Bošnjaci is a village and municipality in Vukovar-Srijem County in eastern Croatia. The 2011 census listed a total of 98.8 % of whom identified themselves as Croats. As the name means, there are 0.03 % of. Official website
Croatia the Republic of Croatia, is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea. It borders Slovenia to the northwest, Hungary to the northeast, Serbia to the east and Herzegovina, Montenegro to the southeast, sharing a maritime border with Italy, its capital, forms one of the country's primary subdivisions, along with twenty counties. Croatia has an area of 56,594 square kilometres and a population of 4.28 million, most of whom are Roman Catholics. Inhabited since the Paleolithic Age, the Croats arrived in the area in the 6th century and organised the territory into two duchies by the 9th century. Croatia was first internationally recognized as an independent state on 7 June 879 during the reign of duke Branimir. Tomislav became the first king by 925, elevating Croatia to the status of a kingdom, which retained its sovereignty for nearly two centuries. During the succession crisis after the Trpimirović dynasty ended, Croatia entered a personal union with Hungary in 1102.
In 1527, faced with Ottoman conquest, the Croatian Parliament elected Ferdinand I of Austria to the Croatian throne. In October 1918, in the final days of World War I, the State of Slovenes and Serbs, independent from Austria-Hungary, was proclaimed in Zagreb, in December 1918 it was merged into the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes. Following the Axis invasion of Yugoslavia in April 1941, most of the Croatian territory was incorporated into the Nazi-backed client-state which led to the development of a resistance movement and the creation of the Federal State of Croatia which after the war become a founding member and a federal constituent of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. On 25 June 1991, Croatia declared independence, which came wholly into effect on 8 October of the same year; the Croatian War of Independence was fought for four years following the declaration. The sovereign state of Croatia is a republic governed under a parliamentary system and a developed country with a high standard of living.
It is a member of the European Union, the United Nations, the Council of Europe, NATO, the World Trade Organization, a founding member of the Union for the Mediterranean. As an active participant in the UN peacekeeping forces, Croatia has contributed troops to the NATO-led mission in Afghanistan and took a non-permanent seat on the UN Security Council for the 2008–2009 term. Since 2000, the Croatian government has invested in infrastructure transport routes and facilities along the Pan-European corridors. Croatia's economy is dominated by service and industrial sectors and agriculture. Tourism is a significant source of revenue, with Croatia ranked among the top 20 most popular tourist destinations in the world; the state controls a part of the economy, with substantial government expenditure. The European Union is Croatia's most important trading partner. Croatia provides a social security, universal health care system, a tuition-free primary and secondary education, while supporting culture through numerous public institutions and corporate investments in media and publishing.
The name of Croatia derives from Medieval Latin Croātia. Itself a derivation of North-West Slavic *Xrovat-, by liquid metathesis from Common Slavic period *Xorvat, from proposed Proto-Slavic *Xъrvátъ which comes from Old Persian *xaraxwat-; the word is attested by the Old Iranian toponym Harahvait-, the native name of Arachosia. The origin of the name is uncertain, but is thought to be a Gothic or Indo-Aryan term assigned to a Slavic tribe; the oldest preserved record of the Croatian ethnonym *xъrvatъ is of variable stem, attested in the Baška tablet in style zvъnъmirъ kralъ xrъvatъskъ. The first attestation of the Latin term is attributed to a charter of Duke Trpimir from the year 852; the original is lost, just a 1568 copy is preserved, leading to doubts over the authenticity of the claim. The oldest preserved stone inscription is the 9th-century Branimir Inscription found near Benkovac, where Duke Branimir is styled Dux Cruatorvm; the inscription is not believed to be dated but is to be from during the period of 879–892, during Branimir's rule.
The area known as Croatia today was inhabited throughout the prehistoric period. Fossils of Neanderthals dating to the middle Palaeolithic period have been unearthed in northern Croatia, with the most famous and the best presented site in Krapina. Remnants of several Neolithic and Chalcolithic cultures were found in all regions of the country; the largest proportion of the sites is in the river valleys of northern Croatia, the most significant cultures whose presence was discovered include Baden, Starčevo, Vučedol cultures. The Iron Age left traces of the Celtic La Tène culture. Much the region was settled by Illyrians and Liburnians, while the first Greek colonies were established on the islands of Hvar, Korčula, Vis. In 9 AD the territory of today's Croatia became part of the Roman Empire. Emperor Diocletian had a large palace built in Split to which he retired after his abdication in AD 305. During the 5th century, the last de jure Western emperor last Western Roman Emperor Julius Nepos ruled his small realm from the palace after fleeing Italy to go into exile in 475.
