Herbert George Wells was an English writer. He was prolific in many genres, writing dozens of novels, short stories, works of social commentary, satire and autobiography, including two books on recreational war games, he is now best remembered for his science fiction novels and is called the "father of science fiction", along with Jules Verne and the publisher Hugo Gernsback. During his own lifetime, however, he was most prominent as a forward-looking prophetic social critic who devoted his literary talents to the development of a progressive vision on a global scale. A futurist, he wrote a number of utopian works and foresaw the advent of aircraft, space travel, nuclear weapons, satellite television and something resembling the World Wide Web, his science fiction imagined time travel, alien invasion and biological engineering. Brian Aldiss referred to Wells as the "Shakespeare of science fiction". Wells rendered his works convincing by instilling commonplace detail alongside a single extraordinary assumption – dubbed “Wells’s law” – leading Joseph Conrad to hail him in 1898 as "O Realist of the Fantastic!".
His most notable science fiction works include The Time Machine, The Island of Doctor Moreau, The Invisible Man, The War of the Worlds and the military science fiction The War in the Air. Wells was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature four times. Wells's earliest specialised training was in biology, his thinking on ethical matters took place in a and fundamentally Darwinian context, he was from an early date an outspoken socialist sympathising with pacifist views. His works became political and didactic, he wrote little science fiction, while he sometimes indicated on official documents that his profession was that of journalist. Novels such as Kipps and The History of Mr Polly, which describe lower-middle-class life, led to the suggestion that he was a worthy successor to Charles Dickens, but Wells described a range of social strata and attempted, in Tono-Bungay, a diagnosis of English society as a whole. Wells was a diabetic and co-founded the charity The Diabetic Association in 1934.
Herbert George Wells was born at Atlas House, 162 High Street in Bromley, Kent, on 21 September 1866. Called "Bertie" in the family, he was the fourth and last child of Joseph Wells and his wife, Sarah Neal. An inheritance had allowed the family to acquire a shop in which they sold china and sporting goods, although it failed to prosper: the stock was old and worn out, the location was poor. Joseph Wells managed to earn a meagre income, but little of it came from the shop and he received an unsteady amount of money from playing professional cricket for the Kent county team. Payment for skilled bowlers and batsmen came from voluntary donations afterwards, or from small payments from the clubs where matches were played. A defining incident of young Wells's life was an accident in 1874 that left him bedridden with a broken leg. To pass the time he began to read books from the local library, brought to him by his father, he soon became devoted to the other lives to which books gave him access. That year he entered Thomas Morley's Commercial Academy, a private school founded in 1849, following the bankruptcy of Morley's earlier school.
The teaching was erratic, the curriculum focused, Wells said, on producing copperplate handwriting and doing the sort of sums useful to tradesmen. Wells continued at Morley's Academy until 1880. In 1877, his father, Joseph Wells, suffered a fractured thigh; the accident put an end to Joseph's career as a cricketer, his subsequent earnings as a shopkeeper were not enough to compensate for the loss of the primary source of family income. No longer able to support themselves financially, the family instead sought to place their sons as apprentices in various occupations. From 1880 to 1883, Wells had an unhappy apprenticeship as a draper at the Southsea Drapery Emporium, Hyde's, his experiences at Hyde's, where he worked a thirteen-hour day and slept in a dormitory with other apprentices inspired his novels The Wheels of Chance, The History of Mr Polly, Kipps, which portray the life of a draper's apprentice as well as providing a critique of society's distribution of wealth. Wells's parents had a turbulent marriage, owing to his mother's being a Protestant and his father's being a freethinker.
When his mother returned to work as a lady's maid, one of the conditions of work was that she would not be permitted to have living space for her husband and children. Thereafter and Joseph lived separate lives, though they never divorced and remained faithful to each other; as a consequence, Herbert's personal troubles increased as he subsequently failed as a draper and later, as a chemist's assistant. However, Uppark had a magnificent library in which he immersed himself, reading many classic works, including Plato's Republic, Thomas More's Utopia, the works of Daniel Defoe; this was the beginning of Wells's venture into literature. In October 1879, Wells's mother arranged through a distant relative, Arthur Williams, for him to join the National School at Wookey in Somerset as a pupil–teacher, a senior pupil who acted as a teacher of younger children. In December that year, Williams was dismissed for irregularities in his qualifications and Wells was returned to Uppark. After a short apprenticeship at a chemis
Billie Paul Piper is an English actress and singer. She first appeared as a performer in Scratchy & Co, aged 13. At the age of 15 she released her debut single "Because We Want To", which made her the youngest artist to enter at number one on the UK Singles Chart, her debut album Honey to the B was certified platinum by the British Phonographic Industry. In 2000, she released Walk of Life. In 2003, she retired from the recording industry and began an acting career. From 2005 to 2006 Piper appeared as a series regular in the BBC sci-fi show Doctor Who in the role of Rose Tyler, companion to The Doctor, she reprised the role in 2008, 2010, 2013. From 2007 until 2011, she starred as the high-flying escort Belle de Jour in the television series Secret Diary of a Call Girl, she starred as Brona Croft/Lily in the Showtime series Penny Dreadful. Piper has starred in five plays since 2007 and was given a Laurence Olivier Award for her performance in Yerma, described as a "generation's best", she went on to win a total of six Best Actress awards for that one performance, including the Olivier Award, making Piper the only actor to have won six out of an available six Best Actress awards for a single performance.
