SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Guinea (coin)

The guinea was a coin of one-quarter ounce of gold, minted in Great Britain between 1663 and 1814. The name came from the Guinea region in West Africa, where much of the gold used to make the coins originated, it was the first English machine-struck gold coin worth one pound sterling, equal to twenty shillings, but rises in the price of gold relative to silver caused the value of the guinea to increase, at times to as high as thirty shillings. From 1717 to 1816, its value was fixed at twenty-one shillings; when Britain adopted the gold standard the guinea became a specialised term. Although the coin itself no longer circulated, the term guinea survived as a unit of account in some fields. Notable usages included professional fees, which were invoiced in guineas, horse racing and greyhound racing, the sale of rams. In each case a guinea meant an amount of one pound and one shilling, or one pound and five pence in decimalised currency; the name forms the basis for the Arabic word for the Egyptian pound الجنيه el-Genēh / el-Geni, as a sum of 100 qirsh was worth 21 shillings at the end of the 19th century.

The first guinea was produced on 6 February 1663. One troy pound of ​11⁄12 fine gold would make ​44 1⁄2 guineas, each thus theoretically weighing 129.438 grains. The coin was worth one pound, or twenty shillings, but an increase in the price of gold during the reign of King Charles II led to the market trading it at a premium; the price of gold continued to increase in times of trouble, by the 1680s, the coin was worth 22 shillings. Indeed, in his diary entries for 13 June 1667, Samuel Pepys records that the price was 24 to 25 shillings; the diameter of the coin was 1 in throughout Charles II's reign, the average gold purity was 0.9100. "Guinea" was not an official name for the coin, but much of the gold used to produce the early coins came from Guinea in Africa. The coin was produced each year between 1663 and 1684, with the elephant appearing on some coins each year from 1663 to 1665 and 1668, the elephant and castle on some coins from 1674 or 1675 onward; the elephant, with or without the castle, symbolises the Royal African Company, whose activities on the Guinea Coast of Africa resulted in the importation of much gold into England.

The obverse and reverse of this coin were designed by John Roettier. The obverse showed a fine right-facing bust of the king wearing a laurel wreath, surrounded by the legend CAROLVS II DEI GRATIA, while the reverse showed four crowned cruciform shields bearing the arms of England, Scotland and Ireland, between which were four sceptres, in the centre were four interlinked "C"s, surrounded by the inscription MAG BR FRA ET HIB REX; the edge was milled to deter clipping or filing, to distinguish it from the silver half-crown which had edge lettering. Until 1669 the milling was perpendicular to the edge, giving vertical grooves, while from 1670 the milling was diagonal to the edge. John Roettier continued to design the dies for this denomination in the reign of King James II. In this reign, the coins weighed 8.5 g with a diameter of 25–26 mm, were minted in all years between 1685 and 1688, with an average gold purity of 0.9094. Coins of each year were issued both without the elephant and castle mark.

The king's head faces left in this reign, is surrounded by the inscription IACOBVS II DEI GRATIA, while the reverse is the same as in Charles II's reign except for omitting the interlinked "C"s in the centre of the coin. The edge of the coins are milled diagonally. With the removal of James II in the Glorious Revolution of 1688, his daughter Mary and her husband Prince William of Orange reigned jointly as co-monarchs, their heads appear conjoined on the guinea piece in Roman style, with William's head uppermost, with the legend GVLIELMVS ET MARIA DEI GRATIA. In a departure from the previous reigns, the reverse featured a new design of a large crowned shield which bore the arms of England and France in the first and fourth quarters, of Scotland in the second quarter, of Ireland in the third quarter, the whole ensemble having a small shield in the centre bearing the rampant lion of Nassau. By the early part of this reign the value of the guinea had increased to nearly 30 shillings; the guineas of this reign weighed 8.5 g, were 25–26 mm in diameter, were the work of James and Norbert Roettier.

