Riccarton, New Zealand
Riccarton is a suburb of Christchurch. It is due west of the city centre, separated from it by Hagley Park, upper Riccarton is to the west of Riccarton. Vicki Buck is the Councillor for Riccarton, on 12 April 1840, the ship Sarah and Elizabeth lands Herriot, McGillivray, Shaw and McKinnon who establish a farm at Riccarton. They are the first European settlers on the plains, in January 1841, they abandon their attempt to farm in the area. Riccarton House was the commissioned by Jane Deans in circa 1855. The Deans brothers, who along with the Gebbies and the Mansons were the group of Europeans to settle in Christchurch on the same site as the first group in 1843. A replica of their original cob cottage is on the grounds, Riccarton House is now a restaurant and function centre, and conducts regular tours. The Deans brothers and William, named the suburb after the parish in Ayrshire and they were responsible for naming the River Avon after the river of the same name in Lanarkshire, Scotland. Antonio Hall is located on Riccarton Road, a large property with 279 rooms and once described as one of the finest in Christchurch and vicinity, it has been left to decay despite a Category II listing with Heritage New Zealand.
Adjacent to Riccarton House is Riccarton Bush, a prominent feature known as Deans Bush, the Māori word Pūtaringamotu means either the place of an echo or the severed ear(ref Pūtaringamotu means either ‘the place of an echo’ or ‘the severed ear’. The latter is an expression referring to ‘bush isolated from the rest’. It was one of only two remnants of the original forest that covered the Canterbury plains, escaping the huge fires swept across the province during the moa hunter period. The other remnant, at Papanui, was cut down in the 1850s and it is dominated by kahikatea trees. A predator-proof perimeter fence has now been erected, with the hope of reintroducing kiwi to the reserve, in 1848, Scots brothers John and William Deans signed an agreement with the New Zealand Company to protect what was originally about 22 hectares of the kahikatea forest at Pūtaringamotu. In 1914, the 6.4 hectares that remained of Deans Bush was formally protected, spearheaded by prominent citizens of Christchurch, including Harry Ell and botanist Dr.
Leonard Cockayne. Riccarton Bush has played an important role in the history of New Zealand entomology, one of the first collections was of a plume moth Pterophorus monospilalis in 1859 which is now in the Fereday collection held in the Canterbury Museum. Thirty nine families of Lepidoptera are found in New Zealand,27 of these occur in Riccarton Bush, the moths of Riccarton Bush represent the majority of these families. The bag moth Mallobathra metrosema is only known to occur in Riccarton Bush, the Riccarton Racecourse Hotel is considered to be one of the most haunted places in New Zealand
Christchurch Central City
Christchurch Central City is the geographical centre and the heart of Christchurch, New Zealand. It suffered heavy damage in the 2010 Canterbury earthquake and was devastated in the 2011 Christchurch earthquake, following this second earthquake, the Central City Red Zone was set up and, with a gradually shrinking area, remained inaccessible except to authorised contractors until June 2013. At the centre of the city is Cathedral Square, surrounding the Anglican cathedral, the area around this square and within the four avenues of Christchurch is considered the central business district of the city. The city centre is laid out in a pattern, interrupted only by the curvilinear alignment of the Avon River. Christchurch has four pairs of one-way streets, the grid pattern within the outermost one-way streets is very regular, as this is the area that was laid out in the original survey. The surrounding area, i. e. the belt between the outer one-way streets and the avenues, was developed in a progressive fashion, like most of the city, the centre is relatively flat.
The European settlement of Christchurch was undertaken by the Canterbury Association and that year, the Canterbury Association sent out Captain Joseph Thomas, accompanied by surveyors, to select and prepare a site for settlement. Back then, the Avon River was navigable as far as The Bricks just upstream of the Barbadoes Street bridge, the site is these days marked by a riverbank cairn. The site got its name when the Deans Brothers in the 1840s had shipped bricks for their Riccarton homestead up the Avon River, the first city built with this pattern was Philadelphia, came Savannah and Adelaide. The fourth city using this pattern was Christchurch, as such Christchurch holds an important legacy and a strong platform for future development. Thomas plan for Christchurch was the rectangular grid of colonial settlement. Thomas did not allow Jollie to include crescents to provide variety, two diagonal streets broke the regularity of the grid. At the very centre of the city was a Square intended as a centre for the city.
