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Gwalior Fort

Gwalior Fort is a hill fort near Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh, central India. The fort has existed at least since the 10th century, the inscriptions and monuments found within what is now the fort campus indicate that it may have existed as early as the beginning of the 6th century; the fort has been controlled by a number of different rulers in its history. The present-day fort consists of a defensive structure and two main palaces, Gujari Mahal and Man Mandir, built by Man Singh Tomar; the Gujari Mahal palace was built for Queen Mrignayani. It is now an archaeological museum; the second oldest record of "zero" in the world was found in a small temple, located on the way to the top. The inscription is around 1500 years old; the word Gwalior is derived from one of the Hindu words for Gwalipa. The fort is built on an outcrop of Vindhyan sandstone on a solitary rocky hill called Gopachal; this feature is long and steep. The geology of the Gwalior range rock formations is ochre coloured sandstone covered with basalt.

There is 342 feet at its highest point. The stratum forms a near-perpendicular precipice. A small river, the Swarnrekha, flows close to the palace; the exact period of Gwalior Fort's construction is not certain. According to a local legend, the fort was built by a local king named Suraj Sen in 3 CE, he was cured of leprosy, when a sage named Gwalipa offered him the water from a sacred pond, which now lies within the fort. The grateful king constructed a fort, named it after the sage; the sage bestowed the title Pal upon the king, told him that the fort would remain in his family's possession, as long as they bear this title. 83 descendants of Suraj Sen Pal controlled the fort. The inscriptions and monuments found within what is now the fort campus indicate that it may have existed as early as the beginning of the 6th century. A Gwalior inscription describes a sun temple built during the reign of the Huna emperor Mihirakula in 6th century; the Teli ka Mandir, now located within the fort, was built by the Gurjara-Pratiharas in the 9th century.

The fort existed by the 10th century, when it is first mentioned in the historical records. The Kachchhapaghatas controlled the fort at this time, most as feudatories of the Chandelas. From 11th century onwards, the Muslim dynasties attacked the fort several times. In 1022 CE, Mahmud of Ghazni besieged the fort for four days. According to Tabaqat-i-Akbari, he lifted the siege in return for a tribute of 35 elephants; the Ghurid general Qutb al-Din Aibak, who became a ruler of the Delhi Sultanate, captured the fort in 1196 after a long siege. The Delhi Sultanate lost the fort for a short period before it was recaptured by Iltumish in 1232 CE. In 1398, the fort came under the control of the Tomars; the most distinguished of the Tomar rulers was Maan Singh, who commissioned several monuments within the fort. The Delhi Sultan Sikander Lodi was unsuccessful. Another attack, by his son Ibrahim Lodi in 1516, resulted in Maan Singh's death; the Tomars surrendered the fort to the Delhi Sultanate after a year-long siege.

Within a decade, the Mughal emperor Babur captured the fort from the Delhi Sultanate. The Mughals lost the fort to Sher Shah Suri in 1542. Afterwards, the fort was used by Hemu, the Hindu general and the Hindu ruler of Delhi, as his base for his many campaigns, but Babur's grandson Akbar recaptured it in 1558. Akbar made the fort a prison for political prisoners. For example, Abul-Kasim, son of Kamran and Akbar's first cousin was executed at the fort. Guru Hargobind, on 24 June 1606, at age 11, was crowned as the sixth Sikh Guru. At his succession ceremony, he put on two swords: one indicated his spiritual authority and the other, his temporal authority; because of the execution of Guru Arjan by Mughal Emperor Jahangir, Guru Hargobind from the start was a dedicated enemy of the Mughal rule. He advised Sikhs to fight; the death of his father at the hands of Jahangir prompted him to emphasise the military dimension of the Sikh community. Jahangir responded by jailing the 14 year old Guru Hargobind at Gwalior Fort in 1609, on the pretext that the fine imposed on Guru Arjan had not been paid by the Sikhs and Guru Hargobind.

