March 1973 Argentine general election
The first Argentine general election of 1973 was held on 11 March. Voters chose both the President and their legislators and with a turnout of 85.5%, it produced the following results: Note: The FREJULI ticket was declared the winner, bypassing the Electoral College. The 1966 coup d'état against the moderate President Arturo Illia was carried out as a reaction to Illia's decision to honor local and legislative elections in which Peronists banned from political activity following the violent overthrow of President Juan Perón in 1955, did well in. Five years however, President Alejandro Lanusse found himself heading an unpopular junta, saddled by increasing political violence and an economic wind-down from the prosperous 1960s. Seizing the initiative, he gathered leaders from across the nation's political and intellectual spectrum for a July 1971 asado, a time-honored Argentine custom as much about camaraderie as about steak; the result was Lanusse's "Great National Agreement," a road map to the return to democratic rule, including Peronists.
The agreement, bore little resemblance to what had been discussed and, proposed virtual veto power for the armed forces over most future domestic and foreign policy. This patently unacceptable condition led most political figures to dismiss the much-touted event as the "Great National Asado," instead. A year President Lanusse made the much-anticipated announcement: elections would be held, nationally, on March 11, 1973. Retaliating for Perón's unequivocal rejection of the 1971 accords, Lanusse limited the field of candidates to those residing in Argentina as of August 25, 1972 - a clear denial of the aging Perón the right to run on his own party's ticket. Perón did return to Argentina, however, on November 17, during a month-long stay, he secured the endorsement of prominent figures such as former President Arturo Frondizi of the Integration and Development Movement, Jorge Abelardo Ramos of the Popular Leftist Front, Popular Conservative Alberto Fonrouge, Christian Democrat Carlos Imbaud, other provincial parties.
These diverse parties signed on to an umbrella ticket, led by the Justicialist Party and Perón's personal representative in Argentina, Héctor Cámpora. In recognition for their support and to provide a counter-weight to the left-leaning Cámpora, Perón had the Justicialist Liberation Front nominate for Vice President Popular Conservative leader Vicente Solano Lima, a newspaper publisher respected across most of Argentina's vastly diverse political spectrum. Given little time to campaign by the calculating Lanusse, the nation's myriad parties jockeyed for alliances and rushed to name candidates; the main opposition, the centrist Radical Civic Union, put forth their 1958 nominee, former Congressman Ricardo Balbín. Hoping to carry the mantle of those supporting Lanusse, Social Policy Minister Francisco Manrique ran on the Federalist ticket and Américo Ghioldi, who had led a split in the Socialist Party in 1958, ran on his Democratic Socialist slate - refusing to endorse the Popular Revolutionary Alliance headed by former Governor Oscar Alende.
The March 11 polls went smoothly and the FREJULI, which needed 50% of the total to avoid a runoff as per Lanusse's agreement, garnered 49.6%. The irony of the result, which came despite a 28% margin over the runners-up, led the seasoned Balbín to petition President Lanusse for a waiver of the rule, something he granted, making the FREJULI alliance the winners of the March 11, 1973 election and paving the way for the definitive return of Juan Perón, whom Lanusse, many years would admit to being his "life's obsession." Todo Argentina Justicialist Liberation Front: Former Deputy Héctor Cámpora of Buenos Aires Province Radical Civic Union: Former Deputy Ricardo Balbín of Buenos Aires Province Popular Federalist Alliance: Former Minister of Social Policy Francisco Manrique of Mendoza Province Popular Revolutionary Alliance: Former Gobernor Oscar Alende of Buenos Aires Province
Juan Domingo Perón was an Argentine Army general and politician. After serving in several government positions, including Minister of Labor and Vice President, he was elected President of Argentina three times, serving from June 1946 to September 1955, when he was overthrown in a coup d'état, from October 1973 until his death in July 1974. During his first presidential term, Perón was supported by his second wife, Eva Duarte, they were immensely popular among many Argentines. Eva died in 1952, Perón was elected to a second term, serving from 1952 until 1955. During the following period of two military dictatorships, interrupted by two civilian governments, the Peronist party was outlawed and Perón was exiled; when the left-wing Peronist Héctor José Cámpora was elected President in 1973, Perón returned to Argentina and was soon after elected President for a third time. His third wife, María Estela Martínez, known as Isabel Perón, was elected as Vice President on his ticket and succeeded him as President upon his death in 1974.
