The archipelago fleet the Fleet of the army, was a branch of the armed forces of Sweden which existed between 1756 and 1823. Its purpose was to protect the coasts of Sweden, surrounded by a natural barrier of archipelagoes. Throughout its existence, it was a independent arm of the army, separate from the navy, with the exception of a few years in the late 1760s. In a number of respects, it was it's coastal fleet, its vessels consisted of traditional Mediterranean-style galleys, prams and specially-designed broadside-armed "archipelago frigates". All types had the ability to operate under oars and a small draft, enabling them to navigate the shallow and treacherous inshore waters; the archipelago fleet was active in several wars from 1757 to 1814: the Swedish involvement in the Seven Years' War, the Russo–Swedish War of 1788–90, the Finnish War of 1808–09 and the brief Swedish–Norwegian War of 1814. The Russian capture of Nöteborg and Nyen early in the Great Northern War allowed the Russians to access to the Baltic Sea, under Swedish control before the war.
Since Russian naval units were, at the time, based on coastal squadrons, the Swedes were prompted to start construction of their own small coastal squadrons. However, the small Swedish squadron, hastily created during the war, was overwhelmed by the Russian galley fleet at the battle of Gangut in 1714, as the Russian fleet enjoyed tenfold superiority over the Swedish fleet. After the Treaty of Nystad in 1721, the Swedish high command realized the need of a fast and agile marine unit that could maneuver in littoral waters. A squadron based in Stockholm was the first to be created. However, the Russo-Swedish War of 1741–1743 demonstrated that the unit was too small to defeat the Russian forces. An official fleet of the army was planned, the ships would be modeled after Mediterranean galleys and xebecs; these were fast and dangerous ships that were used by the Barbary pirates off the coast of North Africa. The Swedish galleys were redesigned, made smaller; the archipelago fleet was not under the command of the high seas navy and the admiralty based in Karlskrona.
In 1756, the archipelago fleet consisted of two units: a Finnish squadron. General Augustin Ehrensvärd was appointed commander of the fleet; the fleet had some initial successes. During the Seven Years' War, the new galleys, supported by heavy gun prams, were victorious against Prussia at the battle of Frisches Haff, but the short range of the galleys limited their use, it was only with a deliberate boarding action. The ship designer Fredrik Henrik Chapman had joined the navy in 1757, was charged with creating new ship types that would better fulfill the needs of the archipelago fleet. In 1760, the archipelago fleet was granted independent status, renamed the "fleet of the army" or "the united archipelago fleets", by suggestion of Ehrensvärd. A Royal warrant in August 1761 stipulated that an all blue triple-tailed flag was to be used by the archipelago fleet; the Commander of the fleet had the right to order the use of the ordinary war ensign instead of the blue ensign when it was deemed "appropriate".
The blue flag was used until 1813. In 1766, the ruling Caps faction of the Swedish parliament ordered that the archipelago fleet be merged with the navy. However, the ruling was reversed when the rival Hats faction regained control in 1770; the Finnish squadron was returned to the army, while the Stockholm squadron remained under the command of the navy. On November 14 of the same year, both units were once again merged into one unit, were renamed the arméns flotta in 1777; the main headquarters of the archipelago fleet were located at Stockholm and Sveaborg, with smaller stations established in other places over time. The Bohus squadron was formed in Gothenburg in 1789, an additional Finnish squadron was created in Åbo in 1793. A Pomeranian squadron was created in Stralsund, was moved to Landskrona in 1807. There were some smaller units in Malmö, Kristina and Varkaus. During the Russo-Swedish War of 1788–90, the Swedish high seas navy was equal in quality and superior in number and size of ships in comparison to the Russian navy.
The Swedish navy struggled throughout the war, failing to achieve the major victory required to leave the Russian capital of Saint Petersburg open to invasion. At best, it only achieved. On the other hand, the archipelago fleet was far more successful, although it suffered a few initial setbacks, including a tactical defeat against its Russian equivalent at Svensksund in August 1789; the war against Russia showed that the heavy archipelago frigates lacked the mobility required for inshore operations, while smaller rowed craft were far more efficient. The archipelago fleet was involved in the Finnish War of 1808-09 against Russia, but with less success. Russia attacked the Swedish forces in Finland during the winter, when ice prevented naval forces from intervening. Sveaborg, the cornerstone of the defense of Finland, was lost at an early stage, along with most of the ships of the Finnish squadron. Ships were lost when the archipelago fleet, docked for the winter at Åbo, was burned by the Swedes to prevent their capture.
