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Pound sterling

Pound sterling, known in some contexts as the pound or sterling, is the official currency of the United Kingdom, Guernsey, the Isle of Man, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, the British Antarctic Territory, Tristan da Cunha. It is subdivided into 100 pence; the Pound sterling is the oldest currency in continuous use. A number of nations that do not use sterling have currencies called the pound. Sterling is the fourth most-traded currency in the foreign exchange market, after the United States dollar, the euro, the Japanese yen. Together with those three currencies and the Chinese yuan, it forms the basket of currencies which calculate the value of IMF special drawing rights; as of 30 September 2019, sterling is the fifth most-held reserve currency in global reserves. The British Crown dependencies of Guernsey and the Isle of Man produce their own local issues of sterling which are considered equivalent to UK sterling in their respective regions; the pound sterling is used in Gibraltar, the Falkland Islands, Saint Helena and Ascension Island in Saint Helena and Tristan da Cunha.

The Bank of England is the central bank for the pound sterling, issuing its own banknotes, regulating issuance of banknotes by private banks in Scotland and Northern Ireland. Sterling banknotes issued by other jurisdictions are not regulated by the Bank of England; the full official name pound sterling, is used in formal contexts and when it is necessary to distinguish the United Kingdom currency from other currencies with the same name. Otherwise the term pound is used; the currency name is sometimes abbreviated to just sterling in the wholesale financial markets, but not when referring to specific amounts. The abbreviations "ster." and "stg." are sometimes used. The term "British pound" is sometimes used in less formal contexts, but it is not an official name of the currency. There is a variety of theories regarding the origin of the term "pound sterling"; the Oxford English Dictionary state that the "most plausible" etymology is derivation from the Old English steorra for "star" with the added diminutive suffix "-ling", to mean "little star" and to refer to a silver penny of the English Normans.

Another argument that the Hanseatic League was the origin for both the origin of its definition and manufacture, in its name is that the German name for the Baltic is "Ostsee", or "East Sea", from this the Baltic merchants were called "Osterlings", or "Easterlings". In 1260, Henry III granted them a charter of protection and land for their Kontor, the Steelyard of London, which by the 1340s was called "Easterlings Hall", or Esterlingeshalle; because the League's money was not debased like that of England, English traders stipulated to be paid in pounds of the "Easterlings", contracted to "'sterling". Encyclopedia Britannica states the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms had silver coins called'sterlings' and that the compound noun'pound sterling' was derived from a pound of these sterlings; the currency sign for the pound is £, written with a single cross-bar. A variation with a double cross-bar has been used intermittently with £ since the earliest banknotes of 1725 when both were used. A simple capital L was used in newspapers and letters.

The symbol derives from medieval Latin documents: the black-letter "L" was the abbreviation for libra, the basic Roman unit of weight, taken as equivalent to a latter-day pound in weight. In the British pre-decimal currency system, the term £sd for pounds and pence referred to the Roman words libra and denarius; the ISO 4217 currency code is GBP, formed from "GB", the ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 code for the United Kingdom, the first letter of "pound". The abbreviation "UKP" is used but this is non-standard because the ISO 3166 country code for the United Kingdom is GB; the Crown dependencies use their own codes: GGP, JEP and IMP. Stock prices are quoted in pence, so traders may refer to pence sterling, GBX, when listing stock prices; the exchange rate of the pound sterling against the US dollar is referred to as "cable" in the wholesale foreign exchange markets. The origins of this term are attributed to the fact that in the 1800s, the GBP/USD exchange rate was transmitted via transatlantic cable. Forex traders of GBP/USD are sometimes referred to as "cable dealers".

GBP/USD is the only currency pair with its own name in the foreign exchange markets. A common slang term for the pound sterling or pound is quid, singular and plural, except in the common phrase "quids in!". The term may have come via Italian immigrants from "scudo", the name for a number of coins used in Italy until the 19th century. Since decimalisation on Decimal Day in 1971, the pound has been divided into 100 pence; the symbol for the penny is "p".

Tsar Tank

The Tsar Tank known as the Netopyr' which stands for Pipistrellus or Lebedenko Tank, was an unusual Russian armoured vehicle developed by Nikolai Lebedenko, Nikolai Zhukovsky, Boris Stechkin, Alexander Mikulin from 1914 onwards. The project was scrapped after initial tests deemed the vehicle to be underpowered and vulnerable to artillery fire; this project has become known among industrial design students as a catastrophic failure of engineering without proper consideration to design. It differed from modern tanks in that it did not use caterpillar tracks—rather, it used a tricycle design; the two front spoked wheels were nearly 9 metres in diameter. The upper cannon turret reached a height of nearly 8 metres; the hull was 12 metres wide with two more cannon in sponsons. Additional weapons were planned under the belly; each wheel was powered by a 250 hp Sunbeam engine. The huge wheels were intended to cross significant obstacles. However, due to miscalculations of the weight, the rear wheel was prone to getting stuck in soft ground and ditches, the front wheels were sometimes insufficient to pull it out.

This led to a fiasco of tests before the high commission in August 1915. The tank remained in the location where it was tested, some 60 kilometres from Moscow until 1923 when it was taken apart for scrap. Lebedenko Tank at the Wayback Machine

Hanlon Longwood, Baltimore

Hanlon Longwood is a neighborhood in the Northwest District of Baltimore, located between the neighborhoods of Garwyn Oaks and Burleigh–Leighton. It is bounded by Garrison Boulevard and the Gwynns Falls Parkway; the neighborhood's north boundary is marked by North Longwood Street, North Hilton Street and Liberty Heights Avenue. Hanlon Park–Longwood is a predominantly black neighborhood, with a population estimated at 2,608 in 2009. At $43,466 in 2009, the neighborhood's median household income was higher than the city median of $38,772. However, the average price of a single family home was $234,837, compared with the citywide average of $274,562. Families living below the poverty line in 2009 comprised 22.3 percent of the population in Hanlon Park–Longwood, compared with the citywide average of 22.9 percent. LocalLink Route 80 provides local bus service along Garrison Boulevard, traveling between and Downtown Baltimore. LocalLink Route 82 provides local bus service along Hilton Street and Gwynns Falls Parkway, traveling between the Reisterstown Plaza Metro station and the Park Circle area..

Hanlon Park dominates the eastern side of the neighborhood. It includes the neighborhood and the named city park, it is named for famous Baltimore Orioles baseball player and owner Ned Hanlon, who led the team in the National League to three championships in 1894, 1895, 1896 for the "Temple Cup" in the pre-World Series era and before the 1901 formation of the American League. He became a civic and political leader in the Baltimore City government, serving as president of the Board of Commissioners of Parks in the 1920s. Lake Ashburton, a 25-acre reservoir inside Hanlon Park, was created in 1910 with the construction of Lake Ashburton Dam along the Gwynns Run stream; the lake is part of an elaborate, expensive and "state-of-the-art" system of reservoirs built during the 1910s under the direction of famed city engineer Abel Wolman, which included larger substantial reservoirs with surrounding forested watershed areas north of the city in the surrounding suburban Baltimore County: Loch Raven and Liberty serving the water filtration system of the Baltimore metropolitan area (including Baltimore City, Baltimore County, northern portions of Anne Arundel County at the Ashburton Filtration Plant and Montebello Filtration Plant and were constructed by the Baltimore City Department of Public Works.

The tested quality of the Baltimore metropolitan water system is unparalleled in the nation and wins annual "taste test" competitions by water quality associations and is comparable to expensive bottled mineral water. List of Baltimore neighborhoods