Sven Erik Alf Sjöberg was a Swedish theatre and film director. He won the Grand Prix du Festival at the Cannes Film Festival twice: in 1946 for Torment, in 1951 for his film Miss Julie. Despite his success with films Torment and Miss Julie, Sjöberg was foremost a stage director, he was a First Director of Sweden's Royal Dramatic Theatre in the years 1930–1980, where he staged a large number of remarkable and historic productions. Sjöberg was a pioneer director of drama for early Swedish TV. At the 3rd Guldbagge Awards Sjöberg won the award for Best Director for the film Ön. Sjöberg died in a car accident on his way to rehearsal at the Royal Dramatic Theatre in Stockholm. Ingmar's Inheritance Ådalens poesi Resan Bort Den starkaste They Staked Their Lives Den blomstertid Hem från Babylon The Heavenly Play Kungajakt Torment From a synopsis by Ingmar Bergman, who served as assistant director. Nominated for the Golden Lion at the Venice Film Festival in 1947. Shared the Grand Prix du Festival International du Film at the 1946 Cannes Film Festival Resan bort Iris and the Lieutenant Only a Mother Miss Julie Shared the Grand Prix du Festival International du Film at the 1951 Cannes Film Festival Barabbas Karin Månsdotter Wild Birds Last Pair Out The Judge Ön The Father ) They Staked Their Lives Den blomstertid Hem från Babylon Only a Mother The Heavenly Play Resan bort Miss Julie Karin Månsdotter Wild Birds The Judge Ön Alf Sjöberg on IMDb Alf Sjöberg at the Swedish Film Database
Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous urban area in the Nordic countries. The city stretches across fourteen islands. Just outside the city and along the coast is the island chain of the Stockholm archipelago; the area has been settled since the Stone Age, in the 6th millennium BC, was founded as a city in 1252 by Swedish statesman Birger Jarl. It is the capital of Stockholm County. Stockholm is the cultural, media and economic centre of Sweden; the Stockholm region alone accounts for over a third of the country's GDP, is among the top 10 regions in Europe by GDP per capita. It is an important global city, the main centre for corporate headquarters in the Nordic region; the city is home to some of Europe's top ranking universities, such as the Stockholm School of Economics, Karolinska Institute and Royal Institute of Technology. It hosts the annual Nobel Prize ceremonies and banquet at the Stockholm Concert Hall and Stockholm City Hall. One of the city's most prized museums, the Vasa Museum, is the most visited non-art museum in Scandinavia.
The Stockholm metro, opened in 1950, is well known for the decor of its stations. Sweden's national football arena is located north of the city centre, in Solna. Ericsson Globe, the national indoor arena, is in the southern part of the city; the city was the host of the 1912 Summer Olympics, hosted the equestrian portion of the 1956 Summer Olympics otherwise held in Melbourne, Australia. Stockholm is the seat of the Swedish government and most of its agencies, including the highest courts in the judiciary, the official residencies of the Swedish monarch and the Prime Minister; the government has its seat in the Rosenbad building, the Riksdag is seated in the Parliament House, the Prime Minister's residence is adjacent at Sager House. Stockholm Palace is the official residence and principal workplace of the Swedish monarch, while Drottningholm Palace, a World Heritage Site on the outskirts of Stockholm, serves as the Royal Family's private residence. After the Ice Age, around 8,000 BC, there were many people living in what is today the Stockholm area, but as temperatures dropped, inhabitants moved south.
Thousands of years as the ground thawed, the climate became tolerable and the lands became fertile, people began to migrate back to the North. At the intersection of the Baltic Sea and lake Mälaren is an archipelago site where the Old Town of Stockholm was first built from about 1000 CE by Vikings, they had a positive trade impact on the area because of the trade routes they created. Stockholm's location appears in Norse sagas as Agnafit, in Heimskringla in connection with the legendary king Agne; the earliest written mention of the name Stockholm dates from 1252, by which time the mines in Bergslagen made it an important site in the iron trade. The first part of the name means log in Swedish, although it may be connected to an old German word meaning fortification; the second part of the name means islet, is thought to refer to the islet Helgeandsholmen in central Stockholm. According to Eric Chronicles the city is said to have been founded by Birger Jarl to protect Sweden from sea invasions made by Karelians after the pillage of Sigtuna on Lake Mälaren in the summer of 1187.