Although they are still controversial figures and Evita Perón are nonetheless considered icons by the Peronists. The Peróns' followers praised their efforts to eliminate poverty and to dignify labour, while their detractors considered them demagogues and dictators; the Peróns gave their name to the political movement known as Peronism, which in present-day Argentina is represented by the Justicialist Party. Peronism is a political phenomenon that draws support from both the political left and political right. Peronism is not considered a traditional party, but a political movement, because of the wide variety of people who call themselves Peronists, there is great controversy surrounding his personality. A number of following Argentinian presidents are considered Peronists, including administrations covering a majority of the democratic era: Héctor Cámpora, Isabel Perón, Adolfo Rodríguez Saá, Eduardo Duhalde, Néstor Kirchner and Cristina Kirchner. Juan Domingo Perón was born in Lobos, Buenos Aires Province, on 8 October 1895.
He was the son of Mario Tomás Perón. The Perón branch of his family was Spanish, but settled in Spanish Sardinia, from which his great-grandfather emigrated in the 1830s, he had Spanish and French Basque ancestry. Perón's great-grandfather became a successful shoe merchant in Buenos Aires, his grandfather was a prosperous physician; the couple had their two sons out of wedlock and married in 1901. His father moved to the Patagonia region that year, where he purchased a sheep ranch. Juan himself was sent away in 1904 to a boarding school in Buenos Aires directed by his paternal grandmother, where he received a strict Catholic upbringing, his father's undertaking failed, he died in Buenos Aires in 1928. The youth entered the National Military College in 1911 at age 16 and graduated in 1913, he excelled less in his studies than in athletics boxing and fencing. Perón began his military career in an Infantry post in Entre Ríos, he went on to command the post, in this capacity mediated a prolonged labor conflict in 1920 at La Forestal a leading firm in forestry in Argentina.
He earned instructor's credentials at the Superior War School, in 1929 was appointed to the Army General Staff Headquarters. Perón married his first wife, Aurelia Tizón, on 5 January 1929. Perón was recruited by supporters of the director of the War Academy, General José Félix Uriburu, to collaborate in the latter's plans for a military coup against President Hipólito Yrigoyen. Perón, who instead supported General Agustín Justo, was banished to a remote post in northwestern Argentina after Uriburu's successful coup in September 1930, he was promoted to the rank of Major the following year and named to the faculty at the Superior War School, where he taught military history and published a number of treatises on the subject. He served as military attaché in the Argentine Embassy in Chile from 1936 to 1938, returned to his teaching post, his wife was diagnosed with uterine cancer that year, died on 10 September at age 30. Perón was assigned by the War Ministry to study mountain warfare in the Italian Alps in 1939.
He attended the University of Turin for a semester and served as a military observer in countries across Europe. He studied Benito Mussolini's Italian Fascism, Nazi Germany, other European governments of the time, concluding in his summary, Apuntes de historia militar, that social democracy could be a viable alternative to liberal democracy or totalitarian regimes, he returned to Argentina in 1941, served as an Army skiing instructor in Mendoza Province. In 1943 a coup d'état was led by General Arturo Rawson against conservative President Ramón Castillo, fraudulently elected to office; the military was opposed to Governor Robustiano Patrón Costas, Castillo's hand-picked successor, the principal landowner in Salta Province, as well as a main stockholder in its sugar industry. As a colonel and his power of premier minister, Perón took a significant part in the military coup by the GOU against the conservative civilian government of Castillo. At first an assistant to Secretary of War General Edelmiro Farrell, under the administration of General Pe
A dentist known as a dental surgeon, is a surgeon who specializes in dentistry, the diagnosis and treatment of diseases and conditions of the oral cavity. The dentist's supporting team aids in providing oral health services; the dental team includes dental assistants, dental hygienists, dental technicians, in some states, dental therapists. In China as well as France, the first people to perform dentistry were barbers, they have been categorized into 2 distinct groups: lay barbers. The first group, the Guild of Barbers, was created to distinguish more educated and qualified dental surgeons from lay barbers. Guild barbers were trained to do complex surgeries; the second group, the lay barbers, were qualified to perform regular hygienic services such as shaving and tooth extraction as well as basic surgery. However, in 1400 France made decrees prohibiting lay barbers from practicing all types of surgery. In Germany as well as France from 1530 to 1575 publications devoted to dentistry were being published.
