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Gyeongbokgung

Gyeongbokgung known as Gyeongbokgung Palace or Gyeongbok Palace, was the main royal palace of the Joseon dynasty. Built in 1395, it is located in South Korea; the largest of the Five Grand Palaces built by the Joseon dynasty, Gyeongbokgung served as the home of Kings of the Joseon dynasty, the Kings' households, as well as the government of Joseon. Gyeongbokgung continued to serve as the main palace of the Joseon dynasty until the premises were destroyed by fire during the Imjin War and abandoned for two centuries. However, in the 19th century, all of the palace's 7,700 rooms were restored under the leadership of Prince Regent Heungseon during the reign of King Gojong; some 500 buildings were restored on a site of over 40 hectares. The architectural principles of ancient Korea were incorporated into the tradition and appearance of the Joseon royal court. In the early 20th century, much of the palace was systematically destroyed by Imperial Japan. Since the walled palace complex is being restored to its original form.

Today, the palace is arguably regarded as being the most grandest of all five palaces. It houses the National Palace Museum of Korea and the National Folk Museum within the premises of the complex. Gyeongbokgung was built three years after the Joseon dynasty was founded and it served as its main palace. With Mount Bugak as a backdrop and the Street of Six Ministries outside Gwanghwamun Gate, the main entrance to the palace, Gyeongbokgung was situated in the heart of the Korean capital city, it was expanded before being reduced to ashes during the Japanese invasion of 1592. For the next 273 years the palace grounds were left derelict until being rebuilt in 1867 under the leadership of Regent Heungseon Daewongun; the restoration was completed on a grand scale, with 330 buildings crowded together in a labyrinthine configuration. Within the palace walls were the Outer Court, offices for the king and state officials, the Inner Court, which included living quarters for the royal family as well as gardens for leisure.

Within its extensive precincts were other palaces and small, including Junggung and Donggung. Due to its status as the symbol of national sovereignty, Gyeongbokgung was extensively damaged during the Japanese occupation of the early 20th century. In 1911, ownership of land at the palace was transferred to the Japanese Governor-General. In 1915, on the pretext of holding an exhibition, more than 90% of the buildings were torn down. Following the exhibition, the Japanese leveled whatever still remained and built their colonial headquarters, the Government-General Building, on the site. Only a handful of iconic structures survived, including the Throne Gyeonghoeru Pavilion. Restoration efforts have been ongoing since 1990; the Government-General Building was removed in 1996 and Heungnyemun Gate and Gwanghwamun Gate were reconstructed in their original locations and forms. Reconstructions of the Inner Court and Crown Prince's residence have been completed. Gyeongbokgung was constructed in 1394 by King Taejo, the first king and the founder of the Joseon dynasty, its name was conceived by an influential government minister named Jeong Do-jeon.

Afterwards, the palace was continuously expanded during the reign of King Taejong and King Sejong the Great. It was damaged by fire in 1553, its costly restoration, ordered by King Myeongjong, was completed in the following year. However, four decades the Gyeongbokgung Palace was burnt to the ground during the Japanese invasions of Korea of 1592-1598; the royal court was moved to the Changdeokgung Palace. The Gyeongbokgung palace site was left in ruins for the next three centuries. In 1867, during the regency of Daewongun, the palace buildings were reconstructed and formed a massive complex with 330 buildings and 5,792 rooms. Standing on 4,657,576 square feet of land, Gyeongbokgung again became an iconic symbol for both the Korean nation and the Korean royal family. In 1895, after the assassination of Empress Myeongseong by Japanese agents, her husband, Emperor Gojong, left the palace; the Imperial Family never returned to Gyeongbokgung. In 1915, it was used as the site for the Joseon Industrial Exhibition with new exhibition buildings being erected in the grounds.

Starting from 1911, the colonial government of the Empire of Japan systemically demolished all but 10 buildings during the Japanese occupation of Korea and hosted numerous exhibitions in Gyeongbokgung. In 1926, the government constructed the massive Japanese General Government Building in front of the throne hall, Geunjeongjeon, in order to eradicate the symbol and heritage of the Joseon dynasty. Gwanghwamun Gate, the main and south gate of Gyeongbokgung, was relocated by the Japanese to the east of the palace. A further exhibition, the Chosun Exhibition, followed in 1929; the palace faced further damage when the wooden structure of the relocated Gwanghwamun Gate was destroyed amid the devastation of the Korean War. Gyeongbokgung's original 19th-century palace buildings that survived both the Japanese rule of Colonial Korea and the Korean War include: Geunjeongjeon — National Treasure No. 223. Gyeonghoeru Pavilion — National Treasure No. 224. Hyangwonjeong Pavilion. Modern archaeological surveys have brought 330 building foundations to light.

