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Gulf of Oman

The Gulf of Oman or Sea of Oman is a gulf that connects the Arabian Sea with the Strait of Hormuz, which runs to the Persian Gulf. It borders Iran and Pakistan on the north, Oman on the south, the United Arab Emirates on the west; the International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Gulf of Oman as follows: On the Northwest: A line joining Ràs Limah on the coast of Arabia and Ràs al Kuh on the coast of Iran On the Southeast: The Northern limit of the Arabian Sea. Gulf of Oman and geographically has been referred to with different names by Arabian, Indian and European geographers and travelers, including Makran Sea and Akhzar Sea. Makran Sea Akhzar Sea Persian Sea Until 18th Century it was known as Makran Sea and is visible on historical maps and museums. Iran 850 Km Coastline Pakistan 50 Km Coastline Oman 750 Km Coastline United Arab Emirates 50 Km Coastline Port of Fujairah, United Arab Emirates Khor Fakkan Container Terminal, Khor Fakkan, United Arab Emirates Port of Chabahar, Iran Port Sultan Qaboos, Oman The area is near the Strait of Hormuz, a strategic route through which a third of the world's liquefied natural gas and 20% of global oil consumption passes from Middle East producers.

In 2018, scientists confirmed the Gulf of Oman contains one of the world's largest marine dead zones, where the ocean contains little or no oxygen and marine wildlife cannot exist. The dead zone encompasses nearly the entire 165,000-square-kilometre Gulf of Oman; the cause is a combination of increased ocean warming and increased runoff of nitrogen and phosphorus from fertilizers. Eastern Arabia Musandam Peninsula May 2019 Gulf of Oman incident June 2019 Gulf of Oman incident "The Book of Duarte Barbosa" by Duarte Barbosa, Mansel Longworth Dames. 1989. P. 79. ISBN 81-206-0451-2 "The Natural History of Pliny". by Pliny, Henry Thomas Riley, John Bostock. 1855. P. 117 "The Countries and Tribes of the Persian Gulf" by Samuel Barrett Miles - 1966. P. 148 "The Life & Strange Surprising Adventures of Robinson Crusoe of York, Mariner". by Daniel Defoe. 1895. P. 279 "The Outline of History: Being a Plain History of Life and Mankind". by Herbert George Well. 1920. P. 379. "The New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge" by Johann Jakob Herzog, Philip Schaff, Albert Hauck.

1910. P. 242

Pfu DNA polymerase

Pfu DNA polymerase is an enzyme found in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus, where it functions to copy the organism's DNA during cell division. In the laboratory setting, Pfu is used to amplify DNA in the polymerase chain reaction, where the enzyme serves the central function of copying a new strand of DNA during each extension step, it is a family B DNA polymerase. It has an RNase H-like 3'-5' exonuclease domain, typical of B-family polymerase such as DNA polymerase II. Pfu DNA polymerase has superior thermostability and proofreading properties compared to Taq DNA polymerase. Unlike Taq DNA polymerase, Pfu DNA polymerase possesses 3' to 5' exonuclease proofreading activity, meaning that as the DNA is assembled from the 5' end to 3' end, the exonuclease activity removes nucleotides misincorporated at the 3' end of the growing DNA strand. Pfu DNA polymerase-generated PCR fragments will have fewer errors than Taq-generated PCR inserts. Commercially available Pfu results in an error rate of 1 in 1.3 million base pairs and can yield 2.6% mutated products when amplifying 1 kb fragments using PCR.

However, Pfu is slower and requires 1–2 minutes per cycle to amplify 1kb of DNA at 72 °C. Using Pfu DNA polymerase in PCR reactions results in blunt-ended PCR products. Pfu DNA polymerase is hence superior to Taq DNA polymerase for techniques that require high-fidelity DNA synthesis, but can be used in conjunction with Taq polymerase to obtain the fidelity of Pfu with the speed of Taq polymerase activity. Scientists led by Eric Mathur at the biotech company Stratagene, based in La Jolla, discovered Pfu DNA polymerase which exhibits higher fidelity of replication than Taq DNA polymerase in 1991, they received patents for exonuclease-deficient Pfu and the full Pfu in 1996. Other polymerases from Pyrococcus strains such as "Deep Vent" from strain GB-D and Pwo DNA polymerase has seen use. Stratagene's Pfu U. S. Patents Patent 5,489,523 Patent 5,545,552

Acousto-optic programmable dispersive filter

An acousto-optic programmable dispersive filter is a special type of collinear-beam acousto-optic modulator capable of shaping spectral phase and amplitude of ultrashort laser pulses. AOPDF was invented by Pierre Tournois. Quartz crystals are used for the fabrication of the AOPDFs operating in the UV spectral domain, paratellurite crystals are used in the visible and the NIR and calomel in the MIR. Introduced Lithium niobate crystals allow for high-repetition rate operation owing to their high acoustic velocity; the AOPDF is used for the active control of the carrier-envelope phase of the few-cycle optical pulses and as a part of pulse-measurement schemes. Although sharing a lot in principle of operation with an acousto-optic tunable filter, the AOPDF should not be confused with it, since in the former the tunable parameter is the transfer function and in the latter it is the impulse response Traveling acoustic wave induces variations in optical properties thus forming a dynamic volume grating.