The period ends with Avar and Croat invasions in the first half of the 7th century and destruction of all Roman towns. Roman survivors retreated to more favourable sites on the coast and mountains; the city of Dubrovnik was founded by such survivors from Epidaurum. The ethnogenesis of Croats is uncertain an
2014 Southeast Europe floods
Between 13 and 18 May 2014 a low-pressure cyclone designated Tamara and Yvette affected a large area of Southeastern and Central Europe, causing floods and landslides. Serbia and Bosnia and Herzegovina suffered the greatest damage, as the rain was the heaviest in 120 years of recorded weather measurements. By 20 May, at least 62 people had died as a result of the flooding, hundreds of thousands had been forced from their homes. Towns of Obrenovac in Serbia and Doboj in Bosnia and Herzegovina account for most victims, after being inundated by several-meter high waters from nearby rivers. Floodwaters caused over 2,000 landslides across the Balkan region, spreading damage across many towns and villages; the rains activated torrents and mudslides, subsequently several rivers in watersheds of Sava and Morava rose and flooded surrounding valleys. Official counts indicate that over 1.6 million people were affected in Serbia and Bosnia, after a week of flooding. Assessments of the damage range up to 3.5 billion € for Serbia and Herzegovina.
Damage in Serbia, jointly estimated by EU, World Bank group and UN officials, stands at 1,55 billion euros. Officials in Bosnia stated; the events initiated a large international aid campaign, with numerous countries and individuals donating humanitarian and monetary support for the affected areas. On 30th of May, a low-pressure area formed over the Adriatic Sea, as polar air from Central Europe penetrated into the Mediterranean basin; the cold polar air mass met with humid subtropical air, leading to low pressure. On 14 May, the low moved over the Balkans; as a result heavy rain fell within the region. Serbian and Bosnian meteorologists named the formed cyclone "Tamara". On 15 May, the daily amounts of rainfall broke historical records in Belgrade and Loznica. By 15 May, the monthly rainfall in Belgrade had broken the historical record, reaching 205 l. By Saturday, May 17, the rain had subsided, the weather became warmer and sunnier, somewhat easing relief and rescue efforts. On 18 May, the cyclone moved further northwest.
The main flooding region was the watershed of the Sava river, which forms a border between Bosnia and Croatia, flows into Serbia, drains into the Danube in Belgrade. On Wednesday, 14 May, heavy rainfall caused torrential floods across mountainous regions, which destroyed bridges and infrastructure, caused numerous landslides; the deadliest impact occurred on Thursday, 15 May, when water levels in several right-bank tributaries of the Sava and uncontrollably rose at an unprecedented rate, flooding towns in their valleys. The Bosna river in central Bosnia flooded the cities of Doboj, Zavidovići and Šamac, while the Kolubara, near Belgrade, did the same to Obrenovac. Subsequently, the Sava itself rose to record-high levels, threatening the cities of Slavonski Brod, Šabac and Sremska Mitrovica and numerous villages, but the damage was contained as the population, helped by army and volunteers, strengthened flood defenses. Nonetheless, embankments gave way in several places. Heavy rainfall was experienced in the region on 3 and 4 May, affecting Romania and Bosnia.
The event left a number of flooding incidents and high rivers. A state of emergency was declared in parts of Bosnia by local government. Though heaviest affected areas were in the valleys of the Sava and Kolubara rivers, the center of the flood was the drainage basin of the Bosna river and its mouth into the Sava. Water in the Sava broke through the newly constructed embankment on the left bank in Croatia and flooded the Lower Syrmia region; the water uncontrollably rushed into the Bosut river which flows back into the Sava in Serbia. In Serbia, the heaviest floods were in the Kolubara river basin where the major rainfall caused extreme torrents in the mountains, causing the hydrological coincidence, a fact that high tidal waves appeared on both the left and the right tributaries of the Kolubara. Rivers of Peštan and Vraničina spilled over, flooding the surface mine "Tamnava-Zapadna Polje", within the Kolubara mines; the flooded mines captured 200 million m3 of the flood water. Belgrade's Institute "Jaroslav Černi", funded by UNDP, compiled a study "Improvement of the water protection in the Kolubara drainage basin".
Hydrological section of the report concludes that the cyclone caused the "continual rain of temperate intensity", which however lasted for too long. In May, the measured 48-hours rainfall was higher than the millennial rains in Loznica while the return period in Belgrade and Valjevo was 400 years. Return periods of the flow in the Kolubara was 120-520 and at the confluence into the Sava, when the Kolubara flooded Obrenovac and the mines, the discharge was 1.456 m3/s. If the system against the floods was finished and functioning properly, that mines and Obrenovac weren't flooded, the discharge would be 2.460 m3/s. In the drainage basin of the Bosna river in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the rains in some places were exceeding the return period of 5,000 years. At the same time, during the massive overspill in the basin, the return period of the maximal discharge was only 152 years and of the wave volume was 189 years. After the reconstruction of the flood in the controlled environment, it was concluded that the discharge of
Ilok is the easternmost town and municipality in northeastern Croatia. Located in the Syrmia region, it lies on a hill overlooking the Danube river, which forms the border with the Bačka region of Serbia; the population of the town of Ilok is 5,072, while the total municipality population is 6,767. The town is home to a Franciscan monastery and Ilok Castle, a popular day trip for domestic tourists. In Croatian, the town is known as Ilok, in German as Illok, in Hungarian as Újlak and in Turkish as Uyluk. In Hungarian language "Újlak" means "new dwelling or lodge"; the area of present-day Ilok was populated since Bronze Ages. One Scordisci archaeological site dating back to late La Tène culture was excavated in the 1970s and 1980s as a part of rescue excavations in eastern Croatia; the Romans settled there in the 1st or 2nd century and built Cuccium, the first border fortification on the Danube. The Slavs settled here in the 6th century; the area was ruled by the Bulgarian Empire, until it was included into the medieval Kingdom of Hungary.