Stockholm's core, the present Old Town was built on the central island next to Helgeandsholmen from the mid-13th century onward. The city rose to prominence as a result of the Baltic trade of the Hanseatic League. Stockholm developed strong economic and cultural linkages with Lübeck, Gdańsk, Visby and Riga during this time. Between 1296 and 1478 Stockholm's City Council was made up of 24 members, half of whom were selected from the town's German-speaking burghers; the strategic and economic importance of the city made Stockholm an important factor in relations between the Danish Kings of the Kalmar Union and the national independence movement in the 15th century. The Danish King Christian II was able to enter the city in 1520. On 8 November 1520 a massacre of opposition figures called the Stockholm Bloodbath took place and set off further uprisings that led to the breakup of the Kalmar Union. With the accession of Gustav Vasa in 1523 and the establishment of a royal power, the population of Stockholm began to grow, reaching 10,000 by 1600.
The 17th century saw Sweden grow into a major European power, reflected in the development of the city of Stockholm. From 1610 to 1680 the population multiplied sixfold. In 1634, Stockholm became the official capital of the Swedish empire. Trading rules were created that gave Stockholm an essential monopoly over trade between foreign merchants and other Swedish and Scandinavian territories. In 1697, Tre Kronor was replaced by Stockholm Palace. In 1710, a plague killed about 20,000 of the population. After the end of the Great Northern War the city stagnated. Population growth halted and economic growth slowed; the city was in shock after having lost its place as the capital of a Great power. However, Stockholm maintained its role as the political centre of Sweden and continued to develop culturally under Gustav III. By the second half of the 19th century, Stockholm had regained its leading economic role. New industries emerged and Stockholm was transformed into an important trade and service centre as well as a key gateway point within Sweden.
The population grew during this time through immigration. At the end
The Magician (1958 film)
Ansiktet is a 1958 Swedish film written and directed by Ingmar Bergman. The original United Kingdom title was The Face; the film stars Max von Sydow as a traveling magician named Albert Vogler. Reading reports of a variety of supernatural disturbances at Vogler's prior performances abroad, the leading townspeople request that Vogler's troupe provide them with a performance of their act, before allowing them before public audiences; the scientifically minded disbelievers try to expose them as charlatans, but Vogler has a few tricks up his sleeve. The film was distantly inspired by G. K. Chesterton's play Magic, which Bergman numbered among his favourites. Bergman staged a theatre production of "Magic" in Swedish at one point; the film was selected as the Swedish entry for the Best Foreign Language Film at the 31st Academy Awards, but was not accepted as a nominee. Max von Sydow – Albert Emanuel Vogler Ingrid Thulin – Manda Vogler Gunnar Björnstrand – Dr. Vergerus, Minister of Health Naima Wifstrand – Granny Vogler Bengt Ekerot – Johan Spegel Bibi Andersson – Sara Birgitta Pettersson - Sanna Gertrud Fridh – Ottilia Egerman Lars Ekborg – Simson, the coach driver Toivo Pawlo – Police Superintendent Starbeck Erland Josephson – Consul Egerman Åke Fridell – Tubal Sif Ruud – Sofia Garp Oscar Ljung – Antonsson, burly stableman Ulla Sjöblom – Henrietta Starbeck Axel Düberg – Rustan, young manservant The Magician has a unanimous approval rating on Rotten Tomatoes.