AOPDF is a programmable spectral filter. From signal processing point of view, the AOPDF corresponds to a time-variant passive linear transversal filter with a programmable finite impulse response. Phase and amplitude filtering in the AOPDF is achieved by virtue of birefringent acousto-optic effect and can be represented by a convolution between the amplitude of the input optical signal Ein and a programmable acoustical signal S proportional to the electrical signal S applied to the Piezoelectric transducer. Here, α is a scaling factor equal to the ratio of the speed of sound v to the speed of light c times the index difference Δn between the ordinary and the extraordinary waves taken along the propagation axis in the crystal. In the limit of low diffraction efficiency the AOPDF behaves as a linear filter and the small value of the α allows for the quantitative control of optical signals with frequencies of tens to hundreds terahertz with electrical signals of tens of megahertz, which are produced by commercial waveform generators.

Owing to its birefringent nature, the AOPDF is intrinsically polarization-sensitive. Furthermore, polarization of the diffracted wave, created as the result of the interaction between the incident optical wave and the acoustic wave in the crystal, is rotated by 90° with respect to the incident wave polarization. For the single-beam optical input there could be up to 4 beams at the output of the AOPDF: two transmitted beams arising from double refraction and two diffracted beams corresponding to each linear polarization component of the input beam. An ordinary-polarized beam is used at the input and so, only two beams are observed at the output: an ordinary-polarized transmitted beam and an extraordinary-polarized diffracted beam. Spectral intensity of the diffracted wave depends on the spectral intensity of the acoustic wave. Ratio between the diffracted intensity and the input one represents the diffraction efficiency. Maximum diffraction efficiency is limited by nonlinear effects. Linear regime persists up to diffraction efficiencies of about 50%.

Total efficiency is altered by Fresnel losses at the input and output faces of the crystal unless anti-reflection coating is used. Spectral bandwidth of the AOPDF is defined as a range. One can distinguish intrinsic bandwidth, limited by absorption of the acoust-optic crystal, total device bandwidth, limited by impedance matching between the piezoelectric transducer and the radio-frequency generator, instantaneous bandwidth defined by maximal simultaneous spectral width diffracted with reasonable efficiency. Femtosecond pulse shaping Pulse shape control Spatial light modulator

Abdul Khaliq (athlete)

Abdul Khaliq was a Pakistani sprinter from 8 Medium Regiment Artillery who won 36 international gold medals, 15 international silver medals, 12 International bronze medals for Pakistan. He competed in the 200m and 4 x 100 metres relay, he participated in the 1960 Rome Olympics. He participated in the 1954 Asian Games and the 1958 Asian Games, he was born in the small village of Jand Awan in Chakwal, now in Pakistan, died on 10 March 1988 in Rawalpindi. During the 1954 Asian Gamesm Khaliq set a new record of 10.6 seconds in the 100-meter race by beating the previous record of 10.8 seconds, held by Lavy Pinto of India in 1951. Because of this, Abdul Khaliq was dubbed as Fastest Man of Asia; the Indian Prime Minister at the time, Jawaharlal Nehru chief guest, dubbed him "The Flying Bird of Asia". He won the 4 × 100 m relay silver medal, he played in the World Military Games, held at Canada. He was a 100-yard semi-finalist and a 4x110-yards finalist Represented the World Military Games at Athens Abdul Khaliq created new Asian records in both the 100- and 200-meter events.

Abdul Khaliq won the 100 m dash by defeating Indian athlete V. K. Rai, winning the 100 m Gold medal with a 10.4-second time. Abdul Khaliq defeated Lavy Pinto of India. Muhammad Sharif Butt broke the record of 200 m in 22.0 seconds held by Lavy Pinto in 1954 Asian Games with 21.9 seconds. On, this record was broken by Abdul Khaliq, he won the 200 m Gold Medal, clocking in at 21.4 sec. Abdul Khaliq Finished third in the final of the 100-meter, with 10.4 seconds, equal to his Delhi timing. He won the 100-, 200-, 4x100- meter bronze medals. Sub. Abdul Khaliq, the "Fastest Man of Asia", defeated Britain Number 1 and Number 2, Shanton and Spooner, in both sprints, he won the 100-yard in 10.1 sec at an international meet in high land games on a turf track, rendered wet due to incessant rains in the morning. Here, he defeated athletes from 15 countries of Europe; some of the leading coaches described it as a good performance and said it was equal to 9.5 sec on a cinder track. Abdul Khaliq ran a 100-meter race in 10.4 seconds, equalling the Australian National record at Olympic Park.

