click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Guldbagge Awards

The Guldbagge Awards is an official and annual Swedish film awards ceremony honoring achievements in the Swedish film industry. Winners are awarded a statuette depicting a rose chafer Guldbaggen; the awards, first presented in 1964 at the Grand Hôtel in Stockholm, are overseen by the Swedish Film Institute. It is described as the Swedish equivalent of the Academy Awards; the awards ceremony was first televised in 1981 on SVT2, has since been broadcast every year, on SVT1, SVT2 or TV4. The first Guldbagge Awards were presented on September 25, 1964, at a private party at Grand Hôtel in Stockholm. Four "guldbaggar" were awarded, honoring directors, actors and other personalities of the film-making industry of the time for their works during the 1963–64 period; the original categories were: Best Director, Best Actor and Best Actress. The first Best Actor awarded was Keve Hjelm, for his performance in Raven's End; the first Best Actress was awarded for her performance in The Silence. The first Best Director were awarded to Ingmar Bergman, for his work on the film The Silence, which won the first Best Film award.

For a long time, the Guldbagge Awards were an exquisite exclusivity, it was supposed to be so, it took fifteen years before someone managed to win a second time, Keve Hjelm, receiving a special price for his performance in the television series God natt, jord. For the first nineteen ceremonies, the eligibility period spanned two calendar years. For example, the 2nd Guldbagge Awards presented on October 15, 1965, recognized films that were released between July, 1964 and June, 1965. Starting with the 20th Guldbagge Awards, held in 1985, the period of eligibility became the full previous calendar year from January 1 to December 31; the Awards presented at that ceremony were in respect of 18 months of film production owing to the changeover from the broken calendar year to the standard calendar year during 1984. Due to a mediocre film year, no awards ceremony was held in 1971, only the category for Best Film was awarded that year. Since that year, ceremonies were held annually. Before 1991 the awards did not announce nominees, only winners.

From 1991 and forward, SFI introduced the system of three nominations in all price categories. In 2016, the following categories has been expanded to four nominees: Best Director, Best Screenplay, Best Actress, Best Actor, Supporting Actress and Supporting Actor, while the category of Best Film has been expanded to five; the prize itself, a small statue in the shape of a beetle, is made from copper, enamelled and gilded and weighs 1.2 kg. It was designed by the artist Karl Axel Pehrson, who won a design competition, organized on the initiative of SFI's CEO at the time, Harry Schein; the award would be presented to those who had made a strong contribution during the year. Which artists, beside Pehrson, who took part in the competition is still wrapped in mystery. An inscription of the name of the award's winner, the category in question, is glued to the underside of the beetle; the following text is engraved under the abdomens of each beetle: "Guldbaggen: comic, bizarre, outstanding - as the film's contrast-rich world.

Its shimmering flight - operating filmstrip". All beetles are yet different and unique works of art. Guldbagge is the Swedish name for Cetonia aurata, a beetle known as rose chafer. Karl Axel Pehrson gave the following description of why he chose a rose chafer beetle as his inspiration when designing the award: "The rose chafer likes to fly in the summer sunshine, it shimmers much like a film strip. Something about its behaviour and its way of living can be likened to that of film." Which films and who should be nominated for the Guldbagge Awards different categories are determined by a nominating committee. It consists of 45 members who nominate three candidates in each category, except for the Best Foreign Film, Best Short Film and Best Documentary, which has special nominating groups; the Committee members are active in the Swedish film industry and are appointed by their respective organizations or institutions, as determined by the Swedish Film Institute's Board of Directors. The members appointed are assumed to have solid experience in the professional occupation within film or documented experience in assessing cinematic expression.

In appointing the members of the Nominating Committee seeks gender level of ages. Jury members shall observe professional secrecy regarding their participation in the jury. Upon disqualification, the Jury member may be replaced; the Swedish Film Institute's Board of Directors appoints the Chairman, leading the work. The members of the Nominating Committee is obligated to watch all of the Swedish films that premiered at the cinema the previous year; the process repeats. The members of the committee has one vote in each category, in which they indicate their first and third choice, respectively; the votes are distributed after the first choice, where the choice has collected the fewest votes are discarded. These votes are distributed to the remaining candidates, now after their second choice; the process starts over and the votes are counted on again and the candidate with the fewest votes is removed and distributed over their second choice. If the second choice has lost the voters third choice are counted instead.