Lake Champlain is a natural freshwater lake in North America within the borders of the United States but situated across the Canada–U. S. Border, in the Canadian province of Quebec; the New York portion of the Champlain Valley includes the eastern portions of Clinton County and Essex County. Most of this area is part of the Adirondack Park. There are recreational facilities in the park and along the undeveloped coastline of Lake Champlain; the cities of Plattsburgh, New York and Burlington, Vermont are on the lake's western and eastern shores and the Town of Ticonderoga, New York is in the region's southern part. The Quebec portion is in the regional county municipalities of Le Haut-Richelieu and Brome-Missisquoi. There are a number of islands in the lake; the Champlain Valley is the northernmost unit of a landform system known as the Great Appalachian Valley, which stretches between Quebec, Canada, to the north, Alabama, US, to the south. The Champlain Valley is a physiographic section of the larger Saint Lawrence Valley, which in turn is part of the larger Appalachian physiographic division.
Lake Champlain is one of numerous large lakes scattered in an arc through Labrador, in Canada, the northern United States, the Northwest Territories of Canada. It is the thirteenth largest lake by area in the US. 1,269 km2 in area, the lake is 172 km long and 23 km across at its widest point, has a maximum depth of 400 feet. The lake varies seasonally from about 95 to 100 ft above mean sea level. Lake Champlain is in the Lake Champlain Valley between the Green Mountains of Vermont and the Adirondack Mountains of New York, drained northward by the 106-mile -long Richelieu River into the St. Lawrence River at Sorel-Tracy, Quebec and downstream of Montreal, Quebec, it receives the waters from the 32-mile -long Lake George, so its basin collects waters from the northwestern slopes of the Green Mountains and the northernmost eastern peaks of the Adirondack Mountains. Lake Champlain drains nearly half of Vermont, 250,000 people get their drinking water from the lake; the lake is fed in Vermont by the LaPlatte, Missisquoi and Winooski rivers, along with Lewis Creek, Little Otter Creek, Otter Creek.
In New York, it is fed by the Ausable, Great Chazy, La Chute, Little Ausable, Little Chazy and Saranac rivers, along with Putnam Creek. In Quebec, it is fed by the Pike River, it is connected to the Hudson River by the Champlain Canal. Parts of the lake freeze each winter, in some winters the entire lake surface freezes, referred to as "closing". In July and August, the lake temperature reaches an average of 70 °F; the Chazy Reef is an extensive Ordovician carbonate rock formation that extends from Tennessee to Quebec and Newfoundland. It occurs in prominent outcropping at Goodsell Ridge, Isle La Motte, the northernmost island in Lake Champlain; the oldest reefs are around "The Head" of the south end of the island. Together, these three sites provide a unique narrative of events that took place over 450 million years ago in the ocean in the Southern Hemisphere, long before Lake Champlain's emergence 20,000 years ago; the lake has long acted as a border between indigenous nations much as it is today between the USA and Canada.
The lake is located at the frontier between Mohawk traditional territories. The official toponym for the lake according to the orthography established by the Grand Council of Wanab-aki Nation is Pitawbagok, meaning'middle lake','lake in between' or'double lake'; the Mohawk name in modern orthography as standardized in 1993 is Kaniatarakwà:ronte, meaning "a bulged lake" or “lake with a bulge in it." An alternate name is Kaniá:tare tsi kahnhokà:ronte, meaning'door of the country' or'lake to the country'. The lake is an important eastern gateway to Iroquois Confederacy lands; the lake was named after the French explorer Samuel de Champlain, who encountered it in July 1609. While the ports of Burlington, Port Henry, New York, Plattsburgh, New York today are used by small craft and lake cruise ships, they were of substantial commercial and military importance in the 18th and 19th centuries. New France allocated concessions all along lake Champlain to French settlers and built forts to defend the waterways.
