Gustav Vigeland, born as Adolf Gustav Thorsen, was a Norwegian sculptor. Gustav Vigeland occupies a special position among Norwegian sculptors, both in the power of his creative imagination and in his productivity, he is most associated with the Vigeland installation in Oslo. He was the designer of the Nobel Peace Prize medal. Adolf Gustav Thorsen was born to a family of craftsmen, just outside Halse og Harkmark, a former municipality in Mandal, his parents were a cabinetmaker and Anne Aanensdatter. He had three brothers; as a youth, he was sent to Oslo. However, the sudden death of his father compelled him to move back to Mandal to help his family. Gustav lived for a time with his grandparents on a farm called Mjunebrokka in Vigeland, an old farm in Valle parish, Lindesnes municipality in Vest-Agder county, he returned to Oslo in 1888, this time determined to become a professional sculptor. He came to the attention of sculptor Brynjulf Bergslien, who supported him and gave him practical training.
The following year he exhibited his first work and Ishmael. In his 20s, he adopted the new family name Vigeland, from the area he had lived. Vigeland spent the years 1891 to 1896 in several voyages abroad, including Copenhagen, Paris and Florence. In the French capital he frequented Auguste Rodin's workshop, while in Italy he experimented with ancient and Renaissance artworks. In these years the themes that would dominate his inspiration - death and the relationship between man and woman - first appeared, he held his first personal exhibitions in Norway in 1894 and 1896, which received notable critical praise. Until 1902 Vigeland was engaged in the restoration of the Nidaros Cathedral in Trondheim; the contact with Mediaeval art contributed to another frequent theme in Vigeland's art, the dragon as symbol of sin but as a nature force, fighting against man. Back in Oslo, he obtained from the town an abandoned studio in. In 1905 Norway became independent from Sweden. Vigeland, considered the most talented Norwegian sculptor, received numerous commissions for statues and busts celebrating renowned compatriots like Henrik Ibsen and Niels Henrik Abel.
In 1906 Vigeland proposed a chalk model for a monumental fountain. The idea of the Oslo municipality was to put the fountain in Eidsvolls plass, the square in front of the Parliament of Norway, his work was welcomed, but the location created a dispute: completion of the work was postponed by the dispute. In the meantime Vigeland enlarged the original project; the high granite column was added to the design in 1919. Gustav Vigeland is most known for the Vigeland installation, a permanent sculpture installation in Frogner Park in Oslo. In 1921 the City of Oslo decided to build a library. After a long dispute, Vigeland was granted a new building from the city where he could work and live. Vigeland moved to his new studio on Nobels gate in the borough of Frogner during 1924, his studio was located in the vicinity of Frogner Park, which he had chosen as the definitive location for his fountain. Over the following twenty years, Vigeland was devoted to the project of an open exhibition of his works, which turned into what is known as Vigeland Sculpture Arrangement in Frogner Park.
The Vigeland installation features 212 bronze and granite sculptures all designed by Gustav Vigeland. The sculptures culminate in the famous Monolith, with its 121 figures struggling to reach the top of the sculpture. Vigeland lived and worked at his studio on Nobels gate until his death in 1943, his ashes are still preserved there in the belfry of the building. According to the agreement with the City of Oslo, the building became the Vigeland Museum; the site is located south of the Vigeland Sculpture Arrangement. Vigeland's flat on the third floor was preserved as a part of the museum which houses various works by the artist, along with the plaster models of the Vigeland sculptures in Frogner Park; some art critics considered Vigeland's sculptures to be expressions of nazi or fascist aesthetics, he has been compared to Arno Breker. Writing in Verdens Gang, a newspaper started by former Norwegian resistance members shortly after the German occupation of Norway ended in 1945, Pola Gauguin wrote that the Vigeland installation "reeks of Nazi mentality.”
