Guru Har Rai
Guru Har Rai revered as the seventh Nanak, was the seventh of ten Gurus of the Sikh religion. He became the Sikh leader at age 14, on 8 March 1644, after the death of his grandfather and sixth Sikh leader Guru Hargobind, he guided the Sikhs for about seventeen years, till his death at age 31. Guru Har Rai is notable for maintaining the large army of Sikh soldiers that the sixth Sikh Guru had amassed, yet avoiding military conflict, he supported the moderate Sufi influenced Dara Shikoh instead of conservative Sunni influenced Aurangzeb as the two brothers entered into a war of succession to the Mughal Empire throne. After Aurangzeb won the succession war in 1658, he summoned Guru Har Rai in 1660 to explain his support for the executed Dara Shikoh. Har Rai sent his elder son Ram Rai to represent him. Aurangzeb kept Ram Rai as hostage, questioned Ram Rai about a verse in the Adi Granth – the holy text of Sikhs at that time. Aurangzeb claimed. Ram Rai changed the verse to appease Aurangzeb instead of standing by the Sikh scripture, an act for which Guru Har Rai is remembered for excommunicating his elder son, nominating his younger son Har Krishan to succeed him.
Har Krishan became the eighth Guru at age 5 after Guru Har Rai's death in 1661. Some Sikh literature spell his name as Hari Rai. Har Rai was born to Baba Gurditta into a Sodhi household, his father died. At age 10, in 1640, Guru Har Rai was married to Mata Kishan Kaur the daughter of Daya Ram, they had the latter of whom became the eighth Guru. Har Rai had brothers, his elder brother Dhir Mal had gained encouragement and support from Shah Jahan, with free land grants and Mughal sponsorship. Dhir Mal attempted to form a parallel Sikh tradition and criticized his grand father and sixth Guru Hargobind; the sixth Guru disagreed with Dhir Mal, designated the younger Har Rai as the successor. Authentic literature about Guru Har Rai life and times are scarce, he left no texts of his own and some Sikh texts composed spell his name as "Hari Rai"; some of the biographies of Guru Har Rai written in the 18th century such as by Kesar Singh Chhibber, the 19th-century Sikh literature are inconsistent. Guru Har Rai provided medical care to Dara Shikoh when he had been poisoned by Mughal operatives.
According to Mughal records, Har Rai provided other forms of support to Dara Shikoh as he and his brother Aurangzeb battled for rights to succession. Aurangzeb won, arrested Dara Shikoh and executed him on charges of apostasy from Islam. In 1660, Aurangzeb summoned Har Rai to appear before him to explain his relationship with Dara Shikoh. In the Sikh tradition, Guru Har Rai was asked why he was helping the Mughal prince Dara Shikoh whose forefathers had persecuted Sikhs and Sikh Gurus. Har Rai is believed to have replied that if a man plucks flowers with one hand and gives it away using his other hand, both hands get the same fragrance, he appointed youngest son Har Krishan as the eighth guru before his death. Guru Har Rai converted many to Sikhism, he started several public singing and scripture recital traditions in Sikhism. The katha or discourse style recitals were added by Guru Har Rai, to the sabad kirtan singing tradition of Sikhs, he added the akhand kirtan or continuous scripture singing tradition of Sikhism, as well as the tradition of jotian da kirtan or collective folk choral singing of scriptures.
The third Sikh leader Guru Amar Das had started the tradition of appointing manji, introduced the dasvandh system of revenue collection in the name of Guru and as pooled community religious resource, the famed langar tradition of Sikhism where anyone, without discrimination of any kind, could get a free meal in a communal seating. The organizational structure that had helped Sikhs to grow and resist the Mughal persecution had created new problems for Guru Har Rai; the donation collectors, some of the Masands led by Dhir Mal – the older brother of Guru Har Rai, all of them encouraged by the support of Shah Jahan, land grants and Mughal administration, had attempted to internally split the Sikhs into competing movements, start a parallel guruship, thereby weaken the Sikh religion. Thus a part of the challenge for Guru Har Rai was to keep Sikhs united, he appointed new masands such as Bhai Jodh, Bhai Gonda, Bhai Nattha, Bhagat Bhagwan, Bhai Pheru, Bhai Bhagat, as the heads of Manji's. Macauliffe, M.
