Avon River (Canterbury)
The Avon River / Ōtākaro flows through the centre of the city of Christchurch, New Zealand, out to an estuary, which it shares with the Heathcote River, the Avon Heathcote Estuary. The Avon follows a meandering course through Christchurch from its source in the outer western suburb of Avonhead through Ilam and Fendalton through Hagley Park and the Central Business District. East of the CBD, it passes through Avonside, Dallington and Aranui flowing into the Pacific Ocean via the Avon Heathcote Estuary near Sumner; the Avon River was known by the Māori as Putare Kamutu. The Canterbury Association had planned to call it the Shakespere; the river was given its current name by John Deans in 1848 to commemorate the Scottish Avon, which rises in the Ayrshire hills near what was his grandfathers' farm, Over Auchentiber. The Deans built their homestead adjacent to the Avon River; the name was altered to Avon River / Ōtākaro by the Ngai Tahu Claims Settlement Act 1998, one of many such changes under the Ngāi Tahu treaty settlement.
Commercial punting as a tourist attraction is available in the central city, Hagley Park and Mona Vale, a park in Fendalton. The Avon, flowing through the centre of the south island's most populous urban area, has become popular among local anglers as large numbers of introduced Brown trout are in the river. In the lower reaches below the Central Business District it is not uncommon for trout over 10 lbs to be caught, after the fish have made good use of consuming high numbers of a native Galaxiidae, Whitebait. Above the CBD the fish are smaller but higher numbers of these smaller fish are available, the most common method above the city is Fly Fishing as the Trout have become somewhat wary of anglers. Angling is not permitted between the Armagh street bridge at Hagley Park and the Barbadoes street bridge downstream from the city centre. Much of the land along the Avon River downstream from the central city was damaged in the 2010 Canterbury earthquake, the February 2011 Christchurch earthquake and the June 2011 Christchurch earthquake and has been zoned red by the Canterbury Earthquake Recovery Authority.
Community interests are lobbying for the red zoned land to be turned into a park that links the central city with the estuary. The campaign is headed by a group called Avon-Otakaro Network and has received the backing of the mayor. In January 2013 health officials warned against swimming in the river due to contamination, linked to damage caused in the earthquakes. In September 2015, it was revealed that Christchurch City Council and the Canterbury Earthquake Recovery Authority had bought two sculptures named Stay from English sculptor Antony Gormley, with one of them to be placed in the Avon River. Gormley, who had visited Christchurch in 2007 and discounted his works for the city, stated that he wanted his sculptures to help the city's healing process from the earthquakes. CCC's contribution towards the project was NZ$502,500; the second sculpture will be placed at the Arts Centre. The two sculpture are Gormley's first works in New Zealand. Avon River Avon River Masterplan, Christchurch City Council
George Lyttelton, 4th Baron Lyttelton
George William Lyttelton, 4th Baron Lyttelton, was a British aristocrat and Conservative politician from the Lyttelton family. He was chairman of the Canterbury Association, which encouraged British settlers to move to New Zealand. Lyttelton was the eldest son of William Lyttelton, 3rd Baron Lyttelton, Lady Sarah Spencer, daughter of George John Spencer, 2nd Earl Spencer, he was educated at Cambridge. He succeeded his father as fourth Baron Lyttelton in 1837 and took his seat in the House of Lords on his 21st birthday a year later; the Lyttelton seat is Hagley Hall in Worcestershire. In January 1846 he was appointed Under-Secretary of State for War and the Colonies in the Conservative government of Sir Robert Peel, a post he held until the government fell in June of the same year. Lyttelton was Lord Lieutenant of Worcestershire from 1839 to 1876 and the first President of Birmingham and Midland Institute in 1854. Moreover, he founded the region of New Zealand with Anglican colonists; the port of Canterbury bears his name.