The grid was laid out originally between Salisbury Street to the north and St Asaph Street to the south and between Barbadoes Street to the east and Rolleston Avenue/Park Terrace to the west. The streets of the grid were mostly projected out to the Town Belts. The names chosen for the streets of the city almost all commemorate the English colonial origins of the settlement. The names chosen for the town belts commemorate important personalities of early Christchurch, if I agreed with him that it did, I put the name to one of the streets requiring baptism. This accounts for, what to anyone not knowing the circumstances, appears strange, Sumner in fact died too late for the names there used to be again employed in Christchurch
The black swan is a large waterbird, a species of swan, which breeds mainly in the southeast and southwest regions of Australia. The species was introduced to New Zealand in the 1860s, within Australia they are nomadic, with erratic migration patterns dependent upon climatic conditions. Black swans are large birds with black plumage and red bills. They are monogamous breeders that share incubation duties and cygnet rearing between the sexes, Black swans were introduced to various countries as an ornamental bird in the 1800s, but have escaped and formed stable populations. A small population of black swans exists on the River Thames at Marlow, described scientifically by English naturalist John Latham in 1790, the black swan was formerly placed into a monotypic genus, Chenopis. Black swans can be singly, or in loose companies numbering into the hundreds or even thousands. Black swans are popular birds in zoological gardens and bird collections, Black swans are mostly black-feathered birds, with white flight feathers.
The bill is red, with a pale bar and tip. Cobs are slightly larger than pens, with a longer and straighter bill, cygnets are a greyish-brown with pale-edged feathers. A mature black swan measures between 110 and 142 centimetres in length and weighs 3. 7–9 kilograms and its wing span is between 1.6 and 2 metres. The neck is long and curved in an S-shape, the black swan utters a musical and far reaching bugle-like sound, called either on the water or in flight, as well as a range of softer crooning notes. It can whistle, especially when disturbed while breeding and nesting, when swimming, black swans hold their necks arched or erect and often carry their feathers or wings raised in an aggressive display. The black swan is unlike any other Australian bird, although in poor light, the black swan can be distinguished by its much longer neck and slower wing beat. One captive population of swans in Lakeland, Florida has produced a few individuals which are a light mottled grey color instead of black.
The black swan is common in the wetlands of southwestern and eastern Australia and it is uncommon in central and northern Australia. The black swans preferred habitat extends across fresh and salt lakes and rivers with underwater and emergent vegetation for food. Permanent wetlands are preferred, including lakes, but black swans can be found in flooded pastures and tidal mudflats. Black swans were once thought to be sedentary, but the species is now known to be highly nomadic, there is no set migratory pattern, but rather opportunistic responses to either rainfall or drought
Hagley Oval is a cricket ground located in Hagley Park in the central city of Christchurch, New Zealand. The first recorded match on the ground was in 1867, when Canterbury cricket team hosted Otago cricket team, Canterbury used the ground infrequently from through until the 1920s, but hardly stopped during World War I. The first match in the Plunket Shield was played there in December 1907, Canterbury returned there in 1979, and played a number of their 1993/94 Shell Cup home matches at the ground. The first One Day International at the ground was played between Scotland and Canada during the 2014 Cricket World Cup Qualifier on 23 January 2014, the ground has hosted three Womens Test matches and six Womens ODIs. In 2013 the controversial Canterbury Cricket proposal to develop Hagley Oval as a cricket venue was approved by the Environment Court. During the process of building and renovation of the Oval, it suffered two major floodings in 2013, in 2014, Hagley Oval became the eighth Test venue in New Zealand.
Brendon McCullum scored his fastest test hundred in New Zealands history and he scored his 1000th test run in the 2014 calendar year, but missed out on his 4th test double century in that calendar year. When the Oval has no scheduled, it can still be used as a community park, with youth level. The tent-like pavilion was named after the Hadlee Family when the old Hadlee stand of Lancaster Park being demolished first after the Park become unusable, the pitch is oval but widthways not lengthways, with 11 wickets in the block of which 10 are approved for Tests with full boundaries. This makes it the largest cricket ground in New Zealand, there are no drop-in pitches required. It emulates certain aspects of Lords and a large and fast outfield of Adelaide Oval, Cricket in Canterbury had a natural birth. The settlement in 1850 was a planned reproductions of a piece of England in a strange land 12,000 miles away. It was a design, but the bat went with the bible, for if there was to be another England.