A.. The Sikh Religion: Its Gurus Sacred Writings and Authors. Low Price Publications. ISBN 81-7536-132-8. Singh, Khushwant. A History of the Sikhs: 1469-1839 Vol.1. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-567308-5. Guru Har Rai, Sikhs.org Guru Har Rai, Sikh-History.com Guru Har Rai, Official Website of Gurudwara Shri Guru Har Rai Village Bhungarni
Guru Nanak was the founder of Sikhism and the first of the ten Sikh Gurus. His birth is celebrated worldwide as Guru Nanak Gurpurab on Kartik Pooranmashi, the full-moon day in the month of Katak, October–November. Guru Nanak travelled far and wide teaching people the message of one God who dwells in every one of His creations and constitutes the eternal Truth, he set up a unique spiritual and political platform based on equality, fraternal love and virtue. Guru Nanak's words are registered in the form of 974 poetic hymns in the holy text of Sikhism, the Guru Granth Sahib, with some of the major prayers being the Japji Sahib, the Asa di Var and the Sidh-Ghost, it is part of Sikh religious belief that the spirit of Guru Nanak's sanctity and religious authority descended upon each of the nine subsequent Gurus when the Guruship was devolved on to them. Guru Nanak was born on 29 November 1469 at Rāi Bhoi Kī Talvaṇḍī near Lahore, his parents were Kalyan Chand Das Bedi, popularly shortened to Mehta Kalu, Mata Tripta.
His father was the local patwari for crop revenue in the village of Talwandi. His parents were both Hindu employed as merchants, he had one sister, Bebe Nanaki, five years older than he was. In 1475 she moved to Sultanpur. Guru Nanak was attached to his sister and followed her to Sultanpur to live with her and her husband, Jai Ram. At the age of around 16 years, Nanak started working under Daulat Khan Lodi, employer of Nanaki's husband; this was a formative time for Nanak, as the Puratan Janam Sakhi suggests, in his numerous allusions to governmental structure in his hymns, most gained at this time. According to Sikh traditions, the birth and early years of Guru Nanak's life were marked with many events that demonstrated that Nanak had been marked by divine grace. Commentaries on his life give details of his blossoming awareness from a young age. At the age of five, Nanak is said to have voiced interest in divine subjects. At age seven, his father enrolled him at the village school. Notable lore recounts that as a child Nanak astonished his teacher by describing the implicit symbolism of the first letter of the alphabet, resembling the mathematical version of one, as denoting the unity or oneness of God.
Other childhood accounts refer to strange and miraculous events about Nanak, such as one witnessed by Rai Bular, in which the sleeping child's head was shaded from the harsh sunlight, in one account, by the stationary shadow of a tree or, in another, by a venomous cobra. On 24 September 1487 Nanak married Mata Sulakkhani, daughter of Mūl Chand and Chando Rāṇī, in the town of Batala; the couple had Sri Chand and Lakhmi Chand. Sri Chand received enlightenment from Guru Nanak's teachings and went on to become the founder of the Udasi sect; the earliest biographical sources on Nanak's life recognised today are the Janamsākhīs. Bhai Gurdas, a scribe of the Gurū Granth Sahib wrote about Nanak's life in his vārs. Although these too were compiled some time after Nanak's time, they are less detailed than the Janamsākhīs; the Janamsākhīs recount in minute detail the circumstances of the birth of the guru. Gyan-ratanavali is attributed to Bhai Mani Singh who wrote it with the express intention of correcting heretical accounts of Guru Nanak.
Bhai Mani Singh was a disciple of Guru Gobind Singh, approached by some Sikhs with a request that he should prepare an authentic account of Guru Nanak’s life. One popular Janamsākhī was written by a close companion of the Guru, Bhai Bala. However, the writing style and language employed have left scholars, such as Max Arthur Macauliffe, certain that they were composed after his death. According to the scholars, there are good reasons to doubt the claim that the author was a close companion of Guru Nanak and accompanied him on many of his travels. Nanak was a Guru, founded Sikhism during the 15th century; the fundamental beliefs of Sikhism, articulated in the sacred scripture Guru Granth Sahib, include faith and meditation on the name of the one creator, unity of all humankind, engaging in selfless service, striving for social justice for the benefit and prosperity of all, honest conduct and livelihood while living a householder's life. The Guru Granth Sahib is worshipped as the Supreme Authority of Sikhism and is considered the eleventh and final guru of Sikhism.
