Guinean franc

The Guinean franc is the currency of Guinea. It is subdivided into one hundred centimes, but no centime denominations were issued; the first Guinean franc was introduced in 1959 to replace the CFA franc. There were 1, 5, 10 and 25 francs coins with banknotes in 50, 100, 500, 1000, 5000 and 10,000 francs denominations. A second series of banknotes dated 1er MARS 1960 was issued on 1 March 1963, without the 10,000 francs; this series was printed without imprint by Thomas De La Rue, includes more colors, enhanced embossing, improved security features. A new issue of coins in 1962 was made of cupronickel. In 1971, the franc was replaced by syli at a rate of 1 syli; the Guinean franc was reintroduced as Guinea's currency at par with the syli. The coins came in denominations of 1, 5 and 10 francs made of brass clad steel, with brass 25 francs and cupronickel 50 francs added later. Banknotes were first issued in denominations of 50, 100, 500, 1000 and 5000 francs. Guinean notes of this series are unique from those of other countries in that the date of issue features prominently as part of the overall design on the lower left hand corner of each note.

A second series issued in 1998 dropped the 25 and 50 francs banknotes, since they had been replaced by coins. In 2006, the third issue were introduced in denomination of 500, 1000 and 5000 francs that are similar to previous issues, but the most notable change was the use of full printing of the notes and enhanced security features on each of the notes. Another change for this issue was the size of the 500 francs. On 11 June 2007, a 10,000 franc was issued. In 2010, a commemorative series of 1000, 5000, 10,000 francs banknotes celebrating the fiftieth anniversary of both the Guinean franc and the Banque Centrale de la République de Guinée was issued featuring a diamond-shaped logo of the event on the front side of each denomination inside of the watermark window to the right. On July 9, 2012, the Central Bank of the Republic of Guinea issued a new 10,000 francs banknote, similar to the original issue, but it has been revised; the banknote's main color was changed from green to red, instead of a diamond-shaped patch placed on the letters "RG", it is now replaced by a holographic patch and the holographic security strip now showing on the reverse side.

On May 11, 2015, the Central Bank of the Republic of Guinea issued a 20,000 franc banknote. On January 21, 2018, the Central Bank of the Republic of Guinea issued a revised banknote of 20,000 francs, with a reduced size and advanced security features. On March 1, 2019, on the 59th anniversary of the introduction of its national currency, the Central Bank of the Republic of Guinea issued a revised banknote for 10,000 francs and issued a new banknote for 2,000 francs; the smallest denomination in circulation is the 500 francs note due to diminished purchasing power. As of 23 October 2018, 1 Euro is equal to 10,417.46 Guinean Francs, which means that the highest valued banknote, of 20,000 Francs, has a value of less than 2 Euros. Economy of GuineaHistorical: CFA franc Guinean syli Banque Populaire Marocaine Guineenne


The heat shock proteins HslV and HslU are expressed in many bacteria such as E. coli in response to cell stress. The hslV protein is a protease and the hslU protein is an ATPase; the hslV protein degrades unneeded or damaged proteins only when in complex with the hslU protein in the ATP-bound state. HslV is thought to resemble the hypothetical ancestor of the proteasome, a large protein complex specialized for regulated degradation of unneeded proteins in eukaryotes, many archaea, a few bacteria. HslV bears high similarity to core subunits of proteasomes. Both proteins are encoded on the same operon within the bacterial genome. Unlike many eukaryotic proteasomes, which have several different peptide substrate specificities, hslV has a specificity similar to that of chymotrypsin. Although the HslVU complex is stable on its own, some evidence suggests that the complex is formed in vivo in a substrate-induced manner due to a conformational change in the hslU-substrate complex that promotes hslV binding.

HslV and hslU genes have been identified in some eukaryotes, although these require the constitutively expressed proteasome for survival. These eukaryotic HslVU complexes assemble to functional units, suggesting that these eukaryotes have both functional proteasomes and functional hslVU systems; the promoter region of the operon encoding HslU and HslV contains a stem-loop structure, necessary for gene expression. This structure contributes to mRNA stability. A four-amino acid sequence motif - GYVG, glycine-tyrosine-valine-glycine - conserved in hslU ATPases and located on the inner surface of the assembled pore accelerates the degradation of some proteins, is required for the degradation of others. However, these motifs are not necessary for the degradation of short peptides and play no direct role in hydrolysis, suggesting that their major role is in unfolding the native state structure of the substrate and transferring the resulting disordered polypeptide chain to the hslV subunits for degradation.

These motifs influence the assembly of the complex. Translocation is facilitated by the C-terminal tails of the HslU subunits, which form a gate closing off the proteolytic active sites in the central pore until a substrate has been bound and unfolded; the basic mechanism by which the hslVU complex undertakes proteolytic substrate degradation is the same as that observed in the eukaryotic proteasome, catalyzed by Nactive-site threonine residues. Both are members of the T1 family, it is inhibited by enzyme inhibitors. Like the proteasome, hslU must bind ATP in a magnesium-dependent manner before substrate binding and unfolding can occur. HslU---HslV+peptidase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings

Thérence Mayimba

Gyll Thérence Mayimba is a Gabonese and French Professional Basketball player who plays for Aix Vennelles basketball club in France. He represents Gabon in international competition. Mayimba moved to the United States in 2011, he played his sophomore and junior seasons at Montrose Christian School in Rockville, Maryland under head coach Stu Vetter and averaged 8.9 points in the latter year. Following Vetter's resignation at Montrose Christian, Mayimba transferred to St. James School in Hagerstown, Maryland to play his final season in 2013. While completing high school, he was approached by several NCAA Division I college basketball programs such as George Washington, Rhode Island, UAB and more. However, he chose to play for George Mason. Mayimba said, "The location is cool, being able to stay in the DMV; the coaching staff showed me that I was important to them, I like the guys on the team. They have the majors that I want; the business department is strong and they have a music major, too." He was a three-star recruit, according to ESPN, the 9th best prospect in the state.

Entering college, Mayimba saw ineligibility issues with the National Collegiate Athletic Association Eligibility Center. He was not allowed to play in his freshman season due to problems with his foreign transcript. Mayimba attended Junior College at Northwest Florida State College in Niceville, Florida where he averaged 8.0 ppg and 3.3 rpg. He helped NWFSC to a 27-6 record, a conference championship, a final four appearance in the NJCAA Tournament. On June 11, 2015, Gabon national basketball team head coach Thierry Bouanga announced that Mayimba would be part of the team's 21-man preliminary squad for the AfroBasket 2015. George Mason bio Thérence Mayimba at RealGM Thérence Mayimba at