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Gutenberg Bible

The Gutenberg Bible was among the earliest major books printed using mass-produced movable metal type in Europe. It marked the start of the age of printed books in the West; the book is valued and revered for its high aesthetic and artistic qualities as well as its historic significance. It is an edition of the Latin Vulgate printed in the 1450s by Johannes Gutenberg in Mainz, in present-day Germany. Forty-nine copies have survived, they are thought to be among the world's most valuable books, although no complete copy has been sold since 1978. In March 1455, the future Pope Pius II wrote that he had seen pages from the Gutenberg Bible displayed in Frankfurt to promote the edition, it is not known. The 36-line Bible, said to be the second printed Bible, is referred to sometimes as a Gutenberg Bible, but may be the work of another printer; the Gutenberg Bible, an edition of the Vulgate, contains the Latin version of both the Hebrew Old Testament and the Greek New Testament. It is the work of Jerome who began his work on the translation in 380 AD, with emendations from the Parisian Bible tradition, further divergences.

The Bible was not Gutenberg's first work. Preparation of the Bible began soon after 1450, the first finished copies were available in 1454 or 1455, it is not known how long the Bible took to print. The first datable printing is the Gutenberg's 31-line Indulgence, known to exist on 22 October 1454. Gutenberg made three significant changes during the printing process; the first sheets were rubricated by being passed twice through the printing press, using black and red ink. This was soon abandoned, with spaces being left for rubrication to be added by hand; some time after more sheets had been printed, the number of lines per page was increased from 40 to 42 to save paper. Therefore, pages 1 to 9 and pages 256 to 265 the first ones printed, have 40 lines each. Page 10 has 41, from there on the 42 lines appear; the increase in line number was achieved by decreasing the interline spacing, rather than increasing the printed area of the page. The print run was increased, necessitating resetting those pages, printed.

The new sheets were all reset to 42 lines per page. There are two distinct settings in folios 1–32 and 129–158 of volume I and folios 1–16 and 162 of volume II; the most reliable information about the Bible's date comes from a letter. In March 1455, the future Pope Pius II wrote that he had seen pages from the Gutenberg Bible, being displayed to promote the edition, in Frankfurt, it is not known how many copies were printed, with the 1455 letter citing sources for both 158 and 180 copies. Scholars today think that examination of surviving copies suggests that somewhere between 160 and 185 copies were printed, with about three-quarters on paper and the others on vellum. However, some books say that about 180 copies were printed and it took about three years to produce them. In a legal paper, written after completion of the Bible, Johannes Gutenberg refers to the process as Das Werk der Bücher, he had introduced the printing press to Europe and created the technology to make printing with movable types efficient enough for the mass production of entire books to be feasible.

Many book-lovers have commented on the high standards achieved in the production of the Gutenberg Bible, some describing it as one of the most beautiful books printed. The quality of both the ink and other materials and the printing itself have been noted; the paper size is'double folio', with two pages printed on each side. After printing the paper was folded once to the size of a single page. Five of these folded sheets were combined to a single physical section, called a quinternion, that could be bound into a book; some sections, had as few as four leaves or as many as 12 leaves. Some sections may have been printed in a larger number those printed in the publishing process, sold unbound; the pages were not numbered. The technique was not new, since it had been used to make blank "white-paper" books to be written afterwards. What was new was determining beforehand the correct placement and orientation of each page on the five sheets to result in the correct sequence when bound; the technique for locating the printed area on each page was new.

The 42-line Bible was printed on the size of paper known as'Royal'. A full sheet of Royal paper measures 42 x 60 centimetres and a single untrimmed folio leaf measures 42 x 30 cm. There have been attempts to claim that the book was printed on larger paper measuring 30.7 x 44.5 cm, but this assertion is contradicted by the dimensions of existing copies. For example, the leaves of the copy in the Bodleian Library, measure 40 × 28.6 cm. This is typical of other folio Bibles printed on Royal paper in the fifteenth century. Most fifteenth-century printing papers have a width-to-height ratio of 1:1.4, mathematically a ratio of 1 to the square root of 2. Man suggests that this ratio was chosen to match the so-called Golden Ratio of 1:1.6. The ratio of 1:1.4 was a long established one for medieval paper sizes. A single complete copy of the Gutenberg Bible has 1,286 pages (

Alain Dubuc

Alain Dubuc is a journalist and an economist from Montreal, Canada. He is a columnist for Montreal's La Presse, Quebec City's Le Soleil and five other dailies in Quebec, he is federalism in Quebec. Alain Dubuc is the son of journalist Carl Dubuc, he earned a French baccalaureat at an elite Roman Catholic private school. He went on to earn a master's degree in economics at the Université de Montréal. From 1973 to 1976, he was researcher in econometrics for the Université de Montréal. In 1976, he became a La Presse columnist specialized in economics. From 1985 to 1988, he hosted the weekly television show Questions d'argent on Radio-Québec on economics and personal finances. Dubuc was appointed Chief Editorialist of La Presse in 1988, a position he held until 2001, when he was succeeded by André Pratte. In 2001, he was appointed president and editor of Le Soleil, a position he held until 2004, he has published in Time Magazine regarding the sovereigntist Parti Québécois. As Simple as Economics A Dialogue on Democracy in Canada Éloge de la richesse National Business Award for Editorials from the Toronto Press Club and the Royal Bank of Canada Award for articles on energy from the Canadian Petroleum Association and the Calgary Press Club Journalism Award from the Quebec Foundation for Economic Education Great Montrealer of the Future in the Field of Journalism Annual Award for Economic Education from the Quebec Employers Council National Newspaper Award for editorial commentary In 2011, he was made an Officer of the Order of Canada "for his contributions as a journalist and author covering economic and political issues in Canada".

Alain Dubuc biography from the Government of Canada Alain Dubuc biography from La Mémoire du Québec Politics of Quebec

Louis-Nicolas Séjan

Louis-Nicolas Séjan was a French organist and composer. The son of Nicolas Séjan, he succeeded him on the organ of the Church of Saint-Sulpice in Paris and that of the Hôtel des Invalides; when the Chapelle Royale was closed in 1830, he lost his position as organist. In 1848, his salary at Saint-Sulpice was so reduced, he left Paris in March 1848 and died shortly after at the age of 63. He has left works for chamber music and an opera, Fénella. Free scores by Louis-Nicolas Séjan at the International Music Score Library Project Prelude and fugue in C minor by Louis-Nicolas Séjan on YouTube Duo Concertant: harpe-piano on Musicalics