As the first guru of Sikhism, Guru Nanak contributed a total of 974 hymns to the book. Nanak’s teachings can be found in the Sikh scripture Guru Granth Sahib, as a collection of verses recorded in Gurmukhi. There are two competing theories on Guru Nanak's teachings. One, according to Cole and Sambhi, is based on hagiographical Janamsakhis, states that Nanak's teachings and Sikhism were a revelation from God, not a social protest movement nor any attempt to reconcile Hinduism and Islam in the 15th century; the other states, Nanak was a Guru. According to Singha, "Sikhism does not subscribe to the theory of incarnation or the concept of prophethood, but it has a pivotal concept of Guru. He is not an incarnation of God, not a prophet, he is an illumined soul."The hagiographical Janamsakhis were not written by Nanak, but by followers without regard for historical accuracy, contain numerous legends and myths created to show respect for Nanak. The term revelation, clarify Cole and Sambhi, in Sikhism is not limited to the teachings of Nanak, they include all Sikh Gurus, as well as the words of past and future men and women, who possess divine knowledge intuitively through meditation.
Sri Muktsar Sahib
Sri Muktsar Sahib is a city and district headquarters for the district of Sri Muktsar Sahib, located in Punjab, India. The 2011 Census of India put the total population of Sri Muktsar Sahib municipality to 117,085, making it the 14th largest city of Punjab, in terms of population. Known as Khidrana or Khidrane di dhab, the city was made the district headquarters in 1995. Chronological evidence indicates that the city was named Muktsar after the battle of Muktsar in 1705; the government changed the name of the city to Sri Muktsar Sahib in 2012, though the city is still referred to by its unofficial name – Muktsar. The modern day Muktsar city was a semi-desert terrain named Khidrana or Khidrane de dhab, situated near a lake. Not much is known about the early history of the present area of the city; this may be due to the river Sutlej. The Sutlej is notorious for shifting its course, it is stated to have flowed as far east as Muktsar within historical times. While shifting its course it is said to have leveled down everything that came its way, leaving behind ruins and mounds of earth and pottery debris.
The present area of Muktsar is entirely destitute of ancient buildings and contains no places mentioned in early records. Legends connected with Raja Sálbán attach to one or two other ruined sites near Muktsar such as that at Sarai Naga, 10 miles to the east of Muktsar, but the city does not date from an earlier period than the reign of Akbar. The territory of which Muktsar now forms a part of was ruled by the Paramara Rajputs who held it for a considerable period. Jiwa moved to the neighborhood of Muktsar where his descendants held a group of villages, his grandson Abdulla Khan became the zaildar of Muktsar. About the time of the first Muslim conquests of India, a colony of Bhati Rajputs, of whose stock the tribes of Manj and Dogra Rajputs are branches, came from Jaisalmer under a leader, called Rai Hel, settled to the south of the present town of Muktsar, they overcame the local Paramara chief and established themselves. Burar had two sons and Dhul, the younger of whom held the whole of the region of Muktsar.
During the decay of the Delhi Empire, the country, which had become depopulated, was occupied by the Dogras, a clan of Rajput origin, who are still prominent among the occupants of Muktsar. The rulers, who were Islamic and called themselves converted descendants of the Chauhans of Delhi, emigrated some years ago to the neighbourhood of Pakpattan. At one time they were undoubted masters of Mamdot and Khai, as well as of Ferozepor including the present area of Muktsar. In March 1504, the second Sikh guru, Guru Angad Dev, was born at Matte-di-Sarai, about 6 miles from Muktsar, his father Bhai Pheru was a Trehan Khatri merchant, mother, Ramo, a housewife. In 1705, after battle of Chamkaur against the Mughals, Guru Gobind Singh started looking out for a suitable place from where he could defend himself. Assisted by an experienced guide of a Brar chief, the guru reached Khidrane Di Dhab where he decided to meet the enemy, he received news that he was being pursued by the imperial troops, at least 10,000 strong, under Wazir Khan, subedar of Sirhind.
Earlier, in 1704, when the Guru Gobind Singh's Army in Anandpur Sahib had run out of provisions, 40 Sikhs from Majha deserted him, where they signed a declaration saying they were no longer the Sikhs of Guru Gobind Singh and he was no longer their guru. Now, those 40 deserters came back to join the guru's forces, realizing their mistake of deserting him, under the motivation of a woman fighter, Mai Bhago; the Sikhs engaged the Mughal forces. Guru Gobind Singh sent reinforcements, though the number of Sikh soldiers is disputed. Historians like Latif have put it at 12,000, though the Sikh chroniclers say they were far fewer, some say as few as forty, they showered arrows from his strategic position on the mound, down upon the imperial army, killing a number of them. The resistance of the Sikhs became fierce; the enemy became restive. It was not possible; as it was semi-desert terrain and the summer heat was reaching its peak, the guru knew of its importance and based his defenses around the water reservoir.