Ambrose Pare known as the Father of Surgery, published his own work about the proper maintenance and treatment of teeth. Ambrose Pare was a French barber surgeon, he is credited with having raised the status of barber surgeons. Pierre Fauchard of France is referred to as the "father of modern dentistry" for being the first to publish a scientific textbook on the techniques and practices of dentistry. Over time, trained dentists immigrated from Europe to the Americas to practice dentistry, by 1760, America had its own native born practicing dentists. Newspapers were used at the time to promote dental services. In America from 1768–1770 the first application of dentistry to verify forensic cases was being pioneered. With the rise of dentists there was the rise of new methods to improve the quality of dentistry; these new methods included the spinning wheel to rotate a drill and chairs made for dental patients. In the 1840s the world's first dental school and national dental organization were established.
Along with the first dental school came the establishment of the Doctor of Dental Surgery degree referred to as a DDS degree. In response to the rise in new dentists as well as dentistry techniques, the first dental practice act was established to regulate dentistry. In the United States, the First Dental Practice Act required dentists to pass each specific states medical board exam in order to practice dentistry in that particular state. However, because the dental act was enforced, some dentists did not obey the act. From 1846–1855 new dental techniques were being invented such as the use of ester anesthesia for surgery, the cohesive gold foil method which enabled gold to be applied to a cavity; the American Dental Association was established in 1859 after a meeting with 26 dentists. Around 1867, the first university associated dental school was established, Harvard Dental School. Lucy Hobbs Taylor was the first woman to earn a dental degree. In the 1880s, tube toothpaste was created which replaced the original forms of powder or liquid toothpaste.
New dental boards, such as the National Association of Dental Examiners, were created to establish standards and uniformity among dentists. In 1887 the first dental laboratory was established. In 1895 the dental X-ray was discovered by Wilhelm Röntgen. In the 20th century new dental techniques and technology were invented such as: the porcelain crowns, Novocain 1905, precision cast fillings, nylon toothbrushes, water fluoridation, fluoride toothpaste, air driven dental tools, electric toothbrushes, home tooth bleaching kits were invented. Inventions such as the air driven dental tools ushered in a new high-speed dentistry. By nature of their general training, a licensed dentist can carry out most dental treatments such as restorative, prosthodontic, endodontic therapy, periodontal therapy, oral surgery, as well as performing examinations, taking radiographs and diagnosis. Additionally, dentists can further engage in oral surgery procedures such as dental implant placement. Dentists can prescribe medications such as antibiotics, pain killers, local anesthetics, sedatives/hypnotics and any other medications that serve in the treatment of the various conditions that arise in the head and neck.
All DDS and DMD degree holders are qualified to perform a number of more complex procedures such as gingival grafts, bone grafting, sinus lifts, implants, as well as a range of more invasive oral and maxillofacial surgery procedures, though many choose to pursue residencies or other post-doctoral education to augment their abilities. A few select procedures, such as the administration of General anesthesia require postdoctoral training in the US. While many oral diseases are unique and self-limiting, poor conditions in the oral cavity can lead to poor general health and vice versa. Conditions in the oral cavity may be indicative of other systemic diseases such as osteoporosis, diabetes, AIDS, various blood diseases, including malignancies and lymphoma. Several studies have suggested that dental students are at high risk of burnout. During burnout, dentists alienate from work and perform less efficiently. A systemic study iden
The Ezeiza massacre took place on June 20, 1973 near Ezeiza International Airport in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Peronist masses, including many young people, had gathered there to acclaim Juan Perón's definitive return from an 18-year exile in Spain; the police estimated a half million people had gathered at the airport. In his plane, Perón was accompanied by president Héctor Cámpora, a representative of the Peronists' left wing, who had come to power on May 25, 1973, amid popular euphoria and a period of political turmoil. Cámpora was opposed to the Peronist right wing, declaring during his first speech that "the spilled blood will not be negotiated". From Perón's platform, camouflaged snipers from the right-wing of Peronism opened fire on the crowd; the left-wing Peronist Youth and the Montoneros were trapped. At least 13 bodies were subsequently identified, 365 were injured during the massacre. According to Clarín newspaper, the real number must have been much higher. No official investigation was performed to confirm these higher estimates.
