SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Gurmukhi

Gurmukhī is an abugida developed from the Laṇḍā scripts and used by the second Sikh guru, Guru Angad. Regarded as a Sikh script, Gurmukhi is used in Punjab, India as the official script of the Punjabi language; the primary scripture of Sikhism, the Guru Granth Sahib, is written in Gurmukhī, in various dialects subsumed under the generic title Sant Bhasha or saint language. Modern Gurmukhī has thirty-five original letters, hence its common alternative term pentī or "the thirty-five," plus six additional consonants, nine vowel diacritics, two diacritics for nasal sounds, one diacritic that geminates consonants and three subscript characters; the Gurmukhī script is believed to have roots in the Proto-Sinaitic alphabet by way of the Brahmi script, which developed further into the Northwestern group, the Central group and the Eastern group, as well as several prominent writing systems of Southeast Asia and Sinhala in Sri Lanka, in addition to scripts used in Central Asia for extinct languages like Saka and Tocharian.

Gurmukhi is derived from Sharada in the Northwestern group, of which it is the only major surviving member, with full modern currency. Notable features: It is an abugida in which all consonants have an inherent vowel, /ə/. Diacritics, which can appear above, before or after the consonant they are applied to, are used to change the inherent vowel; when they appear at the beginning of a syllable, vowels are written as independent letters. To form consonant clusters, Gurmukhi uniquely affixes subscript letters at the bottom of standard characters, rather than using the true conjunct symbols used by other scripts, which merge parts of each letter into a distinct character of its own. Punjabi is a tonal language with three tones; these are indicated in writing using the voiced aspirated consonants and the intervocalic h. Gurmukhi evolved in cultural and historical circumstances notably different from other regional scripts, for the purpose of recording scriptures of Sikhism, a far less Sanskritized cultural tradition than others of the subcontinent.

This independence from the Sanskritic model allowed it the freedom to evolve unique orthographical features. These include: Three basic carrier vowels, integrated into the traditional Gurmukhi character set, using the vowel markers to write independent vowels, instead of distinctly separate characters for each of these vowels as in other scripts. From the 10th century onwards, regional differences started to appear between the Sharada script used in Punjab, the Hill States and Kashmir. Sharada proper was restricted to limited ceremonial use in Kashmir, as it grew unsuitable for writing the Kashmiri language. With the last known inscription dating to 1204 C. E. the early 13th century marks a milestone in the development of Sharada. The regional variety in Punjab continued to evolve from this stage through the 14th century. By the 15th century, Sharada had evolved so that epigraphists denote the script at this point by a special name, Devāśeṣa. Tarlochan Singh Bedi prefers the name Pritham Gurmukhī, or Proto-Gurmukhī.

The Sikh gurus adopted proto-Gurmukhī to write the Guru Granth Sahib, the religious scriptures of the Sikhs. The Takri alphabet developed through the Devāśeṣa stage of the Sharada script from the 14th-18th centuries and is found in the Hill States such as Chamba, Himachal Pradesh and surrounding areas, where it is called Chambyali, in Jammu Division, where it is known as Dogri; the local Takri variants got the status of official scripts in some of the Punjab Hill States, were used for both administrative and literary purposes until the 19th century. After 1948, when Himachal Pradesh was established as an administrative unit, the local Takri variants were replaced by Devanagari. Meanwhile, the mercantile scripts of Punjab known as the Laṇḍā scripts were not used for literary purposes. Landa means alphabet "without tail". In Punjab, there were at least ten different scripts classified as Laṇḍā, Mahajani being the most popular; the Laṇḍā scripts were used for trade purposes. Compared to the Laṇḍā, Sikh Gurus favored the use of Proto-Gurmukhī, because of the difficulties involved in pronouncing words without vowel signs.