The only water they could get was fifteen miles behind them. Thirst and oppressive heat, the tough resistance offered by the Sikhs, compelled the Mughal army to retreat. Guru Gobind Singh won this last Mughal-Khalsa battle. At the end of the battle, when he was looking for survivors, Mai Bhago, lying wounded, told him how the forty deserters had laid down their lives fighting in the battlefield. Mai Bhago remained in the Guru's presence after the battle of Muktsar; when Guru Gobind Singh, along with his Sikhs, was collecting the dead bodies for cremation, he found one man, named Mahan Singh, still clinging to life. On seeing the Guru, he made an effort to rise. Mahan Singh and exhausted, requested the guru to destroy the document disclaiming his being a Sikh of the Guru. Before Mahan Singh died, Guru Gobind Singh tore it up, it is a legendary belief that this gave "mukti", meaning freedom, to those 40 Sikhs and hence, the city got its modern-day name Muktsar, where the word "sar" is derived from the word "sa
In Hinduism and Sikhism, Bhagats were holy men of various sects. Members of a community that gives prominence to the religious teachings of Kabir are known as Bhagats, the Hindu and Sikh religions both have numerous Bhagat communities in Punjab; these communities have faith in all the Bhagats in the Guru Granth Sahib, but consider Kabir to be the most important of them. Bhagat is a Punjabi word derived from the Sanskrit word Bhagavata, which means: a devotee of the Lord. Many such Hindu and Sikh devotees are followers of the bhakti tradition, who adhere to a prayer-led path of realization. Bhagat is a Hindu and Jain surname, most in northern states of India. Sikhism's central scriptural book, Guru Granth Sahib, has teachings of 15 Bhagats, along with bani of Sikh Gurus and Gursikhs; because Sikhism believes in one human creed and that accounts to adding Bani of various authors, a total of 36, in Guru Granth Sahib irrespective of many belonging to religions other than Sikhism and some Bhagats who were considered as low, untouchables or Shudras, as per the Hindu caste system, based on the caste they were born into.
Religious writings of those Bhagats were collected by Guru Arjan. Some of them lived before Guru Nanak, but came to have a monotheistic as opposed to a polytheistic doctrine. Broadly speaking, therefore, a Bhagat is a holy person or a member of a community whose objectives involve leading humanity towards God and highlighting injustices in the world. Below is a list of the Bhagats who contributed towards Sri Guru Granth Sahib: Bhagat Kabir Bhagat Ravidas Bhagat Farid Bhagat Ramanand Bhagat Beni Bhagat Namdev Bhagat Sadhana Bhagat Bhikhan Bhagat Parmanand Bhagat Sain Bhagat Dhanna Bhagat Pipa Bhagat Surdas Bhagat Jaidev Bhagat Trilochan Sant
Namdev transliterated as Nam Dayv, Namadeva, was an Indian poet and saint from Maharashtra, India, significant to the Varkari sect of Hinduism. Bhagat Namdev's writings were recognized by the "Gurus" of Sikhism and are included in the holy book of Sikhism, the Sri Guru Granth Sahib. Namdev worship lord Vitthal, one of the name of lord Vishnu. Other Hindu warrior-ascetic traditions such as the Dadupanthis and the Niranjani Sampraday that emerged in north India during the Islamic rule; the details of Namdev's life are unclear. He is the subject of many miracle-filled hagiographies composed centuries. Scholars find these biographies to be contradictory. Namdev was influenced by Vaishnavism, became known in India for his devotional songs set to music, his philosophy contains saguna Brahman elements, with monistic themes. Namdev's legacy is remembered in modern times in the Varkari tradition, along with those of other gurus, with masses of people walking together in biannual pilgrimages to Pandharpur in south Maharashtra.