In colonial times, Lake Champlain was used as a water passage between the Saint Lawrence and Hudson valleys. Travelers found it easier to journey by boats and sledges on the lake rather than go overland on unpaved and mud-bound roads; the lake's northern tip at Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu, Quebec, is a short distance from Montreal, Quebec. The southern tip at Whitehall is a short distance from Saratoga, Glens Falls, Albany, New York. Forts were built at Crown Point to control passage on the lake in colonial times. Important battles were fought at Ticonderoga in 1758 and 1775. During the Revolutionary War, the British and Americans conducted a frenetic shipbuilding race through the spring and summer of 1776, at opposite ends of the lake, fought a significant naval engagement on October 1
A frigate is a type of warship, having various sizes and roles over the last few centuries. In the 17th century, a frigate was any warship built for speed and maneuverability, the description used being "frigate-built"; these could be warships carrying their principal batteries of carriage-mounted guns on a single deck or on two decks. The term was used for ships too small to stand in the line of battle, although early line-of-battle ships were referred to as frigates when they were built for speed. In the 18th century, frigates were as long as a ship of the line and were square-rigged on all three masts, but were faster and with lighter armament, used for patrolling and escort. In the definition adopted by the British Admiralty, they were rated ships of at least 28 guns, carrying their principal armaments upon a single continuous deck – the upper deck – while ships of the line possessed two or more continuous decks bearing batteries of guns. In the late 19th century, the armoured frigate was a type of ironclad warship that for a time was the most powerful type of vessel afloat.
The term "frigate" was used because such ships still mounted their principal armaments on a single continuous upper deck. In modern navies, frigates are used to protect other warships and merchant-marine ships as anti-submarine warfare combatants for amphibious expeditionary forces, underway replenishment groups, merchant convoys. Ship classes dubbed "frigates" have more resembled corvettes, destroyers and battleships; some European navies such as the French, German or Spanish ones use the term "frigate" for both their destroyers and frigates. The rank "frigate captain" derives from the name of this type of ship; the term "frigate" originated in the Mediterranean in the late 15th century, referring to a lighter galley-type warship with oars, sails and a light armament, built for speed and maneuverability. The etymology of the word remains uncertain, although it may have originated as a corruption of aphractus, a Latin word for an open vessel with no lower deck. Aphractus, in turn, derived from the Ancient Greek phrase ἄφρακτος ναῦς - "undefended ship".
In 1583, during the Eighty Years' War of 1568-1648, Habsburg Spain recovered the southern Netherlands from the Protestant rebels. This soon resulted in the use of the occupied ports as bases for privateers, the "Dunkirkers", to attack the shipping of the Dutch and their allies. To achieve this the Dunkirkers developed small, sailing vessels that came to be referred to as frigates; the success of these Dunkirker vessels influenced the ship design of other navies contending with them, but because most regular navies required ships of greater endurance than the Dunkirker frigates could provide, the term soon came to apply less to any fast and elegant sail-only warship. In French, the term "frigate" gave rise to a verb - frégater, meaning'to build long and low', to an adjective, adding more confusion; the huge English Sovereign of the Seas could be described as "a delicate frigate" by a contemporary after her upper decks were reduced in 1651. The navy of the Dutch Republic became the first navy to build the larger ocean-going frigates.
The Dutch navy had three principal tasks in the struggle against Spain: to protect Dutch merchant ships at sea, to blockade the ports of Spanish-held Flanders to damage trade and halt enemy privateering, to fight the Spanish fleet and prevent troop landings. The first two tasks required speed, shallowness of draft for the shallow waters around the Netherlands, the ability to carry sufficient supplies to maintain a blockade; the third task required heavy armament, sufficient to stand up to the Spanish fleet. The first of the larger battle-capable frigates were built around 1600 at Hoorn in Holland. By the stages of the Eighty Years' War the Dutch had switched from the heavier ships still used by the English and Spanish to the lighter frigates, carrying around 40 guns and weighing around 300 tons; the effectiveness of the Dutch frigates became most evident in the Battle of the Downs in 1639, encouraging most other navies the English, to adopt similar designs. The fleets built by the Commonwealth of England in the 1650s consisted of ships described as "frigates", the largest of which were two-decker "great frigates" of the third rate.