He was president of the British Chess Association at the time of the Staunton–Morphy controversy in 1858. He was appointed a Knight Commander of the Order of St Michael and St George in the 1869 Birthday Honours. Lord Lyttelton married, firstly in 1839, Mary Glynne, daughter of Sir Stephen Glynne, 8th Baronet, sister-in-law of William Ewart Gladstone, they had eight sons and four daughters: The Honorable Meriel Sarah Lyttelton married John Gilbert Talbot and was the mother of Meriel Talbot. The Honorable Lucy Caroline Lyttelton, married Lord Frederick Cavendish and the Lucy Cavendish College at Cambridge is named after her. Charles Lyttelton, 8th Viscount Cobham succeeded his father; the Honorable Rev Albert Victor Lyttelton, Headmaster of St Andrew's School, Bloemfontein. The Honorable Neville Gerald Lyttelton, became a General in the British Army; the Honorable George William Spencer Lyttelton, was a British civil servant and private secretary to Gladstone. The Honorable Lavinia Lyttelton, married Right Rev Edward Stuart Talbot and is the great-great-grandmother of adventurer Bear Grylls.
The Honorable May Lyttelton, whom Arthur Balfour had hoped to marry. Balfour remained a bachelor thereafter; the Honorable Arthur Temple Lyttelton, became an Anglican Bishop The Honorable Robert Henry Lyttelton, cricketer. The Honorable Edward Lyttelton, became headmaster of Eton College The Honorable Alfred Lyttelton and politician. After Mary's death in 1857 Lyttelton married, Sybella Harriet Clive, daughter of George Clive MP, in 1869, they had three daughters: The Honorable Sarah Kathleen Lyttelton. They had children; the Honorable Sybil Lyttelton. They had one son: Sir Lionel George Arthur Cust The Honorable Hester Margaret Lyttelton, they had six children: Patrick Alington Giles Alington Kathleen Alington Elizabeth Hester Alington Joan Argentine Alington Lavinia Alington In 1876 Lyttelton committed suicide at the age of 59 by throwing himself down the stairs in a London house. He was succeeded by his eldest son Charles, who also inherited the viscounty of Cobham. Lady Lyttelton died in 1900.
Kidd, Williamson, David. Debrett's Baronetage. New York: St Martin's Press, 1990, Leigh Rayment's Peerage Pages George Lyttelton profile, CricketArchive.com. Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Lord Lyttelton
A heliport is an area of land, water, or structure used or intended to be used for the landing and takeoff of helicopters, includes its buildings and facilities. In other words, it is a small airport suitable for use by helicopters and some other vertical lift platforms. Designated heliports contain one or more touchdown and liftoff area and may have limited facilities such as fuel or hangars. In some larger towns and cities, customs facilities may be available. Early advocates of helicopters hoped that heliports would become widespread, but they have become contentious in urban areas due to the excessive noise caused by helicopter traffic. Other terms used to refer to a heliport are: Helistop - A term sometimes used to describe a minimally developed heliport for boarding and discharging passengers or cargo. Helipad - A term oftentimes confused with heliport or helistop; the only reference of this term in the U. S. by the FAA is found in the Aeronautical Information Manual Pilot/Controller Glossary of Terms, which says: A small, designated area with a prepared surface, on a heliport, landing/takeoff area, apron/ramp, or movement area used for takeoff, landing, or parking of helicopters.
In other words, the TLOF. Helideck - Used to describe the landing area on a vessel or offshore structure on which helicopters may land and take off; the airspace surrounding the heliport is called the Primary Surface. This area coincides in size with the designated take-off and landing area; this surface is a horizontal plane equal to the elevation of the established heliport elevation. The Primary Surface is further broken down into three distinct regions; these are, the Final Approach and Takeoff area and the Safety Area. The TLOF is a load-bearing paved area centered in the FATO, on which the helicopter lands and/or takes off; the FATO is a defined area over which the pilot completes the final phase of the approach to a hover or a landing and from which the pilot initiates takeoff. The FATO elevation is the lowest elevation of the edge of the TLOF; the Safety Area is a defined area on a heliport surrounding the FATO intended to reduce the risk of damage to helicopters accidentally diverging from the FATO.