Details of the life of Namdev are vague. He is traditionally believed to have lived between 1270 and 1350 but S. B. Kulkarni — according to Christian Novetzke, "one of the most prominent voices in the historical study of Maharashtrian sant figures" — has suggested that 1207-1287 is more based on textual analysis; some scholars date him to around 1425 and another, R. Bharadvaj, proposes 1309-1372. Namdev was married to Rajai and had a son, both of whom wrote about him, as did his mother, Gonai. Contemporary references to him by a disciple, a potter, a guru and other close associates exist. There are no references to him in the records and inscriptions of the then-ruling family and the first non-Varkari noting of him appears to be in the Lilacaritra, a Mahanubhava-sect biography dating from 1278. Smrtisthala, a Mahanubhava text from around 1310, may possibly refer to him. According to Mahipati, a hagiographer of the 18th century, Namdev's parents were Damashet and Gonai, a childless elderly couple whose prayers for parenthood were answered and involved him being found floating down a river.
As with various other details of his life, elements such as this may have been invented to sidestep issues that might have caused controversy. In this instance, the potential controversy was that of caste or, more his position in the Hindu varna system of ritual ranking, he was born into what is recognised as a Shudra caste, variously recorded as shimpi in the Marathi language and as Chhipa, Chhimpa,Chhimba,chimpi in northern India. Shudra is the lowest-ranked of the four varnas and those of his followers in Maharashtra and northern India who are from those communities prefer to consider their place, thus his, as the higher-status Kshatriya rank. There are contrary traditions concerning his birthplace, with some people believing that he was born at Narsi Bahmani, on the Krishna River in Marathwada, others preferring somewhere near to Pandharpur on the Bhima river; that he was himself tailor and that he spent much of his life in Punjab. The Lilacaritra suggests, that Namdev was a cattle-thief, devoted to and assisted Vithoba.
A friendship between Namdev and Jñāneśvar, a yogi-saint, has been posited at least as far back as circa 1600 CE when Nabhadas, a hagiographer, noted it in his Bhaktamal. Jñāneśvar known as Jñāndev, never referred to Namdev in his writings but had no cause to do so; such men, who comprised both Hindus and Muslims, traditionally wrote devotional poetry in a style, acceptable to the Sikh belief system. A tradition in Maharashtra is that Namdev died at the age of eighty in 1350 CE. Sikh tradition maintains that his death place was the Punjabi village of Ghuman, although this is not universally accepted. Aside from a shrine there that marks his death, there are monuments at the other claimant places, being Pandharpur and the nearby Narsi Bahmani. Scholars note that many miracles and specifics about Namdev's life appear only in manuscripts written centuries after Namdev's death; the birth theory with Namdev floating down a river, is first found in Mahipati's Bhaktavijay composed around 1762, is absent in all earlier biographies of Namdev.
Mahipati's biography of Namdev adds numerous other miracles, such as buildings rotating and sun rising in the west to show respect to Namdev. The earliest surviving Hindi and Rajasthani biographies from about 1600 only mention a few miracles performed by Namdev. In Namdev biographies published after 1600 through the end of the 20th century, new life details and more miracles appear with the passage of time; the earliest biographies never mention the caste of Namdev, his caste appears for the first time in manuscripts with statements from Ravidas and Dhana in early 17th century. Namdev's Immaculate Conception miracle mentioned in era manuscripts, adds Novetzke, is a story found for other sants in India; the Namdev biographies in medieval manuscripts are inconsistent and contradictory, feeding questions of their reliability. The literary works of Namdev were influenced by a belief in Vithoba. Along with the Jñānēśvarī, a sacred wor
Guru Ram Das
Guru Ram Das was the fourth of the ten Gurus of Sikhism. He was born on 24 September 1534 in a poor Hindu family based in Lahore, part of what is now Pakistan, his birth name was Jetha, he was orphaned at age 7, thereafter grew up with his maternal grandmother in a village. At age 12, Bhai Jetha and his grandmother moved to Goindval; the boy thereafter served him. The daughter of Guru Amar Das got married to Bhai Jetha, he thus became part of Guru Amar Das's family; as with the first two Gurus of Sikhism, Guru Amar Das instead of choosing his own sons, chose Bhai Jetha as his successor and renamed him as Ram Das or "servant or slave of god ". Ram Das became the Guru of Sikhism in 1574 and served as the Sikh leader until his death in 1581, he faced hostilities from the sons of Amar Das, shifted his official base to lands identified by Amar Das as Guru-ka-Chak. This newly founded town was eponymous Ramdaspur to evolve and get renamed as Amritsar – the holiest city of Sikhism, he is remembered in the Sikh tradition for expanding the manji organization for clerical appointments and donation collections to theologically and economically support the Sikh movement.