Khaliq's was only one-tenth of a second outside of Bobby Morrow's Gold Medal in the Olympic Games' 100 m final. In 1956, Abdul Khaliq was at his best, he reached to the level of the semi-finals of both 200 m races. On 24 November 1956, the day of the semi-finals and the final of the 100 m in the Olympics, Abdul Khaliq ran two hard races on the same day as "Anchor Man" for the winning Pakistan team in the 4x110-yard in the Victorian Relay Championship before tackling the 100 m dash of the semi-final. With Khaliq running the last leg, the Pakistan team romped home 10 yards clear in the final clocking 41.6 seconds, one-tenth of a second outside of the national record held by the Australian Olympics team. He won the 4x100 yd gold medal, he finished the race in 21.1 sec in both, 100 m and 200 m. 21.1 seconds was best time of all rounds except the final. His performance placed him in top most seven athletes at the time.100 Metres First Round, Heat 3 Second Round, Heat 2 On the same day, Abdul Khaliq came, after running 4x110 yards for the Victorian Relay Championship.

It became difficult to run the 100 m dash. He could not perform his best because of improper rest. Semi-final, Heat 1 200 Metres First Round, Heat 5 Second Round, Heat 1 Semi-final, Heat 1 4*100 Metres Relay Round One, Heat 1 Athletes from the following five countries participated in this round. 1. United States 2. Great Britain 3. Pakistan 4. Venezuela 5. Liberia Semi-final, Heat 2 Athletes from the following six countries participated in this round. 1. Soviet Union 2. Germany 3. Great Britain 4. Australia 5. Pakistan 6. Japan In the 100-metre dash, Abdul Khaliq got 2nd place and was beaten by USA. Pakistan secured the fifth position. In Tehran, he won the 100- and 200-metre gold medals. Abdul Khaliq equaled the British all-comer record of 9.6 sec for the 100-yard sprints. He won by inches from American B. Thomes. Khaliq won the 100-yard dash at 9.8 sec. He beat Britain's D. Roberts. Khaliq won two events. Abdul Khaliq clocked 11.6 seconds in the 120 yards handicap. In 220 yards, he was too fast for the British runner.

He beat Shenton. Khaliq got first position, with a time of 9.9 seconds. Khaliq finished close second to Brittan's R. Sandsorm with a time of 10.6 seconds. He was a 100-yard semi-finalist. Khaliq participated in the 3rd Asian Games at Tokyo, he defended his title by defeating Kyohei Ushio of Japan. Abdul Khaliq won 3 medals in the 3rd Asian Games. With Khaliq's contributions, Pakistan secured 2nd position in Athletics and 6th in the overall rankings. Khaliq was 3rd in the 100 yards. Khaliq won the 220 yards, with 21.5 seconds. In the 100 m race, Khaliq was 4th. In the 100 m race, Khaliq was third. Khaliq finished behind Abdon Saye of France in 21.9 seconds in 200m. Khaliq took 200m dash in 21.7 sec. 200m 21.7sec Khaliq was second in 100m one tenth of a sec

Aline Pellegrino

Aline Pellegrino known as Aline, is a Brazilian former footballer who played as a defender for Russian club WFC Rossiyanka and several clubs in her native Brazil. She was a member of the Brazil national team that won the silver medal at the 2004 Summer Olympics and competed at the 2007 FIFA Women's World Cup, she was made captain of the national team in 2006. In August 2011 she joined Russian Champions League contestant WFC Rossiyanka. Aline missed the 2008 Beijing Olympics after suffering a knee ligament injury in a pre-tournament friendly against South Korea, she had helped to secure Brazil's place at the tournament, by scoring in a 5–1 win over Ghana at a CONMEBOL–CAF play-off staged at Beijing's Workers Stadium. Brazil had been forced into the play-off after their shock defeat by Argentina at the 2006 South American Women's Football Championship. Aline Pellegrino – FIFA competition record Profile at Santos FC

The Midnight Hour

The Midnight Hour is a 1985 American made-for-television comedy horror film directed by Jack Bender and starring Shari Belafonte-Harper, LeVar Burton, Peter DeLuise, Dedee Pfeiffer. Its plot focuses on a small New England town that becomes overrun with zombies, witches and all the other demons of hell after a group of teenagers unlocks a centuries-old curse on Halloween; the film aired on ABC on Friday, November 1, 1985, at 9:00-11:00 pm EST. In addition to an original musical number, "Get Dead", the film's soundtrack features songs by Wilson Pickett, Creedence Clearwater Revival, Sam the Sham and the Pharaohs, Three Dog Night, The Smiths; the film marks Macaulay Culkin's first screen role as an uncredited trick-or-treater. It is Halloween in the small town of Pitchford Cove located somewhere in New England, five high school friends, Mary, Mitch and Melissa, plan on making it a night they will never forget, they steal outfits from the town's historic museum and come upon other old artifacts, including an old trunk encasing a paper scroll which contains an ancient curse.