If this choice has fallen away, the vote is discarded completely. When everything is ready, there remains only three candidates being nominated for the award ceremony. After the nomination process is completed and presented in early January, a winn

Lees Moor Tunnel

Lees Moor Tunnel is an abandoned tunnel on the former Great Northern Railway line between Queensbury and Keighley in West Yorkshire, England. The former dual track tunnel is just north of the village of Cullingworth in West Yorkshire and when built was 1,533 yards long. Due to the pitch black inside and the squealing of the wheels on the 1 in 50 radius curve, drivers nicknamed it the'Hell Hole'. After closure to passengers, the tunnel was used in experiments involving the effects of smoke inhalation and cancer; the line was promoted under the Halifax, Thornton & Keighley Act from 1873. Despite protestations from the Midland and the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railways the Great Northern venture was successful and the line opened to goods traffic on 1 April 1884, with full opening to Keighley on 11 November 1884; the tunnel took six years to cut and line with masonry, with work starting in 1878 at Cullingworth and full opening in 1884. The ground through which the tunnel was bored was solid rock and had a radius of 1 in 50 with a decline of 1 in 78 towards Keighley.

This meant that a train leaving Cullingworth going to Keighley entered the tunnel heading west and when leaving the tunnel at its northern portal it was heading north east. The tunnel so became hazardous for crews on slower trains. Due to greasy rails on the line going up from Ingrow East railway station, a train could take ten minutes to clear Lees Moor Tunnel. Experienced crews told how they used to lie flat on the cab of the steam engine to try and get more air to breathe. In 1887, it was suggested that the northern portal would be useful as the position of a junction for a new railway over the moors to Colne; the projected railway would head westwards past Cross Roads and would use overbridges and viaducts to cross the Worth Valley Railway at a 90 degree angle before going on through Stanbury and Trawden and down into Colne. The Great Northern were favoured for this project as their railway climbed so high out of the Worth Valley as opposed to the Midland line which stayed on the valley floor.

A decapitated and horribly mutilated man's body was found in the tunnel near to the Cross Roads portal in March 1891 by a platelayer. It was estimated that his age was around 37 and that a train had caused his injuries rather than by other means as his body was still warm. On 24 April 1942, a 50 year old platelayer was killed by a train. Thomas B Lambert was with two other men on a maintenance schedule; the entire line from Queensbury to Keighley was closed to passengers in May 1955 with closure to goods traffic in May 1956. After closure, the tunnel at Lees Moor was used by British Rail and staff from St Bartholomew's Hospital in London to test for smoke emissions from both diesel and steam locomotives; the tests were in relation to cancer and the inside of the tunnel and the lack of ventilation shafts helped to keep the smoke lingering for advanced measuring. Two BR Class 20 diesel locomotives and an A3 Pacific, 60081'Shotover' were provided for the testing; the lines around Cullingworth, including those through Lees Moor Tunnel, were used for brake testing on Diesel Multiple Units that were being deployed by British Rail.

This led to speculation that the line was to be re-opened, unfounded. The tracks were removed in 1963. After closure, the eastern portal was bricked up and the northern portal was gated so that the tunnel could be used for caravan and motorhome storage; the roof of the tunnel had to be lined with polythene sheeting as no ventilation shafts were present in the construction resulting in a heavy moisture atmosphere. Northern portal: 53°50′26.9″N 1°55′37.0″W Eastern portal: 53°50′00.3″N 1°54′50.6″W

Preston City Wrestling

Preston City Wrestling is a British owned independent professional wrestling promotion established in 2011. PCW runs the majority of its shows in Preston, in the county of Lancashire in England. Preston City Wrestling was founded in 2011 by Steven Fludder in Lancashire, their first event was held on 26 August 2011 in Preston and they crowned their first PCW champion during the second show on 23 September. Many other notable British talents have wrestled at PCW including Magnus, Drew Galloway and Doug Williams. In 2013, it was announced that former boxing champion Riddick Bowe would sign his first contract with PCW and wrestle his first match in March 2014. However, on 14 December 2013, Preston City Wrestling announced on their Facebook Page that Bowe would no longer be appearing due to a disagreement with Bowe`s new agent. At "Tribute to the Troops" in 2014 2000 people were in attendance for the free show, a record for a wrestling show in the United Kingdom outside of WWE or WCW shows. In June 2014 they announced their partnership with Ring of Honor and presented their first show together called "Supershow of Honor" in November.