Hagley Oval’s destiny as the historical and spiritual home of cricket in Canterbury was determined in the first days of a new, just four months after the arrival of the first four ships, the settlers to Canterbury had formed their very own cricket club. Only months later, as part of Founders’ Day celebrations on 16 December 1851, an enthusiastic game ensured the verdant roots of cricket, Hagley Oval has since been identified and documented as the cornerstone of Canterbury and New Zealand cricketing activity. During the early decades the Oval hosted a series of inter-provincial matches and it continues to host all grades of cricket, and was one of the host grounds for the ICC2015 Cricket World Cup. The ground pays tribute to the history in Canterbury and provides an exciting opportunity for the future of Canterbury. Cricket and rugby shared Lancaster Park from post World War I until well into the 1990s, by that stage the extended rugby season was encroaching onto cricket’s traditional international window in February and March
Christchurch Hospital is the largest tertiary hospital in the South Island of New Zealand. The public hospital is in the centre of Christchurch city, on the edge of Hagley Park and it is one of four main teaching hospitals in New Zealand. The Canterbury District Health Board operates the hospital with funding from the government, the Christchurch School of Medicine is on the hospital campus, the school provides teaching for fourth and sixth year medical students, and is part of the University of Otago. The hospital has a helipad in Hagley Park,500 m to the southwest along Hagley Avenue, the Provincial Government voted £1,500 to building the hospital in Christchurch in 1861. The initial building was a two-storied barn-like structure on Hagley Park at Riccarton Avenue and it opened on 1 June 1862, after Hands off Hagley protests by citizens. The last of the buildings were demolished in 1917. In 2009, the CDHB announced a NZ$400 million proposal to replace some of the buildings, including a new 450-bed hospital.
The construction was due to start in 2011, and be expected to take three years, the hospital played a key role in treating casualties of the February 2011 Christchurch earthquake, admitting 164 people with serious injuries. The quake caused the evacuation of one ward, list of hospitals in New Zealand Princess Margaret Hospital, Christchurch Christchurch Hospital at the Canterbury District Health Board
International Exhibition (1906)
The New Zealand International Exhibition opened 1 November 1906 in Hagley Park, New Zealand. Nearly two million visited the exhibition during the next few months. A branch railway line was built across North Hagley Park to service the exhibition, the attractions included New Zealand’s first professional symphony orchestra, and the first Dominion pipe band contest which was won by the Dunedin Highland Pipe Band. The exhibition closed on 15 April 1907 and the buildings had been removed by the end of August 1907. The architect for the buildings was Joseph Clarkson Maddison and he designed the Carlton Hotel, which was commissioned by the Wardss Brewery to be built in time for the International Exhibition
Christchurch City Council
The Christchurch City Council is the local government authority for Christchurch in New Zealand. It is a territorial authority elected to represent the 375,000 people of Christchurch, since October 2013, the Mayor of Christchurch is Lianne Dalziel, who succeeded Bob Parker. The council currently consists of 13 councillors elected from seven wards, and is presided over by the Mayor, at the 2016 election, this will increase to 16 councillors. On 6 March 2006, Banks Peninsula District Council merged with Christchurch City Council, councillor Yani Johanson campaigned since 2010 to live-stream council meetings for more transparency. Whilst the technology had been installed well before the 2013 local body election, is has only been used since the change in mayor, the Council is elected every three years using the first-past-the-post voting system. The vote is conducted by postal ballot, the most recent elections, which closed on 13 October 2007, had a turnout of 41. 7%. Prior to the 2004 local elections, there were 24 councillors in Christchurch, at that election, the number of councillors halved to 12.
For electoral purposes, Christchurch was divided into six wards from 2004, the six metropolitan wards each elected two councillors, with the remaining councillor elected for the sparsely populated Banks Peninsula ward. The 2016 representation review by the Local Government Commission has resulted in 16 wards, with each electing one councillor. Party politics are less influential in elections to the Council than is the case for the House of Representatives. In 2007, the Mayor and a majority of Councillors were elected as independent candidates, political groupings represented on the Council are the centre-right Independent Citizens and the centre-left The Peoples Choice. The election held via postal vote on 8 October 2016, was the first to use the new wards as a result of the representation review, five of the thirteen councillors did not stand for re-election in 2013. Another four councillors failed to get re-elected, only four councillor were returned for another term, to be joined by nine new members plus a new mayor.
