art from popular art and entertainment.
The word "fine" does not so much denote the quality of the artwork in question, but the purity of the discipline according to traditional Western European canons. Except in the case of architecture, where a practical utility was accepted, this definition excluded the "useful" applied or decorative arts, the products of what were regarded as crafts. In contemporary practice these distinctions and restrictions have become meaningless, as the concept or intention of the artist is given primacy, regardless of the means through which this is expressed. According to some writers the concept of a distinct category of fine art is an invention of the early modern period in the West. Larry Shiner in his The Invention of Art: A Cultural History locates the invention in the 18th century: "There was a traditional “system of the arts” in the West before the eighteenth century. In that system, an artist or artisan was a skilled maker or practitioner, a work of art was the useful product of skilled work, the appreciation of the arts was integrally connected with their role in the rest of life.
“Art”, in other words, meant the same thing as the Greek word techne, or in English “skill”, a sense that has survived in phrases like “the art of war”, “the art of love”, “the art of medicine.” Similar ideas have been expressed by Paul Oskar Kristeller, Pierre Bourdieu, Terry Eagleton, though the point of invention is placed earlier, in the Italian Renaissance. The decline of the concept of "fine art" is dated by George Kubler and others to around 1880, when it "fell out of fashion" as, by about 1900, folk art came to be regarded as of equal significance. ""fine art" was driven out of use by about 1920 by the exponents of industrial design... who opposed a double standard of judgment for works of art and for useful objects". This was among theoreticians; the separation of arts and crafts that exists in Europe and the US is not shared by all other cultures. In Japanese aesthetics, the activities of everyday life are depicted by integrating not only art with craft but man-made with nature. Traditional Chinese art distinguished within Chinese painting between the landscape literati painting of scholar gentlemen and the artisans of the schools of court painting and sculpture.
A high status was given to many things that would be seen as craft objects in the West, in particular ceramics, jade carving and embroidery. Latin American art was dominated by European colonialism until the 20th-century, when indigenous art began to reassert itself inspired by the Constructivist Movement, which reunited arts with crafts based upon socialist principles. In Africa, Yoruba art has a political and spiritual function; as with the art of the Chinese, the art of the Yoruba is often composed of what would ordinarily be considered in the West to be craft production. Some of its most admired manifestations, such as sculpture and textiles, fall in this category. Drawing is one of the major forms of the visual arts. Common instruments include: graphite pencils and ink, inked brushes, wax color pencils, charcoals, pastels, stylus, or various metals like silverpoint. There are a number including cartooning and creating comics. There remains debate whether the following is considered a part of “drawing” as “fine art”: "doodling", drawing in the fog a shower and leaving an imprint on the bathroom mirror, or the surrealist method of "entopic graphomania", in which dots are made at the sites of impurities in a blank sheet of paper, the lines are made between the dots.
Mosaics are images formed with small pieces of glass, called tesserae. They can be functional. An artist who designs and makes mosaics is called a mosaicist. Printmaking is the process of making artworks by printing on paper. Except in the case of monotyping, the process is capable of producing multiples of the same piece, called a print; each print is considered an original, as opposed to a copy. The reasoning behind this is that the print is not a reproduction of another work of art in a different medium — for instance, a painting — but rather an image designed from inception as a print. An individual print is referred to as an impression. Prints ar
The Philippines the Republic of the Philippines, is an archipelagic country in Southeast Asia. Situated in the western Pacific Ocean, it consists of about 7,641 islands that are categorized broadly under three main geographical divisions from north to south: Luzon and Mindanao; the capital city of the Philippines is Manila and the most populous city is Quezon City, both part of Metro Manila. Bounded by the South China Sea on the west, the Philippine Sea on the east and the Celebes Sea on the southwest, the Philippines shares maritime borders with Taiwan to the north, Vietnam to the west, Palau to the east, Malaysia and Indonesia to the south; the Philippines' location on the Pacific Ring of Fire and close to the equator makes the Philippines prone to earthquakes and typhoons, but endows it with abundant natural resources and some of the world's greatest biodiversity. The Philippines has an area of 300,000 km2, according to the Philippines Statistical Authority and the WorldBank and, as of 2015, had a population of at least 100 million.