Don Druker of the Chicago Reader called it "one of Bergman's most structured and frightening films." Author and film critic Leonard Maltin awarded the film three out of four stars, calling it "A thoughtful portrait of a man, part-faker, part-genius."Woody Allen, shortly after Bergman died in 2007, included The Magician as one of the five films by the Swedish director that he would most recommend to individuals unfamiliar with the filmmaker. List of submissions to the 31st Academy Awards for Best Foreign Language Film List of Swedish submissions for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film The Magician on IMDb The Magician at AllMovie The Magician at the Swedish Film Institute Database The Magician at Rotten Tomatoes Four Screenplays of Ingmar Bergman The Magician: Through a Glass Drolly an essay by Geoff Andrew at the Criterion Collection
Cries and Whispers
Cries and Whispers is a 1972 Swedish period drama film written and directed by Ingmar Bergman and starring Harriet Andersson, Kari Sylwan, Ingrid Thulin and Liv Ullmann. The film, set in a mansion at the end of the 19th century, is about three sisters and a servant who struggle with the terminal cancer of one of the sisters; the servant is close to her, while the other two sisters confront their emotional distance from each other. Inspired by Bergman's mother, Karin Åkerblom, his vision of four women in a red room and Whispers was filmed at Taxinge-Näsby Castle in 1971, its themes include faith, the female psyche and the search for meaning in suffering, academics have found Biblical allusions. Unlike previous Bergman films, it uses saturated colour, crimson in particular. After its premiere in the United States, distributed by Roger Corman and New World Pictures, the film was released in Sweden and screened out of competition at the 1973 Cannes Film Festival. Following two unsuccessful films by Bergman and Whispers was a critical and commercial success.
It received five Academy Award nominations, including one for Best Picture. Cinematographer Sven Nykvist won the Academy Award for Best Cinematography, Cries and Whispers won the Guldbagge Award for Best Film and other honours; the film inspired stage adaptations by Ivo van Hove and Andrei Șerban and influenced cinema. It was commemorated on Swedish postage stamps referring to a scene in which Andersson and Sylwan replicate the Pietà. In a large 19th-century mansion with red walls and carpets, Agnes is dying of uterine cancer, her sisters and Karin, arrive at their childhood home and take turns with the maid, watching over Agnes. Anna, more religious than the sisters, prays. While Agnes' sisters remain distant, Anna comforts the suffering Agnes by baring her breasts and holding her at night; when Agnes' doctor David visits, he sees his former lover Maria. Maria remembers their affair and her failed marriage with her husband Joakim, who stabbed himself non-fatally in response to the adultery. David tells her.
Agnes remembers their mother, who neglected and teased her and favoured Maria, with greater understanding and recalls sharing a moment of sorrow with her. Agnes dies after a long period of suffering, at her wake the priest says that her faith was stronger than his own. Maria tells Karin that it is unusual for them to avoid touching each other or having a deep conversation, she tries to touch Karin. Karin recalls an earlier occasion at the mansion, struggling with self-harm, she mutilated her genitals with a piece of broken glass to repel her husband Fredrik. Karin dines with Maria, saying that Anna was devoted to Agnes and deserves a memento, she reveals her resentment of Anna's familiarity with her and Maria, her suicidal tendencies, her hatred of Maria's flirtatiousness and shallow smiles. The sisters reconcile after the argument. In what may be a dream, Agnes returns to life and asks Karin and Maria to approach her. Karin, repelled by the invitation, says that she still has life and does not love Agnes enough to join her.
Maria approaches the undead Agnes but flees in terror when she grabs her, saying that she cannot leave her husband and children. Anna takes Agnes back to bed, where she cradles the dead Agnes in her arms; the family decides to send Anna away at the end of the month, with Fredrik refusing to award her with any additional severance pay, the maid rejects her promised memento. Maria returns to Joakim, Karin cannot believe Maria's claim that she does not remember their touch. Anna finds Agnes' diary with an account of a visit with Maria and Anna, with a shared, nostalgic moment on a swing. Agnes wrote that whatever else happens, this is true happiness. According to Bergman, he conceived the story during a lonely, unhappy time on Fårö when he wrote constantly, he described a recurring dream of four women in white clothing in a red room, whispering to each other. He said that this symbolised his childhood view of the soul as a faceless person, black on the outside, representing shame, red on the inside.