In 1989, the South Korean government started a 40-year initiative to rebuild the hundreds of structures that were destroyed by the colonial government of the Empire of Japan, during the period of occupied Colonial Ko

Creepin on ah Come Up

Creepin on ah Come Up is the debut EP by American hip hop group Bone Thugs-N-Harmony. The album was released on June 1994 on Ruthless Records. In 1998, the album was selected as one of The Source's 100 Best Rap Albums. Bone Thugs-n-Harmony's first album, with the singles "Thuggish Ruggish Bone" and "Foe tha Love of $". Features on the album include Shatasha Williams and their mentor and executive producer Eazy-E, these collaborations began a new fad of having sung vocals for choruses and tight flowing lyrics; the first two lines of "Intro" are backwards. Played forward are "Heaven in art which Father our, Our Father which art in Heaven" Tracks 3, 4 and 6 have listed, "Keenu Songs", "U-Neek" spelled backwards. In The Source article "Crossroads To Riches" Bone states that they changed their name to Bone Thugs-n-Harmony because they had a song called "Thugs-N-Harmony". Parts of "Foe tha Love of $" are recycled from the Yomo & Maulkie track "For the Love of Money", from their 1991 album Are U Xperienced?.

The closing track on Creepin on ah Come Up, "Moe Cheese", is the same instrumental track from Are U Xperienced? titled "For the Love of Money". Sample credits"Foe tha Love of $" contains a sample of "For the Love of Money" as performed by Yomo & Maulkie "Thuggish Ruggish Bone" contains a sample of "Mama Used to Say" as performed by Junior List of number-one albums of 1997 List of number-one R&B albums of 1997 Bone Thugs-n-Harmony Official Website Ruthless Records Official Website

Lancaster Railroad

The Lancaster Railroad known as the Lancaster and Hudson Railroad, was a shortline railroad in Massachusetts. The line ran 8.75 miles from a connection with the Worcester and Nashua Railroad in South Lancaster to a connection with the Marlborough Branch of the Fitchburg Railroad in Hudson via the town of Bolton. The Lancaster Railroad was chartered by the Legislature of Massachusetts on April 30, 1870, its first, only, president was George A. Parker of Lancaster. In addition to regular stops at the stations at its termini and in Bolton center, the prospectus outlined plans for special stops at Holman's Orchard in the spring and fall as well as at the Hillside Church on Sundays during the summer. No plans for freight service were mentioned. Upon its completion, the Lancaster Railroad was supposed to be leased jointly by its connecting railroads, the Worcester and Nashua Railroad and the Fitchburg Railroad. Construction began in the winter of 1871 but was plagued with problems, including undercapitalization, frequent disagreements among the seven directors, and, at one point, an inability to meet payroll that resulted in the layoff of the railroad's workmen.

In spite of these issues, the line was completed by the spring of 1872. However, the railroad's problems proved too great to overcome, it would never open; the only train to pass over the route carried the railroad's officials as they inspected the completed work. The main reason cited. Chief among these underlying issues was that neither the Worcester and Nashua Railroad nor the Fitchburg Railroad exercised their lease agreements of the Lancaster Railroad in part due to disagreements over the details of the joint lease. Adding to the list of the Lancaster Railroad's problems was a lawsuit on June 22, 1872 alleging that the railroad had damaged a dam of the Holmes Manufacturing Estate in Hudson. In 1874, the Lancaster Railroad entered into bankruptcy. Although it emerged from bankruptcy in 1877, it was never resurrected due to the threat of increased competition from the advancing Central Massachusetts Railroad; the property was sold to Robert Codman, a director of the Fitchburg Railroad, for $15,000- a fraction of the $290,000 it had cost- and turned over to the Fitchburg Railroad itself a short time later.

With no need for the line, the rails were taken up in 1889. In late 1895, the Lancaster Railroad was considered for resurrection; the Boston and Maine Railroad had leased the Worcester and Nashua Railroad in 1886, renaming it the Worcester and Portland Division Main Line, the Central Massachusetts Railroad in 1897, renaming it the Central Massachusetts Branch. By 1895, planning was underway for the construction of the Wachusett Reservoir, the Boston and Maine needed to reroute a portion of its Central Massachusetts Branch in Boylston and West Boylston that would be flooded, their plan was to build a new stretch of track from West Berlin Junction with the New York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad to the Worcester and Portland Division Main Line at Clinton Junction. Trains on the Central Massachusetts Branch would follow the Worcester and Portland Division Main Line into Oakdale, where they would switch back onto the Central Massachusetts Branch. Sensing an opportunity to bring the rail service to their town that had never materialized in the preceding decades, the citizens of Bolton proposed that the Boston and Maine use the Lancaster Railroad right of way instead, building a small connection in Hudson and leaving Berlin at the end of a four-mile branch.

However, the Boston and Maine elected to go with its original plan, the Lancaster Railroad was never rebuilt. Today, with all of the rails torn up, there is little evidence of the Lancaster Railroad. Part of the railroad's route included a wooden trestle that ran across Mill Pond known as Bruce's Pond, in Hudson. Although the wooden part of the trestle was destroyed during the 1938 New England hurricane, the support bases can still be seen when water levels are low. Much of the grading can still be seen along the route in the Boy Scouts of America's Camp Resolute in Bolton, although the Boston and Maine sold off other parts of the property for redevelopment. Bridge abutments can be seen where the railroad crossed Route 85 and Interstate 495