Time travel is the concept of movement between certain points in time, analogous to movement between different points in space by an object or a person with the use of a hypothetical device known as a time machine. Time travel is a recognized concept in philosophy and fiction; the idea of a time machine was popularized by H. G. Wells' 1895 novel The Time Machine, it is uncertain. Forward time travel, outside the usual sense of the perception of time, is an extensively observed phenomenon and well-understood within the framework of special relativity and general relativity. However, making one body advance or delay more than a few milliseconds compared to another body is not feasible with current technology; as for backward time travel, it is possible to find solutions in general relativity that allow for it, such as a rotating black hole. Traveling to an arbitrary point in spacetime has a limited support in theoretical physics, is connected only with quantum mechanics or wormholes known as Einstein-Rosen bridges.
Some ancient myths depict a character skipping forward in time. In Hindu mythology, the Mahabharata mentions the story of King Raivata Kakudmi, who travels to heaven to meet the creator Brahma and is surprised to learn when he returns to Earth that many ages have passed; the Buddhist Pāli Canon mentions the relativity of time. The Payasi Sutta tells of one of the Buddha's chief disciples, Kumara Kassapa, who explains to the skeptic Payasi that time in the Heavens passes differently than on Earth; the Japanese tale of "Urashima Tarō", first described in the Manyoshu tells of a young fisherman named Urashima-no-ko who visits an undersea palace. After three days, he returns home to his village and finds himself 300 years in the future, where he has been forgotten, his house is in ruins, his family has died. In Jewish tradition, the 1st-century BC scholar Honi ha-M'agel is said to have fallen asleep and slept for seventy years; when waking up he returned home but found none of the people he knew, no one believed his claims of who he was.
Early science fiction stories feature characters who sleep for years and awaken in a changed society, or are transported to the past through supernatural means. Among them L'An 2440, rêve s'il en fût jamais by Louis-Sébastien Mercier, Rip Van Winkle by Washington Irving, Looking Backward by Edward Bellamy, When the Sleeper Awakes by H. G. Wells. Prolonged sleep, like the more familiar time machine, is used as a means of time travel in these stories; the earliest work about backwards time travel is uncertain. Samuel Madden's Memoirs of the Twentieth Century is a series of letters from British ambassadors in 1997 and 1998 to diplomats in the past, conveying the political and religious conditions of the future; because the narrator receives these letters from his guardian angel, Paul Alkon suggests in his book Origins of Futuristic Fiction that "the first time-traveler in English literature is a guardian angel." Madden does not explain how the angel obtains these documents, but Alkon asserts that Madden "deserves recognition as the first to toy with the rich idea of time-travel in the form of an artifact sent backward from the future to be discovered in the present."
In the science fiction anthology Far Boundaries, editor August Derleth claims that an early short story about time travel is Missing One's Coach: An Anachronism, written for the Dublin Literary Magazine by an anonymous author in 1838. While the narrator waits under a tree for a coach to take him out of Newcastle, he is transported back in time over a thousand years, he encounters the Venerable Bede in a monastery and explains to him the developments of the coming centuries. However, the story never makes it clear whether these events are a dream. Another early work about time travel is The Forebears of Kalimeros: Alexander, son of Philip of Macedon by Alexander Veltman published in 1836. Charles Dickens's A Christmas Carol has early depictions of time travel in both directions, as the protagonist, Ebenezer Scrooge, is transported to Christmases past and future. Other stories employ the same template, where a character goes to sleep, upon waking up finds themself in a different time. A clearer example of backward time travel is found in the popular 1861 book Paris avant les hommes by the French botanist and geologist Pierre Boitard, published posthumously.
In this story, the protagonist is transported to the prehistoric past by the magic of a "lame demon", where he encounters a Plesiosaur and an apelike ancestor and is able to interact with ancient creatures. Edward Everett Hale's "Hands Off" tells the story of an unnamed being the soul of a person who has died, who interferes with ancient Egyptian history by preventing Joseph's enslavement; this may have been the first story to feature an alternate history created as a result of time travel. One of the first stories to feature time travel by means of a machine is "The Clock that Went Backward" by Edward Page Mitchell, which appeared in the New York Sun in 1881. However, the mechanism borders on fantasy. An unusual clock, when wound, transports people nearby back in time; the author does not explain the origin or properties of the clock. Enrique Gaspar y Rimbau's El Anacronópete may have been the first story to feature a vessel engineered to travel through time. Andrew Sawyer has commented that the story "does seem to be the first literary description of a time machine noted so far", adding that "Edward Page Mitchell's story'The Clock That Went Backward' is described as the first time-machine story, but I'm not sure that a clock quite counts."
