Gulf Cooperation Council

The Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf known as the Gulf Cooperation Council, is a regional intergovernmental political and economic union consisting of all Arab states of the Persian Gulf except Iraq, namely: Bahrain, Oman, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates. The Charter of the GCC was signed on 25 May 1981. All current member states are monarchies, including three constitutional monarchies, two absolute monarchies, one federal monarchy. There have been discussions regarding the future membership of Jordan and Yemen. A proposal in 2011 to transform the GCC into a "Gulf Union" with tighter economic and military coordination has been advanced by Saudi Arabia, a move meant to counterbalance the Iranian influence in the region. Objections have been raised against the proposal by other countries. In 2014, Bahrain prime minister Khalifa bin Salman Al Khalifa said that current events in the region highlighted the importance of the proposal; the Peninsula Shield Force is the military arm of the GCC formed in 1984.

In order to reduce their future dependence on oil, the GCC states are pursuing unprecedented economic structural reform. The original 2,673,110-square-kilometre union comprised Bahrain, Oman, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates; the unified economic agreement between the countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council was signed on 11 November 1981 in Abu Dhabi, UAE. These countries are referred to as "the GCC states" or "Gulf countries". In 2001, the GCC Supreme Council set the following goals: Customs union in January 2003 Common market by 2007 Common currency by 2010Oman announced in December 2006 that it would not be able to meet the 2010 target date for a common currency. Following the announcement that the central bank for the monetary union would be located in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, not in the UAE, the UAE announced their withdrawal from the monetary union project in May 2009; the name Khaleeji has been proposed as a name for this currency. If realised, the GCC monetary union would be the second-largest supranational monetary union in the world, measured by the GDP of the common-currency area.

Other stated objectives include: Formulating similar regulations in various fields such as religion, trade, tourism and administration. Fostering scientific and technical progress in industry, agriculture and animal resources. Establishing scientific research centers. Setting up joint ventures. Unified military Encouraging cooperation of the private sector. Strengthening ties between their people; this area has some of the fastest-growing economies in the world due to a boom in oil and natural gas revenues coupled with a building and investment boom backed by decades of saved petroleum revenues. In an effort to build a tax base and economic foundation before the reserves run out, the UAE's investment arms, including Abu Dhabi Investment Authority, retain over US$900 billion in assets. Other regional funds have several hundreds of billions of dollars of assets under management; the region is an emerging hotspot for events, including the 2006 Asian Games in Qatar. Doha submitted an unsuccessful application for the 2016 Summer Olympics.

Qatar was chosen to host the 2022 FIFA World Cup, but Qatar might lose the right to host the game. Recovery plans have been criticized for crowding out the private sector, failing to set clear priorities for growth, failing to restore weak consumer and investor confidence, undermining long-term stability; the logo of the GCC consists of two concentric circles. On the upper part of the larger circle, the Bismillah phrase is written in Arabic, which means "In the name of God", on the lower part the Council's full name, in Arabic; the inner circle contains an embossed hexagonal shape that represents the Council's six member countries. The inside of the hexagon is filled by a map encompassing the Arabian Peninsula, on which the areas of the member countries are borderless and colored in brown. On the edge of the hexagon are colors representing the flags of the six member countries. A common market was launched on 1 January 2008 with plans to realise a integrated single market, it eased the movement of services.

However, implementation lagged behind after the 2009 financial crisis. The creation of a customs union began in 2003 and was completed and operational on 1 January 2015. In January 2015, the common market was further integrated, allowing full equality among GCC citizens to work in the government and private sectors, social insurance and retirement coverage, real estate ownership, capital movement, access to education and other social services in all member states. However, some barriers remained in the free movement of services; the coordination of taxation systems, accounting standards and civil legislation is in progress. The interoperability of professional qualifications, insurance certificates and identity documents is underway. In 2014, Kuwait and Saudi Arabia took major steps to ensure the creation of a single currency. Kuwait's finance minister said the four members are pushing ahead with the monetary union but said some "technical points" need to be cleared, he added, "A common market and common central bank would position the GCC as one entity that would have great influence on the international financial system".

The implementa

Mina Mangal

Mina Mangal was a prominent Afghan journalist, political advisor, women's rights activist. Mangal was born the eldest of six siblings in Afghanistan. Before her journalistic career, she trained as a midwife and studied law, becoming interested in poetry and writing, she studied journalism at the Mashal University in Afghanistan. Mangal worked a number of jobs to financially support her siblings' educations. Mangal gained popularity hosting the television channels Tolo TV, Shamshad TV, Lemar TV, the Ariana Television Network, she became known as a feminist and an advocate for women's rights in Afghanistan with regard to education and employment. Her arranged husband and his family saw Mangal's work and outspokenness on women's issues as a threat to their honour, she had to leave her first job after he became violent towards her. A spokesperson for the Attorney General's Office told the BBC that the family had filed a complaint alleging domestic violence at the time; the couple were married for 10 years, but formally divorced following a lengthy appeal to the Human Rights Commission on the basis that Manga's life was in danger in his company.

However, the former husband and his family continued urging them to remarry. Mangal's family allege the husband drugged Mangal and forcibly took her to Paktiya Province, where they tortured and beat her. Mangal's father says they secured her release "with the help of some government officials and tribal elders". Prior to her death, she was a cultural commissioner to the House of the People, the lower house of the National Assembly. According to a spokesperson of the Interior Ministry, Mangal was shot dead in broad daylight on the morning of 11 May 2019, in southeast Kabul; the spokesperson said. It is unknown whether the murder was a terrorist honour killing; the former husband was a police suspect after the crime. She was 26 years old. In the days preceding the shooting, Mangal had detailed a number of threats made to her on Facebook. However, the police and authorities did not offer her protection; the circumstances of her death were criticised by Afghan women's rights activists such as Wazhma Frogh, who said "This woman had shared that her life was in danger.

Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau called the killing an "unacceptable tragedy", the US Embassy in Kabul offered their condolences. Her death was described by women's rights activists and parliamentary colleagues as part of a series of daylight killings of women in public life in Afghanistan, with many of Mangal's former colleagues calling for greater protection for women journalists. According to the Committee to Protect Journalists, 13 women journalists were killed in 2018 in Afghanistan, the most recorded in a single year. According to The Coalition For Women In Journalism Mina was one of five women journalists killed so far in 2019. List of journalists killed during the War in Afghanistan

Royal Netherlands Institute in Rome

The Royal Netherlands Institute in Rome, founded in 1904 as Nederlands Historisch Instituut te Rome, is a Dutch centre for studies in the Humanities based in Rome. It was awarded the title "Royal" by Queen Beatrix in 2004; the Institute was one of several Roman Historical Institutes set up to identify and publish Roman archival documents of national interest, with Gisbert Brom as its first director. Its remit has since been extended to include the study of archaeology, art history, literature and geography. In 1921 the Institute launched a journal, Mededelingen van het Nederlands Historisch Instituut te Rome, with contributions summarised or published in full in English and Italian. From 2007 to 2013 the journal was published under the English title Journal of the Royal Netherlands Institute in Rome, is titled Papers of the Royal Netherlands Institute in Rome. Official website