When Melissa, latent sorceress, recites the curse at the local cemetery, things take a turn for the worse. The town's dead, led by Melissa's great-great-great-great-grandmother Lucinda Cavender, a witch, put to death 300 years earlier, rise up from their graves and roam the town; as Melissa, Vinnie and Mary enjoy themselves at their annual Halloween costume party, Phil encounters a mysterious girl, named Sandra "Sandy" Matthews, dressed in a vintage 1950's cheerleader outfit, who warns him that the whole town is in danger. Meanwhile and the various undead crash the costume party. At first, nobody pays much attention to them. However, Lucinda begins turning the party guests into vampires, starting with her great-great-great-great-granddaughter Melissa; when Sandy discovers that Phil and his friends recited the ancient spell in the cemetery, they realize that the whole town is being overrun by the living dead and decide to team up to break the curse. The only way to do so is to find the Grenville Spirit Ring inside the grave of a witch-hunter Nathaniel Grenville - who, was Phil's great-great-great-great-grandfather and slave owner of Lucinda Cavender, her arch-nemesis - and use it to undo the curse.

Phil and "good ghost" Sandy must restore the town to normal by midnight before it is too late and the curse becomes permanent. When the local police do not take Phil and Sandy's warning Phil manages to get his father's hunting rifle to make silver bullets from his father's silver coin collection so they can use the silver bullets which appears to have the only affect against the undead; when the couple ventures to the Halloween party, they discover everyone turned into undead zombies, witches or other evil beings. Phil manages to get the Grenville Spirit Ring from the zombie Vinnie in which Phil and Sandy drive back to the town's cemetery to break into Grenville's crypt to take his bone and dust remains to use to seal the scroll just as Lucinda and a horde of undead arrive and attack. Cornered in Phil's car, he and Sandy manage to use candle wax to seal the parchment scroll and in a flash and all of the undead vanish, plus the wounds that Phil sustains during this event disappear and the damage to his car is gone as if the entire event never happened.

Phil finds himself all alone in the cemetery where he finds Sandy's grave and learns that she has been one of the undead too, but that restoring the damage done has made Sandy disappear too. As the time turns twelve midnight, Phil begins to drive back to town when he hears a music dedication on his car radio from'Sandy' in devoting a song to him implying that she will always be looking after him from beyond the grave. Lee Montgomery as Phil Grenville Shari Belafonte as Melissa Cavender Peter DeLuise as Mitch Crandall LeVar Burton as Vinnie Davis Dedee Pfeiffer as Mary Masterson Jonna Lee as Sandy Matthews Jonelle Allen as Lucinda Cavender Cindy Morgan as Vicky Jensen Kurtwood Smith as Captain Warren Jensen Dick Van Patten as Martin Grenville Sheila Larken as Janet Grenville Wolfman Jack as the radio DJ Kevin McCarthy as Judge Crandall Macaulay Culkin as a Halloween kid The Midnight Hour had its world premiere on ABC on Friday, November 1, 1985, at 9:00-11:00 pm EST; the film aired on occasion during the Halloween season, with an 8 pm airing on the Lifetime network on Wednesday, October 31, 1990.

Lifetime continued to air the film on numerous occasions during afternoon time slots, including showings on December 27, 1990, June 19, 1992, October 31, 1992. Vidmark released The Midnight Hour on VHS in May 1989. Anchor Bay Entertainment released it on Region 1 DVD on September 19, 2000; the film was released on VHS by Anchor Bay Entertainment on July 20, 1999. Both releases of the film are out of print and are rare among collectors. Rick Sherwood of the San Bernardino Sun deemed the film a "less-than-satisfying teenage monster movie," adding: "The two-hour made-for-TV movie is billed as a humorous horror romp, but The Midnight Hour is a campy monster bash in which revived corpses break into song and dance. Expect neither tricks nor treats, just lots of rock music, fake-looking special effects, slow-moving scenes." A review published in The Des Moines Register noted: "The plot is contrived and simple, but the special effects and costumes may be worth the watch," while a review in The Tennesseean described the film as "a sophomoric concoction about a bunch of teenagers who conjure up a gang of goblins."