Carrying 60 guns, these vessels were as capable as "great ships" of the time. The term "frigate" implied a long hull-design, which relates directly to speed and which in turn, helped the development of the broadside tactic in naval warfare. At this time, a further design evolved, reintroducing oars and resulting in galley frigates such as HMS Charles Galley of 1676, rated as a 32-gun fifth-rate but had a bank of 40 oars set below the upper deck which could propel the ship in the absence of a favourable wind. In Danish, the word "fregat" applies to warships carrying as few as 16 guns, such as HMS Falcon, which the British classified as a sloop. Under the rating system of the Royal Navy, by the middle of the 18th century, the term "frigate" was technically restricted to single-decked ships of the fifth rate, though small 28-gun frigates classed as sixth rate; the classic sailing frigate, well-known today for its role in the Napoleonic wars, can be traced back to French deve
A smoothbore weapon is one that has a barrel without rifling. Smoothbores range from handheld firearms to large artillery mortars; the majority of shotguns are smoothbores and the term can be synonymous. Early firearms had smooth barrels. To minimize inaccuracy-inducing tumbling during flight their projectiles required stable shape, such as a sphere. However, the Magnus effect causes spheres rotating randomly during flight to curve when spinning on any axis not parallel to the direction of travel. Rifling a barrel with spiral grooves or polygonal rifling imparts a stabilizing gyroscopic spin to a projectile that prevents tumbling in flight. Not only does this more than counter Magnus-induced drift, but it allows a longer, heavier round to be fired from the same caliber barrel, increasing both range and power. In the eighteenth century, the standard infantry arm was the smoothbore musket. Artillery weapons were smoothbore until the middle 19th century, smoothbores continued in limited use until the 1890s.
Early rifled artillery pieces were patented by Joseph Whitworth and William Armstrong in the United Kingdom in 1855. In the United States, rifled small arms and artillery were adopted during the American Civil War. However, heavy coast defense Rodman smoothbores persisted in the US until circa 1900 due to the tendency of the Civil War's heavy Parrott rifles to burst and lack of funding for replacement weapons; some smoothbore firearms are still used. A shotgun fires round shot. While this may be acceptable at close ranges this is not desirable at longer ranges, where a tight, consistent pattern is required to improve accuracy. Another smoothbore weapon in use today is the 37-mm riot gun, which fires non-lethal munitions like rubber bullets and teargas at short range at crowds, where a high degree of accuracy is not required; the cannon made the transition from smoothbore firing cannonballs to rifled firing shells in the 19th century. However, to reliably penetrate the thick armor of modern armored vehicles many modern tank guns have moved back to smoothbore.
These fire a long, thin kinetic-energy projectile, too long in relation to its diameter to develop the necessary spin rate through rifling. Instead, kinetic energy rounds are produced as fin-stabililzed darts. Not only does this reduce the time and expense of rifling barrels, it reduces the need for replacement due to barrel wear; the first tank with a smoothbore gun was the Soviet T-62, introduced into service in 1961. Today all main battle tanks field them except the British Challenger 2 and Indian Arjun MBT. While the 73 mm gun of the early Soviet infantry fighting vehicles BMP-1 and BMD-1 was a smoothbore, their more recent successors BMP-3 and BMD-4 use a rifled 100 mm gun; the Russian navy conducted experiments with large-caliber smoothbore naval guns, which were halted by budget cuts. The armour-piercing gun evolution has shown up in small arms the now abandoned U. S. Advanced Combat Rifle program; the ACR "rifles" used smoothbore barrels to fire single or multiple flechettes, rather than bullets, per pull of the trigger, to provide long range, flat trajectory, armor-piercing abilities.
Just like kinetic-energy tank rounds, flechettes are too long and thin to be stabilized by rifling and perform best from a smoothbore barrel. The ACR program was abandoned due to poor terminal ballistics. Mortar barrels are muzzle-loading smoothbores. Since mortars fire bombs that are dropped down the barrel and must not be a tight fit, a smooth barrel is essential; the bombs are fin-stabilized. Rifling Buck and ball Cap gun Caplock mechanism Internal ballistics Tubes and primers for ammunition Minié ball Gunpowder Cannon Muzzleloader Muzzle Gun barrel Projectile
USS Michigan (1843)
USS Michigan was the United States Navy's first iron-hulled warship and served during the American Civil War. She was renamed USS Wolverine in 1905; the side wheel steamer Michigan was built in response to the British Government arming two steamers in response to the Canadian rebellions in the late 1830s with Secretary of the Navy Abel P. Upshur selecting an iron hull as a test of practicability of using such a "cheap and indestructible a material" for ships; the ship was designed by Samuel Hart, fabricated in parts at Pittsburgh in the last half of 1842, transported overland and assembled at Erie. The launch on 5 December 1843 was unsuccessful with the ship sticking after moving some 50 feet down the ways and efforts to complete the launch ended by nightfall. On returning in the morning Hart found Michigan had launched "herself in the night" and was floating offshore in Lake Erie. By 1908 the ship was noted in the journal The American Marine Engineer as being the oldest metal hulled vessel existing and of interest to engineers because of the ship's age.