Severn Shire was a local government area in the New England region of New South Wales, Australia. Severn Shire was proclaimed on 7 March 1906, one of 134 shires created after the passing of the Local Government Act 1905; the shire office was in Glen Innes. Towns and villages in the shire included Deepwater, Emmaville, Red Range, Stannum and Wellingrove. Severn Shire was abolished and split on 15 September 2004 with part of the shire was absorbed by Tenterfield Shire and the balance merged with Municipality of Glen Innes to form Glen Innes Severn Council. Media related to Severn Shire at Wikimedia Commons
Hav Plenty is a 1997 American independent comedy film released by Miramax Films, based on an eventful weekend in the life of Lee Plenty and directed by Cherot. The film is based on the true story of Chris Cherot's unrequited romance with Def Jam A&R executive Drew Dixon. Financing for the film came from Cherot's time as a New York City cab driver, a third mortgage on his mother's home. Principal photography took eighteen days around New York City and New Jersey. Upon completion of principal photography, Cherot was out of money again, it took him a year to complete his edit and make a screening print of the film. In May 1997, at his first "cast-and-crew screening" in a small screening room in New York City, Hav Plenty producer Robyn M. Greene by chance ran into Warrington Hudlin and Bill Duke in the lobby of the building and invited them up to view the film. After the screening, Hudlin invited Cherot to participate in the inaugural year of the Acapulco Black Film Festival, now the American Black Film Festival.
Cherot accepted on the spot, one month in June 1997, Hav Plenty was the opening night film in Acapulco, the first film at the first festival. After seeing Hav Plenty at the Acapulco Black Film Festival, Tracey Edmonds and Kenneth "Babyface" Edmonds offered to attach their names to the film and record a new soundtrack attracting an intense amount of media attention to what was a small, obscure independent movie. Three months after a screening at the Toronto International Film Festival in September 1997, Harvey Weinstein offered to buy Hav Plenty for an amount between $1.5 – $2.3 million. The entire time that passed between Cherot's first obscure screening in New York City to Weinstein's multimillion-dollar handshake-deal in Toronto was four months. According to an interview with Chris Cherot, Miramax wanted to give the movie a happier ending, they compromised by adding the "one year later" scene which shows a happier ending, while at the same time leaves room for argument that Hav and Lee didn't end up together.
After screenings at the Sundance Film Festival in January 1998 to start the official "buzz", Miramax theatrically released Hav Plenty in the United States on June 19, 1998, with worldwide distribution following afterward. Christopher Scott Cherot as Lee Plenty Betty Vaughn as Grandma Moore Chenoa Maxwell as Havilland Savage Chuck Baron as Mr. Savage Hill Harper as Michael Simmons Kim Harris as Bobby Montgomery Margie St. Juste as Alexandria Beaumont Reginald James as Felix Darling Robinne Lee as Leigh Darling Tammi Katherine Jones as Caroline GoodenCameo appearances by: Kenneth "Babyface" Edmonds as Lloyd Banks Lauryn Hill as Debra Mekhi Phifer as Harold Nia Long as Trudy Rozonda "Chilli" Thomas as Kris Shemar Moore as Chris Tracey Edmonds as Amy Madison Stephen Holden said, "With his self-deflating cool and amused insight into the shallowness of the buppie world in which he drifts, Lee is one of the most original and likable characters to pop up in a movie in quite a while." Emanuel Levy said, "Christopher Scott Cherot makes a splashy debut as writer, director and star of this fresh, modern-day love story that recalls the early work of Woody Allen."
Duane Byrge of The Hollywood Reporter wrote, "Screenwriter-director Cherot has dished up a dicey, romantic riposte, stuffing it with the real makings of romantic comedy: individual insecurities and fears." Lisa Schwarzbaum wrote: " may be new to the movie game, but he announces himself with such confidence and force of personality, you know a noteworthy talent has arrived." Kevin Thomas at The Los Angeles Times observed, "The pleasure in watching Hav Plenty comes from seeing Cherot discover the possibilities of the medium as he goes along... As it unfolds, repartee gives way to an increasing sense of the visual, by the time the film is over, Cherot has discovered how potent can be in repose..". The San Francisco Chronicle remarked, "Hav Plenty harks back to a different temperament with considerable charm." Entertainment Weekly included Cherot on its year-end "It-List". Roger Ebert was more critical, calling the film "basically an amateur movie, with some of the good things and many of the bad that go along with first-time efforts".
1997 Acapulco Black Film Festival Best of Festival – Christopher Scott Cherot 1998 Sundance Film Festival Grand Jury Prize, Dramatic – Christopher Scott Cherot 1999 Acapulco Black Film Festival Best Screenplay – Christopher Scott Cherot A soundtrack containing hip hop and R&B music was released on June 9, 1998 by Sony Music Entertainment. It peaked at No. 39 on No. 6 on the Top R&B / Hip-Hop Albums. Hav Plenty at AllMovie Hav Plenty on IMDb Hav Plenty at Rotten Tomatoes