He appointed his own son as his successor, unlike the first four Gurus who were not related through descent, the fifth through tenth Sikh Gurus were the direct descendants of Ram Das. Guru Ram Das was born in a Sodhi Khatri family in Lahore, his father was mother Daya Kaurboth of whom died when he was aged seven. He was brought up by his grandmother, he married the younger daughter of Amar Das. They had three sons: Prithi Chand and Guru Arjan. Guru Ram Das died on 1 September 1581, in Goindval town of Punjab. Of his three sons, Ram Das chose the youngest, to succeed him as the fifth Sikh Guru; the choice of successor, as throughout most of the history of Sikh Guru successions, led to disputes and internal divisions among the Sikhs. The elder son of Ram Das named Prithi Chand is remembered in the Sikh tradition as vehemently opposing Arjan, creating a faction Sikh community which the Sikhs following Arjan called as Minas, is alleged to have attempted to assassinate young Hargobind. However, alternate competing texts written by the Prithi Chand led Sikh faction offer a different story, contradict this explanation on Hargobind's life, present the elder son of Ram Das as devoted to his younger brother Arjan.
The competing texts do acknowledge disagreement and describe Prithi Chand as having become the Sahib Guru after the martyrdom of Guru Arjan Dev and disputing the succession of Guru Hargobind, the grandson of Ram Das. Ram Das is credited with founding the holy city of Amritsar in the Sikh tradition. Two versions of stories exist regarding the land. In one based on a Gazetteer record, the land was purchased with Sikh donations, for 700 rupees from the owners of the village of Tung. According to the Sikh historical records, the site was chosen by Guru Amar Das and called Guru Da Chakk, after he had asked Ram Das to find land to start a new town with a man made pool as its central point. After his coronation in 1574, the hostile opposition he faced from the sons of Amar Das, Ram Das founded the town named after him as "Ramdaspur", he started by completing the pool, building his new official Guru centre and home next to it. He invited artisans from other parts of India to settle into the new town with him.
The town expanded during the time of Arjan constructed by voluntary work. The town grew to become the city of Amritsar, the pool area grew into a temple complex after his son built the gurdwara Harmandir Sahib, installed the scripture of Sikhism inside the new temple in 1604; the construction activity between 1574 and 1604 is described in Mahima Prakash Vartak, a semi-historical Sikh hagiography text composed in 1741, the earliest known document dealing with the lives of all the ten Gurus. Ram Das composed about ten percent of hymns in the Guru Granth Sahib, he was a celebrated poet, composed his work in 30 ancient ragas of Indian classical music. These cover a range of topics: One who calls himself to be a disciple of the Guru should rise before dawn and meditate on the Lord's Name. During the early hours, he should rise and bathe, cleansing his soul in a tank of nectar, while he repeats the Name the Guru has spoken to him. By this procedure he washes away the sins of his soul. – GGS 305 The Name of God fills my heart with joy.
My great fortune is to meditate on God's name. The miracle of God's name is attained through the perfect Guru, but only a rare soul walks in the light of the Guru's wisdom. – GGS 94 O man! The poison of pride is killing you. Your body, the colour of gold, has been discoloured by selfishness. Illusions of gradeur turn black. – GGS 776 Guru's Bani is part of Nanakshahi calendar and Kirtan Sohila, the daily prayers of Sikhs. His compositions continue to be sung daily in Harimandir Sahib of Sikhism. Ram Das, along with Amar Das, are credited with various parts of the Anand and Laavan composition in Suhi mode, it is a part of the ritual of four clockwise circumambulation of the Sikh scripture by the bride and groom to solemnize the marriage in Sikh tradition. This was intermittently used, its use lapsed in late 18th century. However, sometime in 19th or 20th century by conflicting accounts, the composition of Ram Das came back in use along with Anand Karaj ceremony, replacing the Hindu ritual of circumambulation around the fire.
The composition of Ram
Ravidas was an Indian mystic poet-sant of the bhakti movement during the 14th to 16th century CE. Venerated as a guru in the region of Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh, the devotional songs of Ravidas have had a lasting impact upon the bhakti movement, he was a spiritual figure. He is considered as the founder of 21st-century Ravidassia religion by a group who were associated with Sikhism; the life details of Ravidas are uncertain and contested. Every scholars believe he was born at 1371 CE, in a family that worked with dead animals' skins to produce leather products and much known in India as untouchables. Tradition and medieval era texts state Ravidas was one of the disciples of the Brahmin bhakti saint-poet Ramananda. Ravidas' devotional songs were included in Guru Granth Sahib; the Panch Vani text of the Dadupanthi tradition within Hinduism includes numerous poems of Ravidas. Ravidas taught removal of social divisions of caste and gender, promoted unity in the pursuit of personal spiritual freedoms..