The persistence of the vision indicated to Bergman that it could be a film, he said, he planned a "portrait of my mother... the great beloved of my childhood". Karin has the same name as Bergman's mother, but all four female protagonists are intended to represent aspects of her personality. A childhood memory of the Sophiahemmet mortuary influenced the director: The young girl who had just been treated lay on a wooden table in the middle of the floor. I exposed her, she was quite naked apart from a plaster. I touched her shoulder. I had heard about the chill of death. I moved my hand to her breast, small and slack with an erect black nipple. There was dark down on her abdomen, she was breathing. Since Bergman's films were difficult to market, foreign capital was unavailable to finance the film, he decided to shoot Cries and Whispers in Swedish rather than English and finance it through his production company, Cinematograph. Although he used 750,000 SEK of his savings and borrowed 200,000 SEK, he asked the Swedish Film Institute for help with the film's 1.5-million SEK budget.
This attracted some criticism, since Bergman was not an up-and-coming director in the greatest need of subsidy. To save money, the main actresses and Nykvist returned
Göran Gentele was a Swedish actor and opera manager. He was the general manager of the Metropolitan Opera in New York City in 1972. Born in Stockholm, Gentele studied from 1944 until 1946 at the Dramatens elevskola, beginning a brief career as a film actor not long afterwards, he soon turned to directing, working for a time at the Royal Dramatic Theatre and at the Royal Swedish Opera, where his more notable productions included Gian Carlo Menotti's The Consul and Karl-Birger Blomdahl's Aniara. He became director of the company in 1963, he directed films during the same period, making at least 15 feature films and television movies. His 1951 film Leva på'Hoppet' was awarded the Silver Bear for comedy at the Berlin International Film Festival, he succeeded Sir Rudolf Bing as director of the Metropolitan Opera in New York City in 1972. Soon after assuming the post, on 18 July 1972, Gentele died in an automobile accident while on vacation in Sardinia. A third daughter was injured, as was Marit. Schuyler Chapin, Gentele's assistant, was named acting director at once.
Despite the fact that he had been in office only a few weeks at his death, several of Gentele's plans for the company were implemented under Chapin. The most notable of these was a new production of Georges Bizet's Carmen designed for Marilyn Horne. Gentele was the second general director of the Metropolitan, behind Herbert Witherspoon, to die before the opening night of his first season with the company. Gentele won the Silver Bear award at the 1st Berlin International Film Festival for his film Leva på'Hoppet'. Göran Gentele on IMDb Göran Gentele at the Swedish Film Database
Hour of the Wolf
Hour of the Wolf is a 1968 Swedish psychological horror film directed by Ingmar Bergman and starring Max von Sydow and Liv Ullmann. The story explores the disappearance of fictional painter Johan Borg, who lived on an island with his wife Alma while plagued with frightening visions and insomnia. Bergman conceived much of the story as part of an unproduced screenplay, The Cannibals, which he abandoned to make the 1966 film Persona, he took inspiration from Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart's opera The Magic Flute and E. T. A. Hoffmann's novella The Golden Pot, as well as some of his own nightmares. Principal photography took place at Hovs Hallar, Stockholm and Fårö. Themes include insanity as experienced by an artist and relationships, conveyed in a surreal style and with elements of folklore. Analysts have found allusions to werewolf legend. Authors have connected the work to Bergman's life and his relationship with Ullmann; the film was met with negative reviews in Sweden. In years Hour of the Wolf received positive reviews and was ranked one of the 50 greatest films made in a 2012 directors' poll by the British Film Institute.
The film was followed by The Passion of Anna. Ullmann won awards in 1968 for her performances in both Hour of the Shame. Painter Johan Borg and his pregnant young wife Alma live on the small island of Baltrum, he shares sketches with Alma of frightening visions he has had, begins to give them names, including the Birdman, the Insects, the Meat-Eaters, the Schoolmaster and the Lady With a Hat. As his insomnia grows worse, Alma stays awake by his side. One day, an elderly lady stops by the house and tells Alma to read Johan's diary, which he hides under his bed. Alma discovers that Johan is haunted not only by the real or imaginary strangers, but by images of his former lover, Veronica Vogler, she reads that Johan was approached by Baron von Merkens, who lives in a nearby castle. The painter and his wife visit their household. After dinner, the baron's wife shows the couple into her bedroom, where she has a portrait of Veronica by Johan. After they leave the castle, Alma expresses to Johan her fears of losing him to the demons, as well as her will to persevere if such were to happen.