In 12th and 13th centuries the market-town of Ilok was mentioned in documents under various names. At the end of the 13th century, Hungarian kings gave the Vylak castrum to the powerful Csák noble family. In the 13th and 14th centuries, Ilok was a capital of the semi-independent medieval state of Upper Syrmia ruled by Ugrin Csák. After 1354, the town of Ilok belonged to Nicholas and Paul Garay, to Nicholas Kont of Orahovica and his descendants, among, his great-grandson Nicholas and the last member of the Iločki family - Laurence of Ilok. Nicholas of Ilok was the Ban of All Slavonia from 1457–63, his son, Laurence was a duke of Syrmia from 1477 to 1524. Since 1526, the town was under Ottoman rule. During this time, it was populated by Muslims. In 1566-69, Ilok had 27 Christian houses. In 1572, it had 386 Muslim, 18 Christian houses. In 1669, the population of Ilok numbered 1,160 houses, town possessed two mosques, it was kaza centre in Sanjak of Syrmia. Habsburg army firstly occupied Ilok in 1688, but Ottomans recaptured it in 1690.
In 1697, Habsburg army definitively retook Ilok from the Ottomans and the Muslim population fled. During the Habsburg rule, Ilok belonged to the Kingdom of Slavonia, a Habsburg province that belonged to both the Kingdom of Croatia, the Kingdom of Hungary. Between 1849-68, the Kingdom of Slavonia was separate Habsburg crownland, in 1868 it was joined with the Kingdom of Croatia to form the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia. In the late 19th and early 20th century, Ilok was a district capital in the Syrmia County of the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia. In 1918, Ilok first became part of the State of Slovenes and Serbs, part of the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes. From 1929-39, Ilok was part of the Danube Banovina and, from 1939–41, of the Banovina of Croatia within the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. Between 1941-44, during the Axis occupation of Yugoslavia, it belonged to the Independent State of Croatia. From 1945 onward, it was part of the People's Republic of Croatia within Socialist Yugoslavia. On 17 October 1991 during the beginning of the Croatian War of Independence, non-Serbs fled as the Yugoslav National Army led by Serbs paramilitaries occupied the area, but spared it from destruction due to its rapid surrounding and occupation.
Between 1991-95, Ilok was part of the Republic of Serb Krajina. The area was peacefully reintegrated into Croatia in 1998. Ilok is underdeveloped municipality, statistically classified as the First Category Area of Special State Concern by the Government of Croatia. According to the 2011 census, town of Ilok had 6,767 inhabitants. Note: It became independent administrative unit in 2001 census, from the old Comune of Vukovar. According to the 2011 census, settlement of Ilok had 5,072 inhabitants
Bogdanovci is a village and municipality in the Vukovar-Srijem County in eastern Croatia. It is located a few kilometers south of Vukovar in eastern Slavonia. Bogdanovci is underdeveloped municipality, statistically classified as the First Category Area of Special State Concern by the Government of Croatia. In the 2011 census, the total population is 1,960, in the following settlements: Bogdanovci, population 710 Petrovci, population 864 Svinjarevci, population 386In the 2011 census there were: 56.17% Croats, 22.65% Rusyns, 9.59% Serbs, 7.55% Ukrainians, 2.35% Albanians Official website
Privlaka, Vukovar-Srijem County
Privlaka is a village in Croatia. It located 12 km south of the town of Vinkovci. In the 2001 census, there were 3,776 inhabitants. One Scordisci archaeological site in Privlaka dating back to late La Tène culture was excavated in the 1970s and 1980s as a part of rescue excavations in eastern Croatia. Archaeological site was a part of the settlement network of Scordisci in the area of Vinkovci. Official website
Jarmina is a village and municipality in the Vukovar-Srijem County in Croatia. In German the village is known as Jahrmein or Hermann, in Hungarian as Járomnaszentmiklós, in Serbian Cyrillic as Јармина. Before World War II there was a substantial German-speaking Danube Swabian population here. According to the 2001 census, there are 2,627 inhabitants, 98.13% which are Croats. The municipality is home to a monument to defenders and civilians killed in the Croatian War of Independence which has the names of 15 deceased people. Near Borinci, a village, which belongs to Jarmina, there is a 171 metres tall guyed mast for FM-/TV-broadcasting. Jarmina is unofficial name of the Vinkovci Marshaling freight railway station. Vukovar-Srijem County Syrmia