The Ezeiza massacre marked the end of the alliance of left and right-wing Peronists which Perón had managed to form. Héctor Cámpora represented the main figure of the left-wing and José López Rega, Perón's personal secretary who had accompanied Perón during his exile in Francoist Spain, was the right-wing's representative. López Rega would be the founder of the Alianza Anticomunista Argentina right-wing terrorist gang. A populist and a nationalist, Perón was popular from the far left to the far-right, but this conjunction of forces ended that day. During his exile, Perón himself had supported both young left-wing Peronists, whose icons included Che Guevara and right-wing Peronists composed "Special Formations", gathering radicals such as the Guardia de Hierro or the Movimiento Nacionalista Tacuara; the tribune had been set up by Lieutenant-Colonel Jorge Manuel Osinde and other far-right figures of Peronism, such as Alberto Brito Lima and Norma Kennedy. Lorenzo Miguel, Juan Manuel Abal Medina and José Ignacio Rucci, general secretary of the CGT — controlled by the Peronist right-wing — had the responsibility of organizing the Peronists' mobilization to Ezeiza.
Members of the Unión Obrera Metalúrgica trade union, the Juventud sindical peronista and other right-wing sectors were on Perón's tribune, facing the left-wing groups in the crowds. Italian terrorist Stefano Delle Chiaie, who worked in Operation Gladio but maintained links with the Chilean DINA and Turkish Grey Wolves member Abdullah Çatlı, was present at Ezeiza, according to investigations by Spanish judge Baltasar Garzón. Carlos "El Indio" Castillo, member of the Concentración Nacionalista Universitaria took part in the massacre; the massacre had been planned to effect the removal of president Héctor Cámpora, a moderate of the left-wing, from power. During Cámpora's first month of governing 600 social conflicts and factory occupations had taken place. Workers managed to obtain better working conditions; the workers' movement had gathered the sympathy of large sectors, sometimes anti-Peronist, of the middle classes. On June 2, 1973, José Ignacio Rucci, general secretary of the CGT, had responded to a Cuban delegate to the CGT congress asking for a toast in honour of Che Guevara, that they were against left-wing imperialism.
The Peronist right-wing took control of the whole of the trade union organization, placing people close to the leader José Ignacio Rucci. The battle near the Ezeiza airport marked the end of the transition period of Cámpora, who had succeeded the military dictatorship of general Alejandro Lanusse. According to Hugo Moreno, "if October 17, 1945 may be considered as the founding act of Peronism, by the general strike and the presence of the masses imposing their will of support to Perón, the June 20, 1973 massacre marks the entrance on the scene of the late right-wing Peronism." List of massacres in Argentina Ezeiza, Buenos Aires, 1985 by Horacio Verbitsky La masacre de Ezeiza, El Litoral, Santa Fe, 23 June 2010 El hombre que fue izado de los pelos, ElArgentino.com, 2008
1973 Chilean coup d'état
The 1973 Chilean coup d'état was a watershed moment in both the history of Chile and the Cold War. Following an extended period of social unrest and political tension between the opposition-controlled Congress of Chile and the socialist President Salvador Allende, as well as economic warfare ordered by US President Richard Nixon, Allende was overthrown by the armed forces and national police; the military deposed Allende's Popular Unity government and established a junta that suspended all political activity in Chile and repressed left-wing movements communist and socialist parties and the Revolutionary Left Movement. Allende's appointed army chief, Augusto Pinochet, rose to supreme power within a year of the coup, formally assuming power in late 1974; the Nixon administration, which had worked to create the conditions for the coup, promptly recognized the junta government and supported it in consolidating power. During the air raids and ground attacks that preceded the coup, Allende gave his final speech, in which he vowed to stay in the presidential palace, refusing offers of safe passage should he choose exile over confrontation.