In July 2015 it was announced that another four wrestling shows co-promoted by both organizations would occur in November 2015. On 27 November Adam Cole became the first Ring of Honor wrestler to gain a PCW title, winning the PCW Cruiserweight Championship from El Ligero, it was announced on Twitter that Billy Gunn signed with PCW for "Road To Glory 2016" show in February along with Tajiri. On 25 June 2016, PCW hosted the first HD iPPV in European wrestling history. In September 2016, PCW withdrew from its relationship with ROH and announced they were now working with American promotions Beyond Wrestling and Combat Zone Wrestling and German promotion Westside Xtreme Wrestling. 2013: Noam Dar 2014: Chris Masters 2015: Bubblegum 2016: Rampage Brown 2018: Dean Allmark 2019: Joey Hayes The PCW Heavyweight Championship is a professional wrestling championship owned by the Preston City Wrestling promotion. The title was created and debuted on 23 September 2011; the current champion is Joey Hayes, in his second reign.

As of March 2, 2020. The PCW Tag Team Championship is a professional wrestling Championship owned by the Preston City Wrestling promotion; the title was created and debuted on 17 August 2012. The current champions are The Buy Out; as of March 2, 2020. The PCW Cruiserweight Championship is a professional wrestling championship owned by the Preston City Wrestling promotion; the title debuted on 17 August 2012. The current champion is Dave Birch, in his first reign; the PCW Women's Championship is a professional wrestling championship owned by the Preston City Wrestling promotion. The title was first awarded on 26 August 2017 when Lucy Cole defeated Lauren, Rhio, Sammii Jayne, Sierra Loxton in a six-way elimination match at Girl Power 2; the current champion is Lizzy Styles, in her first reign Preston City Wrestling official website

India as a Secular State

India as a Secular State is a book written by Donald Eugene Smith and published by Princeton University Press in 1963. The book was described as a "classic" by the lawyer and historian A. G. Noorani in 2010, as a "seminal work" on Hindu nationalism by the historian Ainslie Embree. Among critical reviewers were Marc Galanter and John T. Flint, to whom Smith published a rejoinder in 1965; the book is divided into seven parts consisting of sixteen chapters in total. In Part 1 of the book, titled The Secular State in Perspective, Smith writes about the concept of the secular state commenting on freedom of religion and separation of state and religion. Smith goes on to trace the secular state in history writing about the Church and state in the Middle Ages, the Reformation, secularism in America and modern Europe, he goes on to comment on the problem of secularism in Asia focusing on the nature of the major religions in Asia like Hinduism and Islam. He comments on the religious minorities, the role played by the colonial powers in the Philippines, Indo-China, Indonesia with respect to religion and secularism, the role of religion in Burmese, Ceylonese and Indian nationalism together with a discussion on the movement for creating Pakistan.

He concludes with a discussion on secularism in Turkey. In Part 2 of the book, titled Basis for the Secular State in India, Smith comments on the relationship between State and religion in ancient and medieval India, during British rule; this part has a discussion on the description of religious freedom, separation of state and religion, citizenship in the Indian Constitution. This part concludes with a commentary on Indian nationalism, the tradition of Hindu tolerance, western secularism. In Part 3 of the book, titled Religious Liberty and State Regulation, Smith comments on the issue of religious propagation giving different views on this issue: the general Hindu attitude, the Hindu universalist view, the Hindu communalist view, the Indian Christian view, the humanist liberal view, he comments on the laws related to State regulation of religious propagation prior to 1950, the provisions for the same in the Indian constitution. He writes about legislation related to religious propagation, the related problems of public order with respect to this issue.

He discusses the issue of foreign missionaries in India from the times of British rule to the 1956 Niyogi Committee findings and recommendations and the ensuing response. Smith comments on the topic of public safety and regulation of religion in which he discusses the issue of suppression of anti-social religious practices by the State,the preservation of public order and restrictions on political involvement, he describes the role of the State in reforming religion, giving the historical perspective and the problems confronting the modern Indian state in this respect. There follows a discussion on the reform of Hindu temples in which Smith discusses the reforms through legislation and judicial verdicts of animal sacrifices and temple prostitution occurring in certain Hindu temples, the right of Harijans to enter temples; the section concludes with a commentary on reforms in Hindu religious endowments through legislation and judicial verdicts, the role played by the central government on these issues, regulation through legislation of the activities of itinerant sadhus.