In a large metropolitan and urban areas a heliport can serve passengers needing to move within the city or to outlying regions. Heliports can be situated closer to a town or city center than an airport for fixed-wing aircraft; the advantage in flying by helicopter to a destination or to the city's main airport is that travel can be much faster than driving. As an example, the Downtown Manhattan Heliport in New York City provides scheduled service to John F. Kennedy International Airport and is used to move wealthy persons and important goods to destinations as far away as Maryland; some skyscrapers feature rooftop heliports or helistops to serve the transport needs of executives or clients. Many of these rooftop sites serve as Emergency Helicopter Landing Facilities in case emergency evacuation is needed; the U. S. Bank Tower in Los Angeles is an example. Police departments use heliports as a base for police helicopters, larger departments may have a dedicated large heliport facility dedicated such as the LAPD Hooper Heliport.
Heliports are common features at hospitals where they serve to facilitate Helicopter Air Ambulance and MEDEVACs for transferring patients into and out of hospital facilities. Some large trauma centers have multiple heliports. Heliports allow hospitals to accept patients that may be flown in from remote accident sites where there are no local hospitals or facilities capable of providing the level of emergency care required; the National EMS Pilots Association has published multiple white papers and safety recommendations for the enhancement of hospital heliport operations to improve patient safety. While heliports can be oriented in any direction they will have definitive approach and departure paths. However, heliports are not numbered in the same way. Recommended standard practice by both the Federal Aviation Administration and the International Civil Aviation Organization is to orient an H in the center of the TLOF in line with the preferred approach/departure direction. An information box should be included in the TLOF area which provides the maximum gross weight the heliport is rated for as well as the maximum size helicopter the heliport has been designed to accommodated, based on the Rotor Diameter and Overall Length of the largest design helicopter that will service the heliport.
Under normal conditions it is standard practice to paint the maximum gross weight a heliport is designed to support in thousands of pounds. Along with the maximum helicopter dimensions in feet. Arrows are oftentimes painted on the heliport to indicate to pilots the preferred approach/departure paths. Other common markings can include radio frequencies, company logos and magnetic north. To conduct nighttime operations at a heliport it must have lighting installed that meets specific aeronautical standards. Heliport perimeter lights are installed around the TLOF area an may be flush mounted on the TLOF itself or mounted just off the TLOF perimeter on short metal or concrete extensions. One alternative to lighting the TLOF if certain criteria is met is to light the area of the FATO instead; some locations, due to environmental conditions, illuminate the TLOF and FATO. Lighting should never constitute an obstruction that a helicopter may impact and for this reason in the U. S. heliport lighting is not allowed to extend above the TLOF
The Canterbury Association was formed in order to establish a colony in what is now the Canterbury Region in the South Island of New Zealand. The Association was founded in London on 27 March 1848, incorporated by Royal Charter on 13 November 1849; the prime movers were John Robert Godley. Wakefield was involved in the New Zealand Company, which by that time had established four other colonies in New Zealand, he approached Godley to help him establish a colony sponsored by the Church of England. The President of the Association's Committee of Management was John Sumner, the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Committee itself included several other bishops and clergy, as well as members of the peerage and Members of Parliament. At its first meeting, the Association decided upon names; the settlement was to be called Canterbury after the Archbishop of Canterbury, the seat of the settlement Christchurch after the Oxford college at which Godley had studied. The Association re-targeted its planned settlement from the Wairarapa to the Banks Peninsula hinterland, where it arranged to buy land from the New Zealand Company for 10 shillings per acre.