The usage of Gurmukhī letters in the Guru Granth Sahib meant that the script develope

Movement for the Left

Movement for the Left was a socialist and communist political party in Italy. It emerged as a split from the Communist Refoundation Party and merged into Left Ecology Freedom, its leader was Nichi Vendola. MpS emerged from the split of Refoundation for the Left, a faction within the Communist Refoundation Party composed of the bulk of the Bertinottiani, the group around Fausto Bertinotti that retained the majority of the party from 1998 to 2008, they supported the candidacy of Nichi Vendola for party secretary in the 24–27 July 2008 congress of the party. Vendola was defeated and Paolo Ferrero, a former bertinottiano who gained the support of the party's left-wing, became secretary. RpS represented the modernisers within the party and supported the creation of a united left with greens and other radicals, both in Italy and in Europe. In January 2009 the new leadership of the PRC replaced the editor of Liberazione, the party's newspaper, removing Piero Sansonetti, close to Vendola; the decision was opposed by Vendoliani.

At the same time Ferrero ruled out any alliance for the European Parliament election, in which the party will run alone, provoking another rift with Vendoliani, who were keen supporters joint-list with other left-wing forces, and, considered another step toward the break-up of the party. On 24 January the group around Vendola, including Franco Giordano, Gennaro Migliore and Alfonso Gianni decided to leave the party and to transform their faction into a party; however some members of the faction, including Giusto Catania, Milziade Caprili and Tommaso Sodano, decided not to leave the PRC and re-organized themselves into To the Left with Refoundation, while Bertinotti decided not to take any decision for now, participating to the inauguration of the party's headquarters on 3 March 2009 in Rome and to the assembly of those RpS members who decided to stay in the PRC. The goal of MpS was that of forming a new party with other left-wing groups, including Democratic Left, Unite the Left and United to the Left.

That is why Vendoliani sought to form a joint list for the 2009 European Parliament election with these political forces, while refusing any proposal of "communist joint list" with the Party of Italian Communists, although Vendola did not rule out an alliance comprising the PRC and the PdCI. On 16 March 2009, MpS formed a joint electoral list named Left and Freedom with the Greens, the Democratic Left, Unite the Left and the Socialist Party, a moderate social-democratic outfit, in order to overcome the 4% threshold introduced in the electoral law. According to Vendola, such a coalition could become a reliable ally for Democratic Party. On 22 October 2010, Left and Freedom, renamed Left Ecology Freedom, minus the Socialists and Greens, was founded as a political party; the party was led by a group of coordination elected during the 27 January 2009 assembly and composed of Celeste Costantino, Elettra Deiana, Titti De Simone, Daniele Farina, Nicola Fratoianni, Alfonso Gianni, Beatrice Giavazzi, Gennaro Migliore, Elisabetta Piccolotti and Alì Khalil.

Another short-lived political party with the same name was launched in March 2007 by Aleandro Longhi as a split from the Democrats of the Left, shortly before their merger into the Democratic Party. Shortly after Longhi merged MpS with the Party of Italian Communists. Official website Manifesto for the Refoundation

Independent Girls Schools Sports Association (Perth)

The Independent Girls Schools Sports Association was established in 1963 with the inaugural Athletics Carnival at Perry Lakes Stadium. This followed with the first Interschool Swimming Meet in 1965 at Beatty Park Aquatics Centre. In 1967 IGSA drew up a constitution for the Independent Girls’ Schools Athletics Association; the aim was to organise interschool sporting fixtures, which member schools of the Association of Principals of Independent Girls Schools Western Australia were participants, to establish necessary financial arrangements. In the same year the schools renamed themselves the Independent Girls Schools Sportsmistresses Association. A review was held of IGSA sport in 1985. Subsequently the name was changed to the Independent Girls Schools Sports Association. IGSSA provides member schools with the opportunity to compete in a variety of sporting and cultural activities. Rowing Basketball Hockey Netball Tennis Soccer Softball Volleyball Swimming Dance Waterpolo Athletics Cross Country Swimming Independent Girls' Schools' Sports Association Iona Presentation College Methodist Ladies' College Penrhos College Perth College Presbyterian Ladies' College Santa Maria College St Hilda's Anglican School for Girls St Mary's Anglican Girls' School