It is not clear as to. The year of his release appears to have been either 1611 or 1612, when Guru Hargobind was about 16 years old. Persian records, such as Dabistan i Mazahib suggest he was kept in jail for twelve years, including over 1617-1619 in Gwalior, after which he and his camp were kept under Muslim army's surveillance by Jahangir. According to Sikh tradition, Guru Hargobind was released from the bondage of prison on Diwali; this important event in Sikh history is now termed the Bandi Chhor Divas festival. Aurangzeb's brother and nephews Suleman and Sepher Shikoh were executed at the fort; the killings took place in the Man Mandir palace. After the death of the Aurangzeb, the Rana chieftains of Gohad held the Gwalior Fort; the Maratha general Mahadaji Shinde captured the fort from the Gohad Rana Chhatar Singh, but soon lost it to the British East India Company. On August 3, 1780, a Company force under Captains Popham and Bruce captured the fort in a nighttime raid, scaling the walls with 12 grenadiers and 30 sepoys.

Both sides suffered fewer than 20 wounded total. In 1780, the British governor Warren Hastings restored the fort to the Ranas of Gohad; the Marathas recaptured the fort four years and this time the British did not intervene because the Ranas of Gohad had become hostile to them. Daul

Dek Island

Dek Island is the biggest island on Lake Tana in Ethiopia. It is administratively included in the Bahir Dar Zuria woreda of the Mirab Gojjam Zone. To the southeast of Dek is the much smaller Daga Island, it is home to the best-known being Narga Selassie. Dek is accessible by the ferry. Hormuzd Rassam mentions visiting the island in February 1866, describing that at the time it contained four villages with a church attached to each one. Rassam repeats the story told to him how Dejazmach Kassa captured Dek in a single assault; when R. E. Cheesman visited Dek in 1932 and 1933, he found that it was not "monasterial", but with five churches each with a small village nearby. Cheesman continues his description: Three-quarters of the island is given up to plough, the chief crops being dagusa and teff, both dwarf millets. Plough-land is divided into plots of about an acre, separated from each other by narrow hedges of scrub forest and big trees; the base of the island is scoriaceous lava in cubes, which are exposed all around the shore and washed by the waves, identified as vesicular olivine basalt.

On the top is a thin layer of red soil derived from the decay of the basalts. The fauna consists chiefly of butterflies that can fly the 5 miles. Animals, as may be expected, are absent, though I trapped two kinds of rat. Mosquitoes on the islands were bad. Based on the 2007 national census conducted by the Central Statistical Agency of Ethiopia, the kebele which includes Dek has a total population of 4,816, of whom 2,503 are men and 2,313 women; the 1994 national census reported a total population for this woreda of 5,099 people in 1,028 households, of whom 2,683 were men and 2,416 were women

Lameck Aguta

Lameck Aguta is a former Kenyan marathon runner. He was the winner of the 101st Boston Marathon in 1997 with a time of 2:10:34 hours, he competed in the men's marathon at the 1996 Summer Olympics. Aguta's personal best time in any marathon is 2:10:03 hours, achieved at the 1996 Boston Marathon, he finished fourth in that race, the 100th running of the Boston Marathon. His best time in the half marathon is 1:00:55 hours at the 1992 IAAF World Half Marathon Championships in South Shields, England. Three months after winning the 1997 Boston Marathon, Aguta was the victim of a vicious robbery in his home country of Kenya during which he was clubbed in the back of the head after emerging from an auto accident. Thieves made off with $10,000 of Aguta's earnings, he was in a coma for three months and nearly died. He would spend years struggling to move again, his health did improve and he attempted a comeback at racing by 2003. He ran the Dallas White Rock Marathon in 2004 before attempting to run Boston again in 2005.

His time in the White Rock Marathon of 2004 was 2:34:04 and is considered a respectable time but not an elite time. Lameck Aguta at World Athletics https://web.archive.org/web/20061016164658/http://arrs.net/AL_HMar.htm