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Punjabi language

Punjabi is an Indo-Aryan language with more than 125 million native speakers in the Indian subcontinent and around the world. It is the native language of the Punjabi people, an ethnolinguistic group of the cultural region of Punjab, which encompasses northwest India and eastern Pakistan. Punjabi is the most spoken language in Pakistan, the 11th most spoken language in India and the third most-spoken native language in the Indian subcontinent, it is the fifth most-spoken native language in Canada after English, French and Cantonese. Punjabi is unusual among Indo-European languages in its use of lexical tone. Gurmukhi is the official script for the language in Punjab, India while Shahmukhi is used in Punjab, Pakistan; the word Punjabi has been derived from the word Panj-āb, Persian for "Five Waters", referring to the five major eastern tributaries of the Indus River. The name of the region was introduced by the Turko-Persian conquerors of South Asia and was a translation of the Sanskrit name for the region, which means "Land of the Five Rivers".

Panj is cognate with Sanskrit पञ्च and Greek πέντε and Lithuanian Penki - "five", "āb" is cognate with Sanskrit अप् and with the Av- of Avon. The historical Punjab region, now divided between India and Pakistan, is defined physiographically by the Indus River and these five tributaries. One of the five, the Beas River, is a tributary of the Sutlej. Punjabi developed from Sanskrit through Prakrit languages and Apabhraṃśa From 600 BC Sanskrit gave birth to many regional languages in different parts of India. All these languages are called Prakrit collectively. Shauraseni Prakrit was one of these Prakrit languages, spoken in north and north-western India and Punjabi and western dialects of Hindi developed from this Prakrit. In northern India Shauraseni Prakrit gave rise to Shauraseni Aparbhsha, a descendant of Prakrit. Punjabi emerged as an Apabhramsha, a degenerated form of Prakrit, in the 7th century A. D. and became stable by the 10th century. By the 10th century, many Nath poets were associated with earlier Punjabi works.

Arabic and Persian influence in the historical Punjab region began with the late first millennium Muslim conquests on the Indian subcontinent. The Persian language was introduced in the subcontinent a few centuries by various Turko-Persian dynasties. Many Persian and Arabic words were incorporated in Punjabi, it is noteworthy that the Hindustani language is divided into Hindi, with more Sanskritisation, Urdu, with more Persianisation, but in Punjabi both Sanskrit and Persian words are used with a liberal approach to language. It was lexically influenced by Portuguese and English, though these influences have been minor in comparison to Persian and Arabic. Note: In more formal contexts, hypercorrect Sanskritized versions of these words may be used. Punjabi is spoken in many dialects in an area from Islamabad to Delhi; the Majhi dialect has been adopted as standard Punjabi in Pakistan and India for education, media etc. The Majhi dialect originated in the Majha region of the Punjab; the Majha region consists of several eastern districts of Pakistani Punjab and in India around Amritsar and surrounding districts.

The two most important cities in this area are Amritsar. In India technical words in Standard Punjabi are loaned from Sanskrit to other major Indian languages, but it generously uses Arabic and English words in the official language. In India, Punjabi is written in the Gurmukhī script in offices and media. Gurmukhi is the official standard script for Punjabi, though it is unofficially written in the Devanagari or Latin scripts due to influence from Hindi and English, India's two primary official languages at the Union-level. In Pakistan, Punjabi is written using the Shahmukhī script, created from a modification of the Persian Nastaʿlīq script. In Pakistan, Punjabi loans technical words from Arabic languages, just like Urdu does. Punjabi is the most spoken language in Pakistan, the eleventh -most spoken in India and spoken Punjabi diaspora in various countries. Punjabi is the most spoken language in Pakistan, being the native language of 44% of its population, it is the provincial language in the Punjab Province.