The details of Ravidas's life are not well known because he was from a lower caste family and at that time members of his caste's birth were not recorded by the Brahmin scholars. Scholars state he was born in 1371 CE and died in 1522 CE. Ravidas was born in the village of Seer Goverdhanpur, near Varanasi in what is now Uttar Pradesh, India, his birthplace is now known as Shri Guru Ravidas Janam Asthan. Mata Ghurbinia was his mother, his father was Raghuram, his parents belonged to a leather-working Chamar community making them an untouchable caste. While his original occupation was leather work, he began to spend most of his time in spiritual pursuits at bank of river Ganga. Thereafter he spent most of his life in the company of Sufi saints and ascetics; the text Anantadas Parcai, one of the earliest surviving biographies of various Bhakti movement poets, introduces the birth of Ravidas as follows, Medieval era texts, such as the Bhaktamal suggest that Ravidas was not the disciple of the Brahmin bhakti -poet Ramananda.
He is traditionally considered as Kabir's younger contemporary. His ideas and fame grew over his lifetime, texts suggest Brahmins used to bow before him, he travelled extensively, visiting Hindu pilgrimage sites in Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat and those in the Himalayas. He abandoned saguna forms of supreme beings, focussed on the nirguna form of supreme beings; as his poetic hymns in regional languages inspired others, people from various background sought his teachings and guidance. Most scholars believe that Ravidas met the founder of Sikhism, he is revered in the Sikh scripture, 41 of Ravidas' poems are included in the Adi Granth. These poems are one of the oldest attested source of literary works. Another substantial source of legends and stories about the life of Ravidas is the hagiography in the Sikh tradition, named Premambodha; this text, composed over 150 years after Ravidas' death, in 1693, includes him as one of the seventeen saints of Indian religious tradition. The 17th-century Nabhadas's Bhaktamal, the Parcais of Anantadas, both contain chapters on Ravidas.
Other than these, the scriptures and texts of Sikh tradition and the Hindu Dadupanthi traditions, most other written sources about the life of Ravidas, including by the Ravidasi, were composed in the early 20th century, or about 400 years after his death. This text, called the Parcaīs, included Ravidas among the sants whose biography and poems were included. Over time new manuscripts of Parcais of Anantadas were reproduced, some in different local languages of India. Winnand Callewaert notes that some 30 manuscripts of Anantadas's hagiography on Ravidas have been found in different parts of India. Of these four manuscripts are complete and have been dated to 1662, 1665, 1676 and 1687; the first three are close with some morphological variants without affecting the meaning, but the 1687 version systematically inserts verses into the text, at various locations, with caste-related statements, new claims of Brahmins persecuting Ravidas, notes on the untouchability of Ravidas, claims of Kabir giving Ravidas ideas, ridicules of nirguni and saguni ideas, such text corruption: Callewaert considers the 1676 version as the standard version, his critical edition of Ravidas's hagiography excludes all these insertions, he remarks that the cleaner critical version of Anantadas's parcais suggests that there is more in common in the ideas of bhakti movement's Ravidas and Sen than thought.
Khare has questioned the textual sources on Ravidas, mentions there are few "readily available and reliable textual sources on the Hindu and Untouchable treatment of Ravidas." The Adi Granth of Sikhs, Panchvani of the Hindu warrior-ascetic group Dadupanthis are the two oldest attested sources of the literary works of Ravidas. In the Adi Granth, forty of Ravidas's poems are included, he is one of thirty six contributors to this foremost canonical scripture of Sikhism; this compilation of poetry in Adi Granth responds to, among other things, issues of dealing with conflict and tyranny and resolution, willingness to dedicate one's life to the right cause. Ravidas's poetry covers topics such as the definition of a just state where there are no second or third class unequal citizens, the need for dispassion, and, a real Yogi. Jeffrey Ebbesen notes that, just like other bhakti sant-poets of India and some cases of Western literature authorship, many poems composed by era Indian poets have been attributed to Ravidas, as an act of reverence tho