The Association sold the land to its colonists for £3 per acre, reserving the rest, the additional £2 10s, for use in "public objects such as emigration and Church and school endowments". The provision of funds for emigration allowed the Association to offer assisted passages to members of the working classes with desirable skills for the new colony. A poster advertising the assisted passages mentions "Gardeners, Farm Servants and Country Mechanics"; the religious nature of the colony shows in the same poster's requirement that the clergyman of their parish should vouch for applicants, in the specific earmarking of some of the proceeds from land sales for church endowments. Godley went out to New Zealand in early 1850 to oversee the preparations for the settlement undertaken by a large team of men under the direction of Captain Joseph Thomas; these preparations were advanced, but incomplete when the first ships of settlers arrived on 16 December 1850 - Godley halted them shortly after his arrival in April due to the mounting debts of the Association.
Lord Lyttelton, Sir John Simeon, 3rd Baronet, Edward Gibbon Wakefield, Lord Richard Cavendish guaranteed ₤15,000 to the Association, which saved it from financial collapse. Charlotte Jane and Randolph arrived in Lyttelton Harbour on 16 December 1850, Sir George Seymour on the 17th, Cressy on the 27th, having set sail from England in September 1850; the British press dubbed the settlers on these first four ships Canterbury Pilgrims. A further 24 shiploads of Canterbury Association settlers, making a total of 3,500, arrived over the next two-and-a-half years. In 1852, the Parliament of the United Kingdom passed the New Zealand Constitution Act 1852, which amongst other things established provincial councils; the Constitution contained specific provisions for the Canterbury Association. As a result, affairs of the Canterbury Association were wound up in 1855 and outstanding settlement lands handed over to the Canterbury Province. New Zealand Company Otago Association "New Zealand Constitution Act 1852".
Victoria University of Wellington - New Zealand Electronic Text Collection. 30 June 1852. Retrieved 2 April 2019. Terry Hearn.'English', Te Ara — the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, updated 11-Jul-2005. Philip Temple.'A sort of conscience: the Wakefields' Auckland University Press. ISBN 1-86940-276-6 Hensley, Gerald. "Godley, John Robert 1814–1861". Dictionary of New Zealand Biography. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved 3 April 2011. Bishop Harper and the Canterbury Settlement
Model yachting is the pastime of building and racing model yachts. It has always been customary for ship-builders to make a miniature model of the vessel under construction, in every respect a copy of the original on a small scale, whether steamship or sailing ship. There are fine collections to be seen at both general interest museums such as the Victoria and Albert Museum in London and at many specialized maritime museums worldwide. Many of these models are of exquisite workmanship, every rope, pulley or portion of the engine being faithfully reproduced. In the case of sailing yachts, these models were pitted against each other on small bodies of water, hence arose the modern pastime, it was soon seen that elaborate fittings and complicated rigging were a detriment to rapid handling, that, on account of the comparatively stronger winds in which models were sailed, they needed a greater draught. For these reasons modern model yachts, which have fin keels, are of about 15% or 20% deeper draught than full-sized vessels, while rigging and fittings have been reduced to absolute simplicity.
This applies to models built for racing and not to elaborate copies of steamers and ships, made only for show or for " toy cruising." Model yacht clubs have existed for many years in Great Britain and the United States, most of them holding a number of regattas during each season. The rules do not require the owner or skipper of a model to build his own craft, but among model yachtsmen the designing and the construction of the boats constitute as important and interesting a part of the sport as the actual sailing. Traditional models are constructed of some light, seasoned wood, such as pine, preferably white pine, white cedar or mahogany free from knots; the hull may either be hollowed out of a solid block of wood, or cut from layers of planks in the so-called bread-and-butter style, or planked over a frame of keel and cross-sections. The first two methods are used in constructing dugout models. Hollowing out from the solid block entails a great deal of labor and has therefore fallen into disfavor.