The two engines were inclined simple steam engines of 36 inches with a 96 inches stroke that were original and running well in 1908. The first of three sets of boilers were return flue type that lasted fifty years before being replaced by bricked in return tube types; the operating pressure was low, 25 pounds sufficient to drive the engines at 20 rpm, with engine room piping of.125 inches thick copper connecting with brass flange joints. When, about 1905, the ship changed from kerosene lights to electric a special engine for the dynamo had to be constructed to operate on the low pressure steam; the steam was used in a peculiar system for repelling boarders with hot water direct from the boiler. Coal consumption before the latest modifications was two tons per hour and after the modifications was as low as one half ton per hour; the ship carried two steam launches. The ship had never made ten knots until dispatched from the harbor at Cleveland to Buffalo to prevent riots on the assassination of President William McKinley 6 September 1901 and, with the safeties weighted, she made fourteen knots at 30 rpm at one point.
Michigan commissioned 29 September 1844 under the command of Commander William Inman and operated on the Great Lakes out of Erie, throughout her career. In May 1851, she assisted in the arrest of Mr. James Jesse Strang, known as "King James I", who headed a dissident Mormon colony on Beaver Island at the head of Lake Michigan, some 37 mi from the Straits of Mackinac. Strang was soon freed, but was assassinated by two of his followers on 19 June 1856; the assassins were taken to Mackinac and released. In an encounter with Great Lakes "timber pirates" in the 1850s, a steamer rammed Michigan; the pirate vessel was badly damaged in the maneuver, was captured. USS Michigan was the first iron-hulled ship in the US Navy; when she was rammed in the early hours of 6 May 1853, in southern Lake Huron, by the wooden-hulled Buffalo, the Michigan was badly damaged, but the Buffalo proceeded south towards the St. Clair River and was not "captured." Despite this, the Michigan assisted in arresting several of the timbermen, stealing timber in Michigan.
Additional information is available in "The Development of Governmental Forest Control in the United States," by Jenks Cameron, The Johns Hopkins Press, 1928. During the American Civil War, Michigan was armed with a 30-pounder Parrott rifle, five 20-pounder Parrott rifles, six 24-pounder smoothbores, two 12-pounder boat howitzers; the Confederate States of America considered launching attacks against the North from Canada. Early in 1863, Lieutenant William Henry Murdaugh, CSN, planned to lead a group of Confederate naval officers to Canada where they would purchase a small steamer, man her with Canadians and steam to Erie to board Michigan and use her against locks and shipping on the Great Lakes. However, Confederate President Jefferson Davis didn't approve the plan. Michigan cruised on the Great Lakes during most of the war providing an element of stability and security. On 28 July 1863, a short time after New York City had been shaken by riots, Commander John C. Carter commanding Michigan reported from Detroit, "I found the people suffering under serious apprehensions of a riot....
The presence of the ships did something toward overawing the refractory, did much to allay the apprehensions of the excited, doubting people." During August 1863, Michigan was called on for similar service in New York. During 1864, rumors of Confederate conspiracies in Canada were heard again. In March, Secretary of the Navy Gideon Welles ordered Michigan to be "prepared for active service as soon as the ice will permit." In the autumn, the Confederates struck. Led by Acting Master John Yates Beall, 20 Confederates embarked on the steamer Philo Parsons as passengers and soon seized her, they burned the steamer Island Queen. Meanwhile, Captain Charles H. Cole, CSA, a Confederate agent in the Lake Erie region, was attempting to gain the trust of Michigan's officers as the Michigan lay off Johnson's Island helping to guard Confederate prisoners. However, Commander Carter discovered Cole's duplicity and had him arrested before Beall reached Johnson's Island on Philo Parsons; when the prearranged signals from shore were not made, Beall reluctantly abandoned his plan and retired to Sandwich where he stripped and burned Philo Parsons.