Piper was born in Wiltshire. Her first name, was changed to Billie on 25 April 1983, by her parents, Paul Victor Piper and Mandy Kane Kent, she has one younger brother and two younger sisters and Elle. She studied at Bradon Forest School. Piper's career began when she was selected to appear on the Saturday-morning children's television show Scratchy & Co, she landed a role in a television commercial promoting the pop magazine Smash Hits. She was offered a record deal at the age of 15, in 1998, became the youngest artist to debut at number one in the UK Singles Chart with "Because We Want To", released under the stage mononym "Billie", her follow-up single "Girlfriend" debuted at number one. Piper's debut album Honey to the B was released afterwards, debuted and peaked at number 14 in the UK album charts, selling more than 300,000 copies in the UK alone along with a platinum certification, a 2x platinum certification in New Zealand, where it reached number three. However, Honey to the B found limited success in other territories, such as Australia, where it debuted and peaked at number 31 despite the success of "Honey to the Bee", in the US, it went unnoticed, peaking at number 17 on the Heatseekers.
At the 1998 Smash Hits Poll Winners' party, Piper was nominated for Best New Act and won Princess of Pop. She released "She Wants You" as the third single from the album; the song reached number three. "Honey to the Bee" was released as the fourth single from the album. At the same time, "She Wants You" was released in the US, reaching number 9 on the "Hot Club Dance Play" chart. In 1999, Piper was nominated for two BRIT Awards and won two awards at the 1999 Smash Hits Poll Winners' party, although she was reduced to tears at the latter ceremony after being booed by fans of Ritchie Neville, whom she was dating at the time, she started to tour and release in Asia. The singles and the album were released during mid- to late 1999. In August of that year, the follow-up to "Because We Want To" was released in Japan, a single comprising "Girlfriend" and "She Wants You" combined, she recorded a song for Pokémon: The First Movie titled "Makin' My Way". During that time, Piper recorded her second album, she decided to release further records under her full name of Billie Piper.
She returned to the Singles Chart in May 2000 with her third number-one single "Day & Night". She waited until September to release "Something Deep Inside", which reached number four, but her success waned. In October 2000, Piper released her second album, Walk of Life, which reached #14 in the UK Album Chart, but fell off the charts and was certified silver in the UK; the album only charted in two other countries: New Zealand, where it reached #17 only, Australia, where it was a minor success and peaked at #23. In Piper's autobiography, she states that the album was a "commercial bomb"; the song "Walk of Life", the final single off this album, was released in December 2000 and reached #25 in the UK Singles Chart. In February 2001, Piper appeared in court to testify against a woman named Juliet Peters. Peters was charged with, convicted of, stalking as well as making numerous threats against Piper and members of her family. Peters received psychiatric treatment as part of her sentence. According to her autobiography, Piper was reluctant about the court case, but was pushed by her parents and her label.
She stated in the book that this was why "The Tide Is High" was not released as a single, writing: "The court case succeeded in doing what I alone could not – cutting the ties. Without it I might have been tempted back." In January 2007, BBC Radio 1 DJ Chris Moyles started a campaign to get "Honey to the Bee" back into the top 100 on download sales as a way of testing out new chart rules that favour download sales. The campaign was successful, with "Honey to the Bee" re-entering the official UK singles chart at #17, eight years after it was first released. In the autumn of 2003, it was announced that Doctor Who would be resurrected in 2005 after a sixteen-year absence from TV. Piper won the Most Popular Actress category at the 2005 and 2006 National T
Hiram Abas was a Turkish intelligence official in the National Intelligence Organization. He retired after the 1980 Turkish coup d'état, but returned in August 1986 as deputy to MIT chief Hayri Ündül, retiring again in 1988, he was assassinated on 26 September 1990 by leftwing revolutionary group Dev Sol. According to an article in the leftist pro-Kurdish Kurtuluş magazine, MIT deputy chief Hiram Abas was present at the 1977 Taksim Square massacre. Hiram Abas had been trained in the US in covert action operations and as an MIT agent first gained notoriety in Beirut, where he co-operated with the Mossad from 1968 to 1971 and carried out attacks, "targeting left-wing youths in the Palestinian camps and receiving bounty for the results he achieved in actions". Abas is said to have led a Lebanese unit against the Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia, consisting only of MİT operatives and members of the Special Warfare Department. Doğan Yurdakul and Soner Yalçın produced a biography of Abas, Mr Pipe – an MIT Officer's Unusual Life.
Doğan Yurdakul and Soner Yalçın, Bay Pipo – Bir MİT Görevlisinin Sıradışı Yaşamı: Hiram Abas, Doğan Kitap. ISBN 9789759914301