In the bread-and-butter style a number of planks, which have been shaped to the horizontal sections of the model and from which the middle has been sawn out, are glued together and cut down to the exact lines of the design, templates being used to test the precision of the curves. In the planked, or built-up model, chosen by more expert builders, the planks are tacked to the frame, as in the construction of large vessels. Hulls may be formed from modern plastics, which may be purchased from a manufacturer as termomoldings or fiberglass layups or fabricated by the modeler, by first making a positive model from clay or plaster and creating a negative mold from fiberglass or plaster. Models may be exaggerated cutters, so far as their underbodies are concerned, or, more are fitted with fin-keels weighted, after the manner of full-sized yachts, they may have any -rig, but schooner and sloop rigs are most common, the latter being the favorite for racing on account of its simplicity. For uncontrolled sailing craft some form of steering control is required, since with a fixed rudder position the model will turn into the wind.
Three kinds of steering-gear are used, the weighted swinging rudder, the main-sheet balance gear, the steering vane, the object of each being to keep the model on a true course, either before or against the wind. Models are sailed without dynamic control of the rudder, but although a built boat will sail against the wind without steering gear, it is impossible to keep it on its course before the wind without some contrivance to check for divergence; the setting of the steering gear and sheet positions must be adapted to the wind conditions and this is a subtle art to master. These controls are the traditional methods, for more than 100 years before the advent of radio control and they continue to be used worldwide; this is accomplished by the weighted rudder, which falls over when the vessel heels and tends to counteract the force of the breeze. There are two varieties of the weighted rudder, in the first of which the weight lead, is fixed to the edge of the rudder, while in the second the weight a ball of lead, is made to run on the tiller above the deck, so that it can be placed further forward or aft, according to the force needed to overcome the influence of the wind.
The weighted rudder is universal in the British Isles. Weights are incorporated into the other, following methods; the preferred method in the United States uses the main-sheet balance gear, in which the boom is connected with the tiller in such a manner that, when it swings out with a pressure of wind, the rudder is automatically pulled round sufficiently to keep the yacht in its course. This will involve some sort of return spring so that the mechanism is responsive to the wind; this apparatus is efficient in sailing before the wind. More modern, computer-based RC transmitters have mixing circuitry integral to their design, that can "mix" the sheet-balancing, operated with a sail control servo, internally in the transmitter's computerized encoder unit, with the rudder control. A more accurate method is to use a separate rudder vane; the vane is operated in one for upwind sailing, the other for downwind. While some modelers object that the model craft will not be a plausible representation of its full-sized prototype, real long-distance cruising boats are steered with dedicated windvanes of varying complexity with a line attached to a sheet, never using weighted rudders.
Yusuf Islam known by his stage name Cat Stevens, is a British singer-songwriter and multi-instrumentalist. His 1967 debut album reached the top 10 in the UK, its title song "Matthew and Son" reached number 2 on the UK Singles Chart. Stevens' albums Tea for the Tillerman and Teaser and the Firecat were certified triple platinum in the US by the RIAA, his musical style consists of folk, rock, and, in his career, Islamic music. His 1972 album Catch Bull at Four spent three weeks at number one on the Billboard 200, fifteen weeks at number one in the Australian ARIA Charts, he earned two ASCAP songwriting awards in 2005 and 2006 for "The First Cut Is the Deepest", the song has been a hit for four artists. His other hit songs include "Father and Son", "Wild World", "Peace Train", "Moonshadow", "Morning Has Broken". In 2007, he received the Ivor Novello Award for Outstanding Song Collection from the British Academy of Songwriters and Authors. In December 1977, Stevens adopted the name Yusuf Islam the following year.
In 1979, he auctioned all of his guitars for charity and left his musical career to devote himself to educational and philanthropic causes in the Muslim community. He was embroiled in a long-running controversy regarding comments he made in 1989 about the death fatwa on author Salman Rushdie, he has received two honorary doctorates and awards for promoting peace from two organisations founded by Mikhail Gorbachev. In 2006, he returned to pop music – releasing his first new studio album of new pop songs in 28 years, titled An Other Cup. With that release and subsequent ones, he dropped the surname "Islam" from the album cover art – using the stage name Yusuf as a mononym. In 2009, he released the album Roadsinger, in 2014, he released the album Tell'Em I'm Gone, began his first US tour since 1978, he was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2014. His second North American tour since his resurgence, featuring 12 shows in intimate venues, ran from 12 September to 7 October 2016. In 2017, he released the album The Laughing Apple.