Vigeland himself was quoted in the newspaper Aftenposten during the German occupation as stating that he was "happy" to accept prominent Nazis in his studio, that "I welcome German soldiers with their excellent discipline to walk around between my work”. Posterity, a 2015 play by Doug Wright, imagined the interaction between Henrik Ibsen. Gjengset, Gunnar Forsteinet liv. En biografisk fortelling om Gustav Vigeland ISBN 82-91690-23-5 Norwegian Hennum, Gerd Gustav Vigeland i svart og hvitt ISBN 82-90581-01-7. Norwegian Wikborg, Tone Gustav Vigeland - mennesket og kunsten ISBN 82-03-11042-8 Norwegian Wikborg, Tone Gustav Vigeland - His Art and Sculpture Park ISBN 82-03-16150-2. Wikborg, Tone Gustav Vigeland. En biografi ISBN 82-05-27590-4. Norwegian Stępnik, Małgorzata Modernist sculpture parks and their ideological contexts – on the basis of the oeuvres by Gustav Vigeland, Bernhard Hoetger and Einar Jónsson, „The Polish Journal of Aesth
The Office of the Australian Building and Construction Commissioner was an independent, statutory authority, responsible for monitoring and promoting workplace relations in the Australian building and construction industry. The ABCC provided education, investigated workplace complaints and enforced compliance with national workplace laws in the industry; the ABCC did this by: Providing information and advice on Commonwealth workplace laws. The ABCC was abolished on 31 May 2012, many of its functions were taken on by a new independent, specialist agency called Fair Work Building & Construction; the Royal Commission into the Building and Construction Industry was established in August 2001 and tabled its final report in March 2003. The Royal Commission found that the building and construction industry was characterised by a widespread disregard for the law, cataloguing over 100 types of unlawful and inappropriate conduct; the Commission found that existing regulatory bodies had insufficient powers and resources to enforce the law.
The Building Industry Taskforce was the predecessor to the ABCC, was established on 1 October 2002 as an interim body prior to the establishment of the national agency envisaged by Royal Commissioner Cole. In March 2004 the Interim Taskforce became a permanent taskforce, operating until the BCII Act created the ABCC in October 2005. Nigel Hadgkiss was the director of the BIT from October 2002 until it was subsumed by the ABCC. On 29 September 2005 the Hon. John Lloyd PSM was appointed as the inaugural ABCC Commissioner. ABCC Commissioner Leigh Johns took up his appointment on 11 October 2010. On 16 February 2012, legislation to abolish the ABCC passed the House of Representatives by 71 votes to 70; the legislation passed through the Senate on 21 March, the agency was abolished on 31 May 2012. On 1 June 2012, a new independent regulator, Fair Work Building & Construction, was created to take on many of the functions of the ABCC. In 2015 the Abbott Government attempted to reinstate the ABCC, but the legislation failed to pass the two houses of Parliament.
A further attempt to pass the legislation was unsuccessfully made by the Turnbull Government in March 2016. After the two failed attempts to reintroduce the ABCC, in December 2016 Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull called the double dissolution 2016 federal election. Following the election, the reelected Turnbull Government was successful in reinstating the ABCC with the vote of Senators Pauline Hanson's One Nation, Nick Xenophon Team and Derryn Hinch. Under WorkChoices, situations where industrial action could take place were reduced; the CFMEU and workers had to prove a workplace was unsafe in order to put a stop to work on a site which has not happened to date. The ABCC could commence civil penalty proceedings against individuals and organisations who engaged in unlawful industrial action. Industrial action by building employees includes work stoppages and other restrictions on the performance of work. Industrial action by building employers includes locking out employees. Civil penalty proceedings resulting in a fine were able to be brought against building and construction industry participants who engaged in unlawful industrial action.