As of January 2018, it is the eighth-most populated country in Asia and the 12th most populated country in the world. 10 million additional Filipinos lived overseas, comprising one of the world's largest diasporas. Multiple ethnicities and cultures are found throughout the islands. In prehistoric times, Negritos were some of the archipelago's earliest inhabitants, they were followed by successive waves of Austronesian peoples. Exchanges with Malay, Indian and Chinese nations occurred. Various competing maritime states were established under the rule of datus, rajahs and lakans; the arrival of Ferdinand Magellan, a Portuguese explorer leading a fleet for the Spanish, in Homonhon, Eastern Samar in 1521 marked the beginning of Hispanic colonization. In 1543, Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos named the archipelago Las Islas Filipinas in honor of Philip II of Spain. With the arrival of Miguel López de Legazpi from Mexico City, in 1565, the first Hispanic settlement in the archipelago was established.
The Philippines became part of the Spanish Empire for more than 300 years. This resulted in Catholicism becoming the dominant religion. During this time, Manila became the western hub of the trans-Pacific trade connecting Asia with Acapulco in the Americas using Manila galleons; as the 19th century gave way to the 20th, the Philippine Revolution followed, which spawned the short-lived First Philippine Republic, followed by the bloody Philippine–American War. The war, as well as the ensuing cholera epidemic, resulted in the deaths of thousands of combatants as well as tens of thousands of civilians. Aside from the period of Japanese occupation, the United States retained sovereignty over the islands until after World War II, when the Philippines was recognized as an independent nation. Since the unitary sovereign state has had a tumultuous experience with democracy, which included the overthrow of a dictatorship by a non-violent revolution; the Philippines is a founding member of the United Nations, World Trade Organization, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum, the East Asia Summit.
It hosts the headquarters of the Asian Development Bank. The Philippines is considered to be an emerging market and a newly industrialized country, which has an economy transitioning from being based on agriculture to one based more on services and manufacturing. Along with East Timor, the Philippines is one of Southeast Asia's predominantly Christian nations; the Philippines was named in honor of King Philip II of Spain. Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos, during his expedition in 1542, named the islands of Leyte and Samar Felipinas after the then-Prince of Asturias; the name Las Islas Filipinas would be used to cover all the islands of the archipelago. Before that became commonplace, other names such as Islas del Poniente and Magellan's name for the islands San Lázaro were used by the Spanish to refer to the islands; the official name of the Philippines has changed several times in the course of its history. During the Philippine Revolution, the Malolos Congress proclaimed the establishment of the República Filipina or the Philippine Republic.
From the period of the Spanish–American War and the Philippine–American War until the Commonwealth period, American colonial authorities referred to the country as the Philippine Islands, a translation of the Spanish name. Since the end of World War II, the official name of the country has been the Republic of the Philippines. Philippines has gained currency as the common name since being the name used in Article VI of the 1898 Treaty of Paris, with or without the definite article. Discovery in 2018 of stone tools and fossils of butchered animal remains in Rizal, Kalinga has pushed back evidence of early hominins in the archipelago to as early as 709,000 years. However, the metatarsal of the Callao Man, reliably dated by uranium-series dating to 67,000 years ago remains the oldest human remnant found in the archipelago to date; this distinction belonged to the Tabon Man of Palawan, carbon-dated to around 26,500 years ago. Negritos were among the archipelago's earliest inhabitants, but their first settlement in the Philippines has not been reliably dated.
There are several opposing theories regarding the origins of ancient Filipinos. F. Landa Jocano theorizes. Wilhelm Solheim's Island Origin Theory postulates that the peopling of the archipelago transpired via trade networks originating in the Sundaland area around
Filipinos are the people who are native to or identified with the country of the Philippines. Filipinos come from various ethnolinguistic groups that are native to the islands or migrants from various Asia Pacific regions. There are more than 175 ethnolinguistic groups, each with its own language, identity and history; the modern Filipino identity, with its Austronesian roots, was influenced by Spain and the United States. The name Filipino was derived from the term las Islas Filipinas, the name given to the archipelago in 1543 by the Spanish explorer and Dominican priest Ruy López de Villalobos, in honour of Philip II of Spain. During the Spanish colonial period the term Filipino was used to classify Spaniards born in the Philippine islands, while indigenous peoples of the islands were called Indio. Historian Ambeth Ocampo has suggested that the first documented use of the word to Filipino to refer to Indios was the Spanish-language poem A la juventud filipina, published in 1879 by José Rizal..