Beginning with the 1981 census, speakers of Saraiki and Hindko were no longer included in the total numbers for Punjabi, which could explain the apparent decrease. Punjabi is spoken as a native language, second language, or third language by about 30 million people in India. Punjabi is the official language of the Indian state of Punjab, it is additional official in Delhi. Some of its major urban centres in northern India are Ambala, Patiala, Chandigarh, Jalandhar and Delhi. Punjabi is spoken as a minority language in several other countries where Punjabi people have emigrated in large numbers, such as the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, where it is the fourth-most-commonly used language. There were 76 million Punjabi speakers in Pakistan in 2008, 33 million in India in 2011, 368,000 in Canada in 2006, smaller numbers in other countries; the Majhi dialect spoken around Amritsar and Lahore is Punjabi's prestige dialect. Majhi is spoken in the heart of Punjab in the region of Majha, which spans Lahore, Gurdaspur, Tarn Taran, Faisalaba

HMS Diana (1757)

HMS Diana was one of the four 32-gun Southampton-class fifth-rate frigates of the Royal Navy. She was launched in 1757. In 1760, at the Battle of Neuville she and HMS Vanguard pursued and sank two French frigates, commanded by Jean Vauquelin, Pomone, she served through the American Revolutionary War. In 1792 there was a civil in San Domingo with between the black inhabitants. Captain Thomas McNamara Russell of Diana, on a relief mission to the authorities on Saint-Domingue, received the intelligence that John Perkins, a mulatto British former naval officer from Jamaica, was under arrest and due to be executed in Jérémie for supplying arms to the rebel slaves. Britain and France were not at war and Russell requested that the French release Perkins; the French authorities promised that they didn't. After the exchange of numerous letters, Russell decided that the French were not going to release Perkins. Russell sailed around Cap-Français to Jérémie and met with Ferret. Russell and Captain Nowell, of Ferret, decided that Nowell's first lieutenant, an officer named Godby, would go ashore and recover Perkins whilst the two ships remained offshore within cannon shot, ready to deploy a landing party if need be.

Lieutenant Godby landed and after negotiations the French released Perkins. The "Principle Officers and Commissioners of His Majesty's Navy" offered the hull of "Diana, Burthen 668 Tons" for sale at Deptford on 16 May 1793; the purchasers had to post a bond of £ 2000. Citations References Robert Gardiner, The First Frigates, Conway Maritime Press, London 1992. ISBN 0-85177-601-9. David Lyon, The Sailing Navy List, Conway Maritime Press, London 1993. ISBN 0-85177-617-5. Winfield, Rif. British Warships in the Age of Sail 1714–1792: Design, Construction and Fates. Seaforth. ISBN 978-1844157006

Clifton Gardens, New South Wales

Clifton Gardens is an urban locality in the suburb of Mosman in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Clifton Gardens is located in the local government area of the Municipality of Mosman and is part of the Lower North Shore. Clifton Gardens is adjacent Chowder Bay. Clifton Gardens features an affluent residential area and is home to several beaches and wharves on Sydney Harbour. Clifton Gardens is a popular fishing spot in summer. Species like the yellowtail kingfish and Australian salmon are caught during summer months. In winter trevally can be caught quite regularly. Early settler Captain E. H. Cliffe purchased a 23-hectare estate on the waters edge, he named it "Cliffeton" and it is believed that the area's name was derived from that. A hotel called, it was leased in 1879 bought in 1880 by David Thompson who built the Marine Hotel that operated from 1885 to 1967. Thompson built a wharf and dancing pavilion here and the area became popular as a picnic spot. In 1906, Sydney Ferries Limited, purchased the Thompson estate comprising land, the three-storey hotel, wharf dancing pavilion and skating rink.

The company built a large circular swimming enclosure that could hold 3,000 spectators, a boatshed and a tramway from the wharf to the hotel. Before First World War, ferries full of picnickers came at weekends; the structure burnt down in 1956. Clifton Gardens Hotel was demolished on 17 November 1967. Blessed Sacrament Catholic Primary School Blessed Sacrament Catholic Church Media related to Clifton Gardens, New South Wales at Wikimedia Commons