After the Civil War, Michigan remained in U. S. Navy service, was the ship which intercepted and interned the army of the Fen
Schleswig-Holstein is the northernmost of the 16 states of Germany, comprising most of the historical duchy of Holstein and the southern part of the former Duchy of Schleswig. Its capital city is Kiel. Known in more dated English as Sleswick-Holsatia, the region is called Slesvig-Holsten in Danish; the Low German name is Sleswig-Holsteen, the North Frisian name is Slaswik-Holstiinj. The name can refer to a larger region, containing both present-day Schleswig-Holstein and the former South Jutland County in Denmark; the term "Holstein" derives from Old Saxon Holseta Land. It referred to the central of the three Saxon tribes north of the River Elbe: Tedmarsgoi and Sturmarii; the area of the tribe of the Holsts was between the Stör River and Hamburg, after Christianization, their main church was in Schenefeld. Saxon Holstein became a part of the Holy Roman Empire after Charlemagne's Saxon campaigns in the late eighth century. Since 811, the northern frontier of Holstein was marked by the River Eider.
The term Schleswig comes from the city of Schleswig. The name derives from the Schlei inlet in the east and vik meaning inlet in Old Norse or settlement in Old Saxon, linguistically identical with the "-wick" or "-wich" element in place-names in Britain; the Duchy of Schleswig or Southern Jutland was an integral part of Denmark, but was in medieval times established as a fief under the Kingdom of Denmark, with the same relation to the Danish Crown as for example Brandenburg or Bavaria vis-à-vis the Holy Roman Emperor. Around 1100, the Duke of Saxony gave Holstein, as it was his own country, to Count Adolf I of Schauenburg. Schleswig and Holstein have at different times belonged in part or to either Denmark or Germany, or have been independent of both nations; the exception is that Schleswig had never been part of Germany until the Second Schleswig War in 1864. For many centuries, the King of Denmark was both a Danish Duke of Schleswig and a German Duke of Holstein. Schleswig was either integrated into Denmark or was a Danish fief, Holstein was a German fief and once a sovereign state long ago.
Both were for several centuries ruled by the kings of Denmark. In 1721, all of Schleswig was united as a single duchy under the king of Denmark, the great powers of Europe confirmed in an international treaty that all future kings of Denmark should automatically become dukes of Schleswig, Schleswig would always follow the same order of succession as the one chosen in the Kingdom of Denmark. In the church, following the reformation, German was used in the southern part of Schleswig and Danish in the northern part; this would prove decisive for shaping national sentiments in the population, as well as after 1814 when mandatory school education was introduced. The administration of both duchies was conducted in German, despite the fact that they were governed from Copenhagen; the German national awakening that followed the Napoleonic Wars gave rise to a strong popular movement in Holstein and Southern Schleswig for unification with a new Prussian-dominated Germany. This development was paralleled by an strong Danish national awakening in Denmark and Northern Schleswig.
This movement called for the complete reintegration of Schleswig into the Kingdom of Denmark and demanded an end to discrimination against Danes in Schleswig. The ensuing conflict is sometimes called the Schleswig-Holstein Question. In 1848, King Frederick VII of Denmark declared that he would grant Denmark a liberal constitution and the immediate goal for the Danish national movement was to ensure that this constitution would give rights to all Danes, i.e. not only to those in the Kingdom of Denmark, but to Danes living in Schleswig. Furthermore, they demanded protection for the Danish language in Schleswig. A liberal constitution for Holstein was not considered in Copenhagen, since it was well known that the political élite of Holstein were more conservative than Copenhagen's. Representatives of German-minded Schleswig-Holsteiners demanded that Schleswig and Holstein be unified and allowed its own constitution and that Schleswig join Holstein as a member of the German Confederation; these demands were rejected by the Danish government in 1848, the Germans of Holstein and southern Schleswig rebelled.