One night, Alma again stays awake with Johan. He tells her of the "vargtimmen", during which, he says, most deaths occur, he recounts his childhood trauma of being locked into a closet where, as his parents said, a small person lived. He recalls a confrontation with a small boy while out fishing on the island, which culminated with him killing the boy. Alma is shocked by Johan's confessions. Heerbrand, one of von Merkens's guests, shows up at the couple's house to invite them to another party at the castle, adding that Veronica Vogler is among the invitees, he places a pistol on the table, for protection against "small animals", leaves. Johan and Alma begin quarreling over his obsession with Veronica. Johan picks up the pistol, shoots Alma and runs to the castle. Johan attends the party; the baron's guests are revealed to be the demons. As he rushes through the castle searching for Veronica, he meets Lindhorst, who applies cosmetics to his pale face and dresses him in a silk robe, he leads Johan to her.
Johan finds Veronica. Johan is physically attacked by the flees into underbrush. Alma, injured by one of the shots but is only left with a scar, searches the forest for her husband, she witnesses the attacks on him before he disappears, leaving her alone in the woods. Alma shares her story and her husband's diary, she wonders whether the fact that she and Johan lived together for so long and became so similar was why she could see his Man-Eaters, whether she would have been better able to protect him if she had loved him less, or more. The cast includes: Inspirations for the story included Bergman's recurring nightmares, featuring a woman who took off her own face and an entity that walked on ceilings. Johan's description of being locked in a closet as a boy was based on Bergman's childhood. An external influence was Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart's The Magic Flute, with the opera's character Papageno transformed into an evil Birdman. Bergman's interpretation of The Magic Flute is echoed through his character Lindhorst.
Bergman credited German author E. T. A. Hoffmann as an additional major influence. Elements of the story originated from Bergman's manuscript The Cannibals or The Maneaters, which he finished in 1964 and planned to shoot on Hallands Väderö. Bergman abandoned The Cannibals due to pneumonia, after which he directed Persona instead. Following Persona, he decided to make a reworked version of The Cannibals, under the new title Hour of the Wolf; the term was defined by Bergman in an explanatory note in his screenplay: The hour between night and dawn... when most people die, sleep is deepest, nightmares are most real. It is the hour when the sleepless are haunted by their worst anguish, when ghosts and demons are most powerful; the hour of the wolf is the hour when most babies are born. According to Professor Birgitta Steene, the title is drawn from Swedish folklore, where the "hour of the wolf" refers to the period from 3 a.m. to 5 a.m. when the most deaths and births occur. Folklorist Bengt af Klintberg recalled that in 1964, Bergman tasked theatre manager Niklas Brunius to research legend about the hour, Brunius asked K
Harry Leo Schein was an Austrian-born Swedish chemical engineer, writer and a major figure in Swedish culture. Born in Vienna, Schein was a founder of the Swedish Film Institute and acted as its first Managing Director from 1963 to 1978, he is best known for his role in pushing through the film reform of 1963, which ensured that 10 percent of the money from cinema ticket sales was handed to a central film organization. This system guaranteed continuous production of Swedish films for several decades. After the film reform, there was a golden age for Swedish film with Ingmar Bergman, Bo Widerberg and Jan Troell as leading names. Schein was engaged in public debates and demonstrated a distinctive understanding of the use of media. Schein was a columnist in Dagens Nyheter for more than 20 years, wrote several books on current issues, he published several autobiographical books, including Schein and Sluten. At the 7th Guldbagge Awards he won a Special Achievement award. Schein was married to the Swedish actress Ingrid Thulin from 1956 to 1989 and was a close friend of Olof Palme.
He died in 2006 in Danderyd. Lars Ilshammar, Pelle Snickars and Per Vesterlund: Citizen Schein, 2010; the Swedish Film Database The Ingmar Bergman Foundation Harry Schein on IMDb