Direct witness accounts of Allende's death agree. Before the coup, Chile had been hailed as a beacon of democracy and political stability for decades, a period that had seen the rest of South America plagued by military juntas and caudillismo; the collapse of Chilean democracy ended a succession of democratic governments in Chile, which had held democratic elections since 1932. Historian Peter Winn characterised the 1973 coup as one of the most violent events in the history of Chile. A weak insurgent movement against the Pinochet regime was maintained inside Chile by elements sympathetic to the former Allende government. An internationally supported plebiscite in 1988 held under the auspices of the military dictatorship was followed by a peaceful transition to an elected civilian government. Allende contested the 1970 presidential election with Jorge Alessandri Rodriguez of the National Party and Radomiro Tomic of the Christian Democratic Party. Allende received 36.6% of the vote. Alessandri was a close second with 35.3%, Tomic third with 28.1%.
Although Allende received the highest number of votes, according to the Chilean constitution and since none of the candidates won by an absolute majority, the National Congress had to decide among the candidates. The 1925 constitution did not allow a person to be president for two consecutive terms; the incumbent president, Eduardo Frei Montalva, was therefore ineligible as a candidate. The CIA's "Track I" operation was a plan to influence the Congress to choose Alessandri, who would resign after a short time in office, forcing a second election. Frei would be eligible to run. Alessandri announced on 9 September. Congress decided on Allende. Soon after hearing news of his win, Allende signed a Statute of Constitutional Guarantees, which stated that he would follow the constitution during his presidency; the U. S. feared the example of a "well-functioning socialist experiment" on the region and exerted diplomatic and covert pressure upon Chile's elected socialist government. At the end of 1971, the Cuban Prime Minister Fidel Castro made a four-week state visit to Chile, alarming Western observers worried about the "Chilean Way to Socialism".
In 1972, economics minister Pedro Vuskovic adopted monetary policies that increased the amount of circulating currency and devalued the escudo, which increased inflation to 140 percent in 1972 and engendered a black market economy. In October 1972, Chile suffered the first of many strikes. Among the participants were small-scale businessmen, some professional unions, student groups, its leaders – Vilarín, Jaime Guzmán, Rafael Cumsille, Guillermo Elton, Eduardo Arriagada – expected to depose the elected government. Other than damaging the national economy, the principal effect of the 24-day strike was drawing Army head, Gen. Carlos Prats, into the government as Interior Minister, an appeasement to the right wing. Gen. Prats supported the legalist Schneider Doctrine and refused military involvement in a coup d'état against President Allende. Despite the declining economy, President Allende's Popular Unity coalition increased its vote to 43.2% in the March 1973 parliamentary elections. The Christian Democrats allied with the right-wing National Party, who were opposed to Allende's government.
The internecine parliamentary conflict, between the legislature and the executive branch, paralyzed the activities of government. Allende began convinced they were plotting his assassination. Using his daughter as a messenger, he explained the situation to Fidel Castro. Castro gave four pieces of advice: convince technicians to stay in Chile, only sell copper for US dollars, avoid extreme revolutionary acts which would give opponents an excuse to wreck or control the economy, maintain a proper relationship with the Chilean military until local militias could be established and consolidated. Allende attempted to follow Castro's advice. Prior to the coup, the Chilean military had undergone a process of de-politicization since the 1920s, when military personnel participated in government positions. Subsequently, most military officers remained under-funded; because of the low salaries the milit
Mercedes, Buenos Aires
Mercedes is a city in Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. It is located 100 km west from 30 km southwest of Luján, it is the administrative headquarters for the district of Mercedes as well as of the judicial district. The Catedral Basílica de Mercedes-Luján, located in the city, is the seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Mercedes-Luján. Mercedes has a population of 51,967 people as per the 2001 census. Mercedes was first established as a fortress against native indigenous attacks, its original name was "La Guardia de Luján" and it was one of several fortress built in the borders of Buenos Aires to protect this city and gather the people living in the county near. It became a town on 25 June 1752 when founded by José de Zárate during a military campaign known as "La Valerosa". In 1777 viceroy Pedro de Cevallos proposed moving the town, but it was moved to its present location by viceroy Juan José de Vértiz on 8 May 1779; when moved its name was changed to "Nuestra Señora de las Mercedes". Mercedes is one of the few towns in Argentina in which three different railways meet, thus been connected with large commercial areas as Buenos Aires as well as the Pacific Ocean, the Andes range and the pampas plains.