For the 2013–2016 term, the composition of the Council is as follows, During the 2010–2013 term, the Press in an editorial described the situation during the three years as often tumultuous and there were many calls for a cleanout of elected members at the 2013 local body elections. During the term, the government appointed an overseer to council, five city councillors and the mayor did not stand for re-election. Under most circumstances, the Council is presided over by the Mayor. At its first meeting after an election, the Council elects from among its members a Deputy Mayor. The Deputy Mayor presides at meetings if the Mayor is not present, the Deputy Mayor is recommended by the Mayor and is either confirmed or replaced in a vote of the first council meeting
Hagley Hall is a Grade I listed 18th-century house in Hagley, the home of the Lyttelton family. It was the creation of George, 1st Lord Lyttelton, secretary to Frederick, Prince of Wales and man of letters, the estate fell into disrepair and incurred a mounting debt beginning in the 1970s. The 11th Viscount Cobham was forced to sell off large tracts of land to keep it afloat. His brother and successor Christopher Charles Lyttelton, 12th Viscount Cobham began restoration works in both the house and the park. The park is open to the public and part of the house is available as a venue for hire, as of 2012, the hall is the family home to Christopher Charles Lyttelton, 12th Viscount Cobham and his wife Tessa. Prior to the construction of the current Palladian mansion by the 1st Lord Lyttelton, the fashion for Neo-Palladian houses had started in London between 1715 and 1720. It spread out to the provinces and did not reach Worcestershire until the 1750s, the two finest examples of this style in Worcestershire were Croome Court built between 1751 and 1752 and Hagley Hall designed by Sanderson Miller between 1754 and 1760.
Notable Neo-Palladian features incorporated into Hagley Hall include the exterior and the corner towers with pyramidal roofs. A catalogue of the collection was published in 1900, on Christmas Eve 1925, a disastrous fire swept through the house destroying much of the Library and many of the pictures. Despite boiling lead pouring from the roof through the house, all those within managed to escape, at the height of the blaze when nothing more could be salvaged from inside, the 9th Viscount was heard to mutter my lifes work destroyed. He and his wife restored the house, except for the staff quarters on the top floor. To the north of the Hall, and separated from it only by the narrow Hall Drive, is the stable block. The buildings are grouped around two courtyards, the stable block no longer serves its original purpose, but is now operated as a business park for small local businesses. A short walk to the west of the Hall facing its rear facade, is the church of St John the Baptist. The old section of the churchyard includes the Lyttelton family plot where many owners of Hagley Hall, immediately to the north-east of the parish church, are the grounds of Hagley Cricket Club, with its separate clubhouse.
The house is set in 350 acres of landscaped deer park grazed by fallow deer of several colours, Wychbury Hill, although part of the Estate, is kept open to public. There has been a park at Hagley since the reign of Edward III of England in the 14th century, the present landscape was created from about 1739 to 1764, with follies designed by John Pitt, Thomas Pitt, James Athenian Stuart, and Sanderson Miller. Hagley and Croome Court have more follies and other similar features than any estate in Worcestershire, the follies at Hagley include Hagley Obelisk on Wychbury Hill, built in 1764 for Sir Richard Lyttelton
Christchurch Botanic Gardens
The Gardens sprawl over an area of 21 hectares and lie adjacent to the loop of the Avon River next to Hagley Park. The Christchurch Botanic Gardens have a variety of collection of exotic, the Herb Garden, located by the Curators House, has several plants of culinary and medicinal value. The Central Rose Garden has more than 250 varieties of modern cultivar roses, the Heritage Rose Garden has a selection of rambling heritage roses that delight in the summer months. Collections of plants all around the world including Asia, North America, South America. The Fernery has an array of native New Zealand ferns, the Erica Garden has several Ericas and Callunas, providing flowers and foliage year round. A portion of the Gardens has several species of Rhododendron and hybrids with several associated plants of Hostas, the Water Garden has lilies and irises and is surrounded by many mature trees and shrubs. A mature native plant section with a range of New Zealand plants
George Lyttelton, 4th Baron Lyttelton
George William Lyttelton, 4th Baron Lyttelton KCMG PC DL FRS, was a British aristocrat and Conservative politician from the Lyttelton family. He was chairman of the Canterbury Association, which encouraged British settlers to move to New Zealand, Lyttelton was the eldest son of William Lyttelton, 3rd Baron Lyttelton, and Lady Sarah Spencer, daughter of George John Spencer, 2nd Earl Spencer. He was educated at Eton and Trinity College, Cambridge and he succeeded his father as fourth Baron Lyttelton in 1837 and took his seat in the House of Lords on his 21st birthday a year later. The Lyttelton seat is Hagley Hall in Worcestershire, Lyttelton was Lord Lieutenant of Worcestershire from 1839 to 1876 and the first President of Birmingham and Midland Institute in 1854. Moreover, he founded the region of Canterbury, New Zealand with Anglican colonists, the port of Canterbury bears his name. He was president of the British Chess Association at the time of the Staunton–Morphy controversy in 1858 and he was appointed a Knight Commander of the Order of St Michael and St George in the 1869 Birthday Honours.