Coercion in the building and construction industry is unlawful. Coercion includes pressure to make decisions regarding the hiring of building contractors and employees, agreement making, union or industry association membership, superannuation schemes; the ABCC provided free information and advice on pay and workplace rights and obligations to building and construction industry participants. The ABCC investigated complaints relating to the underpayments of wages, sham contracting or any other denial of entitlements for those working in the building and construction industry. In 1997 the Australian Government put in place a National Code of Practice for the Australian building and construction industry. In order to be eligible to work on Australian Government building and construction projects businesses must be compliant with the National Code of Practice; the National Code and Guidelines encourage a culture of best practice workplace relations and the compliance to all legal obligations and ethical tendering requirements.
A sham contract is where an employer deliberately disguises an employment relationship as an independent contracting arrangement, instead of engaging the worker as an employee. This may mean. In other cases, employees are pressured to become independent contractors where they are threatened with being dismissed or are misled about the effect of changing their working arrangements; the FW Act and IC Act protects genuine employees from sham contracting arrangements. The ABCC oversaw laws regarding how and when a person could enter a building or construction worksite. Union officials wishing to enter a building or construction worksite must hold a valid federal permit and in most instances must provide at least 24 hours written notice. If the reason for entry relates to an occupational health and safety issue, the written notice period may not apply; the building industry's response to the ABCC was varied. Industry associations such as Master Builders Association voiced strong support of the ABCC, while the union movement opposed the ABCC and lobbied the government to have the agency abolished.
Section 52 of the BCII Act provided the ABCC Commissioner with the power to compel a person who had evidence relating to an investigation to answer questions, provide information and/or produce documents. People who failed to comply with a section 52 notice were able to be prosecuted by the Co
Piezotronics effect is using the piezoelectric potential created in materials with piezoelectricity as a “gate” voltage to tune/control the charge carrier transport properties for fabricating new devices. Neil A Downie showed how simple it was to build simple demonstrations on a macro-scale using a sandwich of piezoelectric material and carbon piezoresistive material to make an FET-like amplifying device and put it in a book of science projects for students in 2006; the fundamental principle of piezotronics was introduced by Prof. Zhong Lin Wang at Georgia Institute of Technology in 2007. A series of electronic devices have been demonstrated based on this effect, including piezopotential gated field-effect transistor, piezopotential gated diode, strain sensors, force/flow sensors, hybrid field-effect transistor, piezotronic logic gates, electromechanical memories, etc. Piezotronic devices are regarded as a new semiconductor-device category. Piezotronics is to have important applications in sensor, human-silicon technology interfacing, MEMS, nanorobotics and active flexible electronics.
Due to the non-central symmetry in materials such as the wurtzite structured ZnO, GaN and InN, a piezopotential is created in the crystal by applying a stress. Owing to the simultaneous possession of piezoelectricity and semiconductor properties, the piezopotential created in the crystal has a strong effect on the carrier transport process; the construction of the basic piezotronic devices can be divided into two categories. Here we use the nanowires as the example; the first kind is that the piezoelectric nanowire was put on a flexible substrate with two ends fixed by the electrodes. In this case, when the substrate is bended, the nanowire will be purely stretched or compressed. Piezopotential will be introduced along its axis, it will modify the Schottky barrier height at the contact area. The induced positive piezopotential at one end will reduce the SB height, while the negative piezopotential at the other end will increase it, thus the electric transport properties will be changed. The second kind of the piezotronic device is that one end of the nanowire is fixed with electrode, while the other end is free.
In this case, when a force is applied at the free end of the nanowire to bend it, the piezopotential distribution will be perpendicular to the axis of the nanowire. The introduced piezoelectric field is perpendicular to electron transport direction, just like applying a gate voltage in the traditional field-effect transistor, thus the electron transport properties will be changed. The materials for piezotronics should be piezoelectric semiconductors, such as ZnO, GaN and InN. Three-way coupling among piezoelectricity and semiconductor is the basis of piezotronics, piezophotonics and piezophototronics; the core of these coupling relies on the piezopotential created by the piezoelectric materials