This began the First Schleswig War. In 1863, conflict broke out again. According to the order of succession of Denmark and Schleswig, the crowns of both Denmark and Schleswig would pass to Duke Christian of Glücksburg, who became Christian IX; the transmission of the duchy of Holstein to the head of the branch of the Danish royal family, the House of Augustenborg, was more controversial. The separation of the two duchies was challenged by the Augustenborg heir, who claimed, as in 1848, to be rightful heir of both Schleswig and Holstein; the promulgation of a common constitution for Denmark and Schleswig in November 1863 prompted Otto von Bismarck to intervene and Prussia and Austria declared war on Denmark. This was the Second War of Schleswig. British attempts to mediate in the London Conference of 1864 failed, an
Napoleon's planned invasion of the United Kingdom
Napoleon's planned invasion of the United Kingdom at the start of the War of the Third Coalition, although never carried out, was a major influence on British naval strategy and the fortification of the coast of southeast England. French attempts to invade Ireland in order to destabilise the United Kingdom or as a stepping-stone to Great Britain had occurred in 1796; the first French Army of England had gathered on the Channel coast in 1798, but an invasion of England was sidelined by Napoleon's concentration on campaigns in Egypt and against Austria, shelved in 1802 by the Peace of Amiens. Building on planning for mooted invasions under France's Ancien Régime in 1744, 1759 and 1779, preparations began again in earnest soon after the outbreak of war in 1803, were called off in 1805. Contrary to popular belief, the invasion was called off before the Battle of Trafalgar. From 1803 to 1805 a new army of 200,000 men, known as the Armée des côtes de l'Océan or the Armée d'Angleterre, was gathered and trained at camps at Boulogne and Montreuil.
A large "National Flotilla" of invasion barges was built in Channel ports along the coasts of France and the Netherlands, right from Étaples to Flushing, gathered at Boulogne. This flotilla was under the energetic command of Eustache Bruix, but he soon had to return to Paris, where he died of tuberculosis in March 1805; the part of the flotilla built by the Batavian Navy was under the command of vice-admiral Carel Hendrik Ver Huell. Port facilities at Boulogne were improved and forts built, whilst the discontent and boredom that threatened to overflow among the waiting troops was allayed by constant training and frequent ceremonial visits by Napoleon himself. A medal was struck and a triumphal column erected at Boulogne to celebrate the invasion's anticipated success. However, when Napoleon ordered a large-scale test of the invasion craft despite choppy weather and against the advice of his naval commanders such as Charles René Magon de Médine, they were shown up as ill-designed for their task and, though Napoleon led rescue efforts in person, many men were lost.
Napoleon seriously considered using a fleet of troop-carrying balloons as part of his proposed invasion force and appointed Marie Madeline Sophie Blanchard as an air service chief, though she said the proposed aerial invasion would fail because of the winds. Though an aerial invasion proved a dead-end, the prospect of one captured the minds of the British print media and public; these preparations were financed by the Louisiana Purchase of 1803, whereby France ceded her huge North American territories to the United States in return for a payment of 50 million French francs. The entire amount was spent on the projected invasion; the United States had funded the purchase by means of a loan from Baring Brothers, a British bank. For his planned subsidiary invasion of Ireland Napoleon had formed an Irish Legion in 1803, to create an indigenous part of his 20,000-man Corps d'Irelande. Though the fleet-test was unsuccessful, Britain continued to be on high alert with defences from invasion. With the flotilla and encampment at Boulogne visible from the south coast of England, Martello towers were built along the English coast to counter the invasion threat, militias were raised.
In the areas closest to France new fortifications were built and existing ones initiated against the 1779 invasion completed or improved. Dover Castle had underground tunnels added to garrison more troops, the Dover Western Heights were constructed, the Royal Military Canal cut to impede Napoleon's progress into England should he land on Romney Marsh. Unfounded rumours of a massive flat French invasion raft powered by windmills and paddle-wheels, a secretly-dug channel tunnel and an invasion fleet of balloons spread via the print media, as did caricatures ridiculing the prospect of invasion. A naval raid on Boulogne was carried out in October 1804 and British fleets continued to blockade the French and Spanish fleets that would be needed to gain naval superiority long enough for a crossing. Before the flotilla could cross, Napoleon had to gain naval control of the English Channel – in his own words, "Let us be masters of the Channel for six hours and we are masters of the world." He envisaged doing this by having the Brest and Toulon Franco–Spanish fleets break out from the British blockade, sail across the Atlantic to threaten the West Indies.
This, he hoped, would draw off the Royal Navy force under William Cornwallis defending the Western Approaches. The Toulon and Brest fleets could rendezvous at Martinique sail back across the Atlantic to Europe, land a force in Ireland and, more defeat what parts of the Channel Fleet had remained in the Channel, take control of the Channel and defend and transport the invasion force, all before the pursuing fleets could return to stop them; this plan was typical of Napoleon in its dash and reliance on fast movement and surprise, but such a style was more suited to land than to sea warfare, with the vagaries of tide and wind and the effective British b