Bock, Robert L.. "Review of `India as a Secular State'". The Journal of Politics. 26: 465–467. Doi:10.2307/2127622. JSTOR 2127622. Braibanti, Ralph. "Review of `India as a Secular State'". American Sociological Review. 30: 148–149. Doi:10.2307/2091792. JSTOR 2091792. Duncan, J.. "Review of `India as a Secular State'". International and Comparative Law Quarterly. 13: 371–374. Doi:10.1093/iclqaj/13.1.371. Metcalf, Thomas R.. "Review of `India as a Secular State'". The Journal of Modern History. 35: 458–459. Doi:10.1086/243914. JSTOR 1899135. Morris-Jones, W. H.. "Review of `India as a Secular State'". Pacific Affairs. 37: 327–330. Doi:10.2307/2754990. JSTOR 2754990. Nambath, Suresh. "Democracy and secularism go hand-in-hand: Donald Smith". The Hindu. Retrieved 8 July 2015. Roucek, Joseph S.. "Review of `India as a Secular State'". Social Science. 39: 253–254. JSTOR 41885058. Sathyamurthy, T. V.. "Review of `India as a Secular State'". The Journal of Asian Studies. 23: 320–321. Doi:10.2307/2050167. JSTOR 2050167. Smith, R. Morton. "Review of `India as a Secular State'".

The Canadian Journal of Economics and Political Science. 30: 140–141. Doi:10.2307/139182. JSTOR 139182. Smith, Wilfred Cantwell. "Review of `India as a Secular State'". International Journal. 19: 105–106. Doi:10.2307/40198714. JSTOR 40198714. Tinker, Hugh. "Review of `India as a Secular State'". Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies. 27: 466–468. Doi:10.1017/s0041977x00096099. JSTOR 611947

Legal English

Legal English is the type of English as used in legal writing. In general, a legal language is a formalized language based on logic rules which differs from the ordinary natural language in vocabulary, morphology and semantics, as well as other linguistic features, aimed to achieve consistency, validity and soundness, while keeping the benefits of a human-like language such as intuitive execution, complete meaning and open upgrade. However, Legal English has been referred to as a "sublanguage", as legal English differs from ordinary English. A specialized use of certain terms and linguistic patterns governs the teaching of legal language. Thus, "we study legal language as a kind of second language, a specialized use of vocabulary and syntax that helps us to communicate more with each other"; the term legalese, on the other hand, is a term associated with a traditional style of legal writing, part of this specialized discourse of lawyers: communication that "lay readers cannot comprehend". This term describes legal writing which may be cluttered, wordy and may include unnecessary technical words or phrases.

Legalese is language a lawyer might use in drafting a contract or a pleading but would not use in ordinary conversation. For this reason, the traditional style of legal writing has been labeled reader-unfriendly. Proponents of plain language argue that legal "writing style should not vary from task to task or audience to audience.... These 4 Cs describe "characteristics of good legal writing style" in the United States. There are different kinds of legal writing: for example, academic legal writing as in law journals, juridical legal writing as in court judgments, legislative legal writing as in laws, regulations and treaties. Another variety is the language used by lawyers to communicate with clients requiring a more "reader-friendly" style of written communication than that used with law professionals. For lawyers operating internationally, communicating with clients and other professionals across cultures requires a need for transnational legal awareness and transcultural linguistic awareness.

Whatever the form of legal writing, legal skills and language skills form a vital part of higher education and professional training. Legal English has particular relevance when applied to legal writing and the drafting of written material, including: legal documents: contracts, etc. court pleadings: summonses, judgments, etc. laws: Acts of Parliament and subordinate legislation, case reports legal correspondenceLegal English has traditionally been the preserve of lawyers from English-speaking countries which have shared common law traditions. However, due to the spread of Legal English as the predominant language of international business, as well as its role as a legal language within the European Union, Legal English is now a global phenomenon, it may informally be referred to as lawspeak. In prehistoric Britain, traditional common law was discussed in the vernacular; the legal language and legal tradition changed with waves of conquerors over the following centuries. Roman Britain followed Roman legal tradition, its legal language was Latin.