The lack of the letter "F" in the pre-1987 Tagalog alphabet caused the letter "P" to be substituted for "F", though the alphabets and/or writing scripts of some non-Tagalog ethnic groups included the letter "F". Upon official adoption of the modern, 28-letter Filipino alphabet in 1987, the term Filipino was preferred over Pilipino. Locally, some still use "Pilipino" to refer to the people and "Filipino" to refer to the language, but in international use "Filipino" is the usual form for both. A number of Filipinos refer to themselves colloquially as "Pinoy", a slang word formed by taking the last four letters of "Filipino" and adding the diminutive suffix "-y". Other collective endonyms for the Filipino people include: "Patria Adorada" as popularized by Jose Rizal through his poem "Mi último adiós", "Bayang Pilipino" or the more poetic "Sambayanáng Pilipino". In 2010, a metatarsal from "Callao Man", discovered in 2007, was dated through uranium-series dating as being 67,000 years old. Prior to that, the earliest human remains found in the Philippines were thought to be the fossilized fragments of a skull and jawbone, discovered in the 1960s by Dr. Robert B.
Fox, an anthropologist from the National Museum. Anthropologists who examined these remains agreed; these include the Homo sapiens. The "Tabon Man" fossils are considered to have come from a third group of inhabitants, who worked the cave between 22,000 and 20,000 BCE. An earlier cave level lies so far below the level containing cooking fire assemblages that it must represent Upper Pleistocene dates like 45 or 50 thousand years ago. Researchers say this indicates that the human remains were pre-Mongoloid, from about 40,000 years ago. Mongoloid is the term which anthropologists applied to the ethnic group which migrated to Southeast Asia during the Holocene period and evolved into the Austronesian people, a group of Malayo-Polynesian-speaking people including those from Indonesia, the Philippines, Malagasy, the non-Chinese Taiwan Aboriginals or Rhea's. Fluctuations in ancient shorelines between 150,000 BC and 17,000 BC connected the Malay Archipelago region with Maritime Southeast Asia and the Philippines.
This may have enabled ancient migrations into the Philippines from Maritime Southeast Asia 50,000 BC to 13,000 BC. A January 2009 study of language phylogenies by R. D. Gray at the University of California, Los Angeles published in the journal Science, suggests that the population expansion of Austronesian peoples was triggered by rising sea levels of the Sunda shelf at the end of the last ice age; this was a two-pronged expansion, which moved north through the Philippines and into Taiwan, while a second expansion prong spread east along the New Guinea coast and into Oceania and Polynesia. The Negritos are descendants of the indigenous populations of the Sunda landmass and New Guinea, pre-dating the Mongoloid peoples who entered Southeast Asia. Multiple studies show that Negritos from Southeast Asia to New Guinea share a closer cranial affinity with Australo-Melanesians, they were the ancestors of such tribes of the Philippines as the Aeta, Ayta, Ati and other similar groups. Today they comprise just 0.03% of the total Philippine population.
The majority of present-day Filipinos are a product of the long process of evolution and movement of people. After the mass migrations through land bridges, migrations continued by boat during the maritime era of South East Asia; the ancient races became homogenized into the Malayo-Polynesians which colonized the majority of the Philippine and Indonesian archipelagos. Since at least the 3rd century, various ethnic groups established several communities; these were formed by the assimilation of various native Philippine kingdoms. South Asian and East Asian people together with the people of the Indonesian archipelago and the Malay Peninsula, traded with Filipinos and introduced Hinduism and Buddhism to the native tribes of the Philippines. Most of these people stayed in the Philippines where they were absorbed into local societies. Many of the barangay were, to a varying extent, under the de jure jurisprudence of one of several neighboring empires, among them the Malay Srivijaya, Javanese Majapahit, Malacca, Indian Chola and Khmer empires, although de facto had established their own independent system of rule.
Trading links with Sumatra, Java, Malay Peninsu