This was a powerful reason during the 19th century for proposing the city as the capital of Buenos Aires Province. La Plata became capital, but Mercedes became known as the "West Pearl". In 1812 the Mercedes Partido was established because of the city's increasing population and commercial activities; the first municipal government was elected in 1856. Then-governor of Buenos Aires, Mariano Saavedra named it "Ciudad de Mercedes" in 1865, the same year that railway came to Mercedes for the first time; the most important churches in the city are: Our Lady of Mercedes Cathedral located on San Martín square the location of the italianate "Palacio Municipal" and numerous cafés and restaurants. A library founded by President Domingo Faustino Sarmiento is located a few streets away. Built in neogothic style and inaugurated on April 16, 1921, in 1934 received "cathedral" status by Pope bull; the Cathedral was declared National Monument of Argentina by a decree signed by president Cristina Fernández in 2010.
St. Patrick's Church: Inaugurated on March 17, 1932 and remodeled in 2003, it has 2,500 m2 and a large number of vitraux, a figure representing St. Patrick among them; this church has the largest pipe organ in South America, with 4,700 tubes. It was directly brought from Germany. A group of gargoyles decorate the exterior of the church. St. Luis Gonzaga Church: designated by architect Pedro Benoit, is the oldest in the city, having been inaugurated as a chapel in 1891, after twelve years of construction; the chapel received "church" status in December 1941. Mercedes has three railway stations, with two of them still active: Mercedes is terminus of the Sarmiento Line diesel branch from Moreno and Mercedes is part of the San Martín Railway line where long-distance services are operated by state-owned companies Trenes Argentinos and Ferrobaires to Rufino and Alberdi respectively; the station was built by the Buenos Aires and Pacific Railway. Mercedes Sarmiento and San Martín are located few meters to one another.
The third station is Mercedes built by French-owned Compañía General and inactive since the 1970s. That station is far from the city's commercial area. Railway stations with the name "Mercedes" are: Notes: 1 The building is occupied by several non-profit associations. Mercedes can be reached from the city of Buenos Aires by the "Acceso Oeste" and by National Route 5 until km. 100. From the city of Lobos by Provincial Route 41 to the north and from Chivilcoy by Route 5 to the northwest; the city can be reached from San Antonio de Areco after completing 50 km-length by Provincial Route 41. Mercedes has a bus terminal, located near the Mercedes railway station; the city of Mercedes is 34 ° 39 ` 59 ° 25' west longitude, along the Luján River. It is 35 km from the city of Luján, one of the most importante religious center and pilgrimage of Argentina; the climate of this region is the Mesopotamian type temperate humid with an annual average of 16 °C. The winter is mild with average temperatures of 9 °C, while the summer is mild with an average temperature of 23 °C.
On the outskirts of Mercedes there is an old pulpería or rural bar and store, institutions which enjoy mythical status in gaucho culture. Known as "lo de Cacho", it claims to be the last pulpería of the Pampas and retains the atmosphere of 1850, the year it opened. There is an original wanted poster for the outlaw Juan Moreira and reminders of gauchos, their culture and knife fights. There is an old war memorial called "La Cruz de Palo", it is a wooden cross remembering where the last of the native attacks to Mercedes took place on 27 October 1823. Mercedes is known for its peaches and salami, been the venue for the National Peach Fair as well as the National Salami Fair. Both fairs have their own queen elected each year. Mercedes has been the birthplace of several football players, musicians and journalists, it is most known as the town where ephemeral president Héctor José Cámpora was born as well as dictator Jorge Rafael Videla. The city was organized by a-hundred-meters-long square blocks; the streets are numbered with n
Revolución Libertadora was a military and civilian uprising that ended the second presidential term of Juan Perón in Argentina, on 16 September 1955. President Perón was first elected in 1946. In 1949, a constitutional amendment sponsored by the government introduced a number of workers' rights and the possibility of presidential reelection. Perón was reelected in 1952. At the time, his administration was supported by the labor unions, the military and the Catholic Church. However, economic problems, some of the government's policies and Perón's own personality cult changed this situation; the opposition criticized Perón because of his treatment of dissidents. The government's relationship with the Catholic Church worsened; as the Church distanced itself from Perón, the government, which had first respected the Church's privileges, now took them away in a distinctly confrontational fashion. By 1954, the Catholic clergy was anti-Peronist, which influenced some factions of the military. Meanwhile, a Christian Democratic Party was founded in 1954 after several other organisations had been active promoting Christian democracy in Argentina.