They were produced in all years between 1689 and 1694 both without the elephant and castle. Following the death of Queen Mary from smallpox in 1694, William continued to reign as William III; the guinea coin was produced in all years from 1695 to 1701, both with and without the elephant and castle, the design being the work of Johann Crocker known as John Croker, since James Roettier had died in 1698 and his brother Norbert had moved to France in 1695. The coins of William III's reign weighe

Ángel Alfredo Villatoro

Ángel Alfredo Villatoro Rivera was a Honduran journalist and radio personality, kidnapped and killed in 2012 and is regarded as a "journalist martyr". He was one of the seven journalists killed in Honduras in 2012. Villatoro started as radio operator in a local station in La Lima. In 1985 the radio personality Marco Antonio Pinto hired Villatoro to host a sports program in Radio Éxitos in San Pedro Sula. In 1986 Villatoro moved to Tegucigalpa to study journalism at Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras, he became the host of a sports program in Radio Universal. His outstanding talent helped him to become a news reporter in Radio América and press reporter in La Tribuna and El Heraldo. Villatoro left Radio América during the early 1990s and the Presidential candidate, Oswaldo Ramos Soto hired him to advise his political campaign. In 1993 Raúl Valladares, the director of the radio station HRN hired him as assistant in the breakfast news program Diario Matutino. Months the journalist Juan Carlos Barahona joined the program.

In 2006 Valladares left HRN, Villatoro and Barahona were named news coordinators of the radio station. On May 9, 2012, around 4:40 a.m. while driving to work, Villatoro was intercepted by a car in Colonia Tres Caminos and taken from his vehicle. On the morning of May 15, during a press conference, the President Porfirio Lobo stated that a series of videos were sent to Villatoro's family which prove that "he is alive". Around 8:00 p.m. an anonymous call to the National Police's communication center alerted that a body was found. The body was found clothed in a military uniform, however there was no confirmation, Villatoro's body. At 9:40 p.m. during the live broadcast of Telenoticias, the Security Minister, Pompeyo Bonilla called Renato Alvarez to confirm that Alfredo Villatoro was found dead. The notice was widespread and several TV stations interrupted regular programming; the autopsy confirmed. Several organisations and journalists condemned the murder, the Organization of American States condemned the kidnapping.

In May 25, the Honduran Journalists Day, a massive protest was convened by the Honduran Journalist Association. List of journalists killed in Honduras

Museum of Zakopane Style at Villa Koliba

The Museum of Zakopane Style at Villa Koliba is a division of the Tatra Museum in Zakopane, a museum of Zakopane style. The villa was built between 1892 and 1893 in Zakopane style based on a design by Stanisław Witkiewicz, it was the first building erected in Zakopane style. The Koliba Villa is a registered Polish monument since 1983; the name koliba originates from the same word in Polish Goral regional dialect meaning a shepherds' hut. The villa was built for Zygmunt Gnatowski. Gnatowski needed a building, he aimed to build a simple hut based on existing Podhale architecture, but was convinced by Stanisław Witkiewicz to instead have a house in the newly emerging Zakopane style built instead. Witkiewicz a well-known artist and playwright, was eager to introduce a new local style of architecture to the region when he noticed that wealthy local residents began erecting houses in the Swiss folk style. Witkiewicz was aiming to introduce a national variety of rustic architecture to Poland, based his sketches on local decorative motifs.

Sketches of Koliba Villa were made in 1891 and it was built by local workers in 1892–1893 in Zakopane at Kościeliska street. The Villa Koliba has been functioning as the Museum of Zakopane Style since December 4, 1993– a branch of the Tatra Museum in Zakopane; the five rooms in the original part of the building are arranged in accordance with their original function they performed when Gnatowski owned the building. On the ground floor visitors can see the dining room, drawing room and bedroom, on the top floor – Gnatowski’s room and the servant’s room; the ethnographic collection assembled by Gnatowski can be seen in the "Tatra highlander’s chamber", which presents furniture, objects and artisan objects made in Zakopane style at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century. Many of these objects were made based on Stanisław Witkiewicz's designs