Steven Georgiou, born on 21 July 1948 in the Marylebone area of London, was the youngest child of a Greek Cypriot father, Stavros Georgiou, a Swedish mother, Ingrid Wickman. He has an older sister, a brother, David Gordon; the family lived above the Moulin Rouge, a restaurant his parents operated on the north end of Shaftesbury Avenue, a short walk from Piccadilly Circus in the Soho theatre district of London. All family members worked in the restaurant, his parents divorced when he was about eight years old, but continued to maintain the family restaurant and live above it. Although his father was Greek Orthodox and his mother was a Baptist, Georgiou was sent to St Joseph Roman Catholic Primary School, Macklin Street, closer to his father's business on Drury Lane. Georgiou developed an interest in piano at a young age using the family baby grand piano to work out the chords, since no one else there played well enough to teach him. At 15, inspired by the popularity of the Beatles, he became interested in the guitar.
He persuaded his father to pay £8 for his first guitar, began playing it and writing songs. He escaped his family responsibilities by going to the rooftop above their home and listening to the tunes of the musicals drifting from around the corner on Denmark Street the centre of the British music industry. Stevens said that West Side Story affected him, gave him a "different view of life". With interests in both art and music, he and his mother moved to Gävle, where he attended primary school and started developing his drawing skills after being influenced by his uncle Hugo Wickman, a painter, they subsequently returned to England. He attended other local West End schools, where he says he was in trouble, did poorly in everything but art, he was called "the artist boy", said, "I was beat up, but I was noticed". He took a one-year course at Hammersmith School of Art. Though he enjoyed art, he decided to pursue a music career, he began performing under the name "Steve Adams" in 1965 while at Hammersmith.
At that point, his goal was to become a songwriter. As well as the Beatles, other musicians who influenced him were the Kinks, Bob Dylan, Nina Simone, blues artists Lead Belly and Muddy Waters, Biff Rose, Leo Kottke and Paul Simon, he sought to emulate composers of musicals, like Ira Gershwin and Leonard Bernstein. In 1965 he signed a publishing deal with Ardmore & Beechwood and recorded several demos, including "The First Cut Is the Deepest". Georgiou began performing his songs in London coffee pubs. At first he realised he preferred performing solo. Thinking his given name might not be memorable, he chose the stage name Cat Stevens, in part because a girlfriend said he had eyes like a cat, but because "I couldn't imagine anyone going to the record store and asking for'that Steven Demetre Georgiou album', and in England, I was sure in America, they loved animals." In 1966, at age 18, he was heard by manager/producer Mike Hurst of British vocal group the Springfields. Hurst helped him get a record deal.
Stevens's first singles were hits: "I Love My Dog" reached number 28 on the UK Singles Chart. "I'm Gonna Get Me a Gun" was his second UK top 10 single, reaching number 6, the album Matthew and Son reached numbe
Christchurch is the largest city in the South Island of New Zealand and the seat of the Canterbury Region. The Christchurch urban area lies on the South Island's east coast, just north of Banks Peninsula, it is home to 404,500 residents, making it New Zealand's third-most populous city behind Auckland and Wellington. The Avon River flows with an urban park located along its banks. Archaeological evidence has indicated that the Christchurch area was first settled by humans in about 1250. Christchurch became a city by Royal Charter on 31 July 1856, making it the oldest established city in New Zealand; the Canterbury Association, which settled the Canterbury Plains, named the city after Christ Church, Oxford. The new settlement was laid out in a grid pattern centred on Cathedral Square. Agriculture is the historic mainstay of Christchurch's economy; the early presence of the University of Canterbury and the heritage of the city's academic institutions in association with local businesses has fostered a number of technology-based industries.