By 1955, Perón had lost the support of a large part of the military, who conspired with other political actors. There was turmoil in different parts of the country. On 14 June, Catholic bishops spoke against Perón during a Corpus Christi procession which turned into an anti-government demonstration. On 16 June 1955, 30 Argentine Navy and Air Force aircraft bombed Plaza de Mayo, Buenos Aires' main square, killing over 300 civilians and wounding hundreds more; the attack remains to this day the largest aerial bombing executed on the Argentine mainland. The bombing targeted the adjacent Casa Rosada, the official seat of government, as a large crowd was gathered there expressing support for president Juan Perón; the strike took place during a day of official public demonstrations to condemn the burning of a national flag carried out by detractors of Perón during the recent procession of Corpus Christi. In retaliation, extremist Peronist groups attacked and burned several churches that night instigated by Vice-President Alberto Teisaire.
The only important political support for Perón came from the General Confederation of Labour, which called the workers to defend the president. Perón addressed a workers' demonstration on 31 August. On 16 September, a new uprising, led by General Eduardo Lonardi, General Pedro E. Aramburu and Admiral Isaac Rojas, deposed Perón and established a provisional government. For several days, there was some fighting in places like the city of Córdoba, the Puerto Belgrano Naval Base near Bahía Blanca, another naval base at Río Santiago, a mechanized infantry regiment at Curuzú Cuatiá, Corrientes Province; the rebellion in Corrientes, defeated, was led by Pedro Eugenio Aramburu, who became one of the main players of the future government. Two rebel destroyers, that were enforcing the blockade of the Río de la Plata, were strafed by loyalist aircraft and suffered some casualties; the city of Mar del Plata was subjected to naval bombardment on 19 September by the light cruiser ARA 9 de Julio and several destroyers, scattered skirmishes and air strikes took place elsewhere, including Buenos Aires itself.
After realizing that the country was on the brink of civil war, Perón resigned and sought asylum in Paraguay, after taking shelter aboard the Paraguayan gunboat Paraguay. On 23 September, Lonardi assumed the presidency and gave a speech from the balcony of the Casa Rosada, saying that there would be "neither victors nor vanquished". General Lonardi promised that the interim administration would end as soon as the country was "reorganized", his conciliatory tone earned him the opposition of hard-liners, in November an internal coup deposed Lonardi and placed General Aramburu in the presidency, giving rise to a wild "anti-Peronism". After the Revolución Libertadora, Perón and his followers were accused of treason, Eva Perón's remains were moved secretly to Italy and buried in a graveyard at Milan under a fake identity. Public references to Perón or his late wife, including songs and pictures, were forbidden. Sportsmen like Delfo Cabrera, Mary Terán de Weiss, many of the major basketball players, as well as Olympic-level athlete, Osvaldo Suárez, were unfairly punished, by being accused of having gotten their sports success only because they were Perón followers.
The Peronist Party suffered a proscription, to last until Perón's return in 1973 though Perón influenced the results of the 1958 and 1963 elections from his exile in Madrid. Peronismo. Historia Argentina: Los gobiernos de Perón. Sucesos Históricos Argentinos. Civiles y militares de 1955 a 1983. La Revolución Libertadora en Internet 16 de septiembre de 1955 - Golpe autodenominado “Revolución Libertadora” Potash, Robert A; the Army and Politics in Argentina, 1945-1962: Peron to Frondizi Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, ISBN 978-0804710565