Following the Roman departure from Britain circa 410 and the Anglo-Saxon invasion of Britain, the dominant tradition was instead Anglo-Saxon law, discussed in the Germanic vernacular, written in Old English since circa 600, beginning with the Law of Æthelberht. Following the Norman invasion of England in 1066, Anglo-Norman French became the official language of legal proceedings in England for a period of nearly 300 years until the Pleading in English Act 1362, while Medieval Latin was used for written records for over 650 years; some English technical terms were retained, however. In legal pleadings, Anglo-Norman developed into Law French, from which many words in modern legal English are derived; these include property, chattel, lease and tenant. The use of Law French during this period had an enduring influence on the general linguistic register of modern legal English; that use accounts for some of the complex linguistic structures used in legal writing. In 1362, the Statute of Pleading was enacted, which stated that all legal proceedings should be conducted in English.

This marked the beginning of formal Legal English. From 1066, Latin was the language of formal records and statutes, was replaced by English in the Proceedings in Courts of Justice Act 1730. However, because only learned persons were fluent in Latin, it never became the language of legal pleading or debate; the influence of Latin can be seen in a number of words and phrases such as ad hoc, de facto, bona fide, inter alia, ultra vires, which remain in current use in legal writing. In 2004, David Crystal proposed a stylistic influence upon English legal language. During the Medieval period, lawyers used a mixture of Latin and English. To avoid ambiguity, lawyers offered pairs of words from different languages. Sometimes there was little ambiguity to resolve and the pairs gave greater emphasis, becoming a stylistic habit; this is a feature of legal style. Examples of mixed language doublets are: "breaking and entering", "fit and proper" (E

Crovan dynasty

The Crovan dynasty, from the late 11th century to the mid 13th century, was the ruling family of an insular kingdom known variously in secondary sources as the Kingdom of Mann, the Kingdom of the Isles, the Kingdom of Mann and the Isles. The eponymous founder of the dynasty was Godred Crovan, who appeared from obscurity in the late 11th century, before his takeover of the Isle of Man and Dublin; the dynasty was of Gaelic-Scandinavian origin descending from a branch of the Uí Ímair, a dominant kindred in the Irish Sea region which first appears on record in the late 9th century. Leading members of the Crovan dynasty formed marriage-alliances with the Irish and Norwegian Kings, as well as Hebridean and Anglo-Norman lords, Welsh Princes as well. Surrounded by sometimes threatening English and Scottish monarchs, various warlords from the western seaboard of Scotland, the leading members of the dynasty at times tactfully recognised the overlordship of certain kings of Norway and England, the Papacy.

The military might of the dynasty were their fleets of galleys, their forces battled in Ireland, the Hebrides and the Isle of Man. The importance of the galley to the sea-Kings of the Crovan dynasty is illustrated in its implementation upon seals that certain members are known to have used. Alex Woolf believes the Clann Somhairle can be regarded as a female line cadet branch of the Crovan dynasty. After Somerled's coup, the Crovan dynasty were temporarily deposed from all except the Isle of Man, Dublin. On Somerled's death, they were allowed to inherit part of the realm: Lewis and Skye. Godred Crovan, died 1095 Logmann, d. 1103, son of Godfred Olaf, d. 1153, son of Godfred Godred, d. 1187, son of Olaf, who lost most of the Kingdom to Somerled's family Reginald, fl. 1164, son of Olaf, half-brother of Godred, he and successors ruled only in Northern Isles Godred, restored Reginald, d. 1229, son of Godred Olaf the Black, s. 1237, son of Godred, half-brother of Reginald Godred, d. 1231, son of Reginald Harald, d.

1248, son of Olaf Reginald, d. 1249, son of Olaf Harald, fl. 1249, son of Godred Magnus, died 1265, son of OlafIn Magnus' lifetime, Ewan MacDougall, a descendant of Somerled, was appointed king of the Hebrides by Haakon, the Norwegian king. Magnus remained titular king of Man. In the year after Magnus died, in 1266, the Treaty of Perth was signed, transferring overlordship of the Isles and Man to the Scottish king. Bibliography