Christchurch is one of five'gateway cities' for Antarctic exploration, hosting Antarctic support bases for several nations. The city suffered a series of earthquakes between September 2010 and early 2012, with the most destructive of them occurring at 12.51 p.m. on Tuesday, 22 February 2011, in which 185 people were killed and thousands of buildings across the city collapsed or suffered severe damage. By late 2013, 1,500 buildings in the city had been demolished, leading to an ongoing recovery and rebuilding project; the name of "Christchurch" was agreed on at the first meeting of the Canterbury Association on 27 March 1848. It was suggested by founder John Robert Godley, whose alma mater was Oxford; the Māori name Ōtautahi was adopted in the 1930s. The site was a seasonal dwelling of Ngāi Tahu chief Te Potiki Tautahi, whose main home was Port Levy on Banks Peninsula. Prior to that the Ngāi Tahu referred to the Christchurch area as Karaitiana, a transliteration of the English word Christian. Archaeological evidence found in a cave at Redcliffs in 1876 has indicated that the Christchurch area was first settled by moa-hunting tribes about 1250 CE.
These first inhabitants were thought to have been followed by the Waitaha tribe, who are said to have migrated from the East coast of the North Island in the 16th century. Following tribal warfare, the Waitaha were dispossessed by the Ngāti Māmoe tribe, they were in turn subjugated by the Ngāi Tahu tribe, who remained in control until the arrival of European settlers. Following the purchase of land at Putaringamotu by the Weller brothers, whalers of Otago and Sydney, a party of European settlers led by Herriott and McGillivray established themselves in what is now Christchurch, early in 1840, their abandoned holdings were taken over by the Deans brothers in 1843. The First Four Ships were chartered by the Canterbury Association and brought the first 792 of the Canterbury Pilgrims to Lyttelton Harbour; these sailing vessels were the Randolph, Charlotte Jane, Sir George Seymour, Cressy. The Charlotte Jane was the first to arrive on 16 December 1850; the Canterbury Pilgrims had aspirations of building a city around a cathedral and college, on the model of Christ Church in Oxford.
The name "Christ Church" was decided prior to the ships' arrival, at the Association's first meeting, on 27 March 1848. The exact basis for the name is not known, it has been suggested that it is named in Dorset, England. The last explanation is the one accepted. At the request of the Deans brothers — whose farm was the earliest European settlement in the area — the river was named after the River Avon in Scotland, which rises in the Ayrshire hills near to where their grandfather's farm was located. Captain Joseph Thomas, the Canterbury Association's Chief Surveyor, surveyed the surrounding area. By December 1849 he had commissioned the construction of a road from Port Cooper Lyttelton, to Christchurch via Sumner; however this proved more difficult than expected and road construction was stopped while a steep foot and pack horse track was constructed over the hill between the port and the Heathcote valley, where access to the site of the proposed settlement could be gained. This track became known as the Bridle Path, because the path was so steep that pack horses needed to be led by the bridle.
Goods that were too heavy or bulky to be transported by pack horse over the Bridle Path were shipped by small sailing vessels some eight miles by water around the coast and up the estuary to Ferrymead. New Zealand's first public railway line, the Ferrymead Railway, opened from Ferrymead to Christchurch in 1863. Due to the difficulties in travelling over the Port Hills and the dangers associated with shipping navigating the Sumner bar, a railway tunnel was bored through the Port Hills to Lyttelton, opening in 1867. Christchurch became a city by royal charter on 31 July 1856, the first in New Zealand. Many of the city's Gothic Revival buildings by architect Benjamin Mountfort date from this period. Christchurch was the seat of provincial administration for the Province of Canterbury, abolished in 1876. Christchurch buildings were damaged by earthquakes in 1869, 1881 and 1888. In 1947, New Zealand's worst fire disaster occurred at Ballantyne's Department Store in the inner city, with 41 people killed in a blaze which razed