Lord Lyttelton married, firstly in 1839, Mary Glynne, daughter of Sir Stephen Glynne, 8th Baronet and they had eight sons and four daughters, Meriel Sarah married John Gilbert Talbot and was the mother of Meriel Talbot. Lucy Caroline, married Lord Frederick Cavendish and the Lucy Cavendish College at Cambridge is named after her, Rev Albert Victor Lyttelton, Headmaster of St Andrews School, Bloemfontein. Neville Gerald, became a General in the British Army, George William Spencer, was a British civil servant and private secretary to Gladstone. Lavinia, married Right Rev Edward Stuart Talbot and is the great-great-grandmother of adventurer Bear Grylls, whom Arthur Balfour had hoped to marry. Arthur Temple, became an Anglican Bishop Robert Henry, Edward, became headmaster of Eton College Alfred and politician. After Marys death in 1857 Lyttelton married, Sybella Harriet Clive, daughter of George Clive MP and they had three daughters, the youngest of whom, Hester Margaret, married Cyril Alington, headmaster of Eton, and Dean of Durham.
Lyttelton committed suicide at the age of 59 by throwing himself down the stairs in a London house and he was succeeded by his eldest son Charles, who also inherited the viscounty of Cobham. New York, St Martins Press,1990, Leigh Rayments Peerage Pages George Lyttelton profile, CricketArchive. com, hansard 1803–2005, contributions in Parliament by Lord Lyttelton
Netball is a ball sport played by two teams of seven players. Its development, derived from early versions of basketball, began in England in the 1890s, by 1960, international playing rules had been standardised for the game, and the International Federation of Netball and Womens Basketball was formed. As of 2011, the INF comprises more than 60 national teams organized into five global regions, Games are played on a rectangular court with raised goal rings at each end. Each team attempts to score goals by passing a ball down the court, players are assigned specific positions, which define their roles within the team and restrict their movement to certain areas of the court. During general play, a player with the ball can hold on to it for three seconds before shooting for a goal or passing to another player. The winning team is the one that scores the most goals, Netball games are 60 minutes long. Variations have been developed to increase the pace and appeal to a wider audience. Netball is most popular in Commonwealth nations, specifically in schools, according to the INF, netball is played by more than 20 million people in more than 80 countries.
Major domestic leagues in the include the Netball Superleague in Great Britain, Suncorp Super Netball in Australia. Three major competitions take place internationally, the quadrennial World Netball Championships, the Commonwealth Games, in 1995, netball became an International Olympic Committee recognised sport, but it has not been played at the Olympics. Netball emerged from early versions of basketball and evolved into its own sport as the number of participating in sports increased. Basketball was invented in 1891 by James Naismith in the United States, the game was initially played indoors between two teams of nine players, using an association football that was thrown into closed-end peach baskets. Naismiths game spread quickly across the United States and variations of the rules soon emerged, Physical education instructor Senda Berenson developed modified rules for women in 1892, these eventually gave rise to womens basketball. Around this time separate intercollegiate rules were developed for men and women, the various basketball rules converged into a universal set in the United States.
Martina Bergman-Österberg introduced a version of basketball in 1893 to her students at the Physical Training College in Hampstead. Madame Österbergs new sport acquired the name net ball, the first codified rules of netball were published in 1901 by the Ling Association, the Physical Education Association of the United Kingdom. From England, netball spread to countries in the British Empire. Netball became a womens sport in countries where it was introduced
The Canterbury Association was formed in order to establish a colony in what is now the Canterbury Region in the South Island of New Zealand. The Association was founded in London on 27 March 1848, the prime movers were Edward Gibbon Wakefield and John Robert Godley. Wakefield was heavily involved in the New Zealand Company, which by that time had established four other colonies in New Zealand. He approached Godley to help him establish a colony sponsored by the Church of England, at its first meeting, the Association decided upon names. The settlement was to be called Canterbury, presumably after the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Association re-targeted its planned settlement from the Wairarapa to the Banks Peninsula hinterland, where it arranged to buy land from the New Zealand Company for 10 shillings per acre. The Association sold the land to its colonists for £3 per acre, reserving the rest, the additional £2 10s, for use in public such as emigration, roads. The provision of funds for emigration aimed to allow the Association to offer assisted passages to members of the classes with desirable skills for the new colony.
A poster advertising the assisted passages specifically mentions Gardeners, Farm Servants, Godley went out to New Zealand in early 1850 to oversee the preparations for the settlement already undertaken by a large team of men under the direction of Captain Joseph Thomas. Lord Lyttelton, Sir John Simeon, 3rd Baronet, Edward Gibbon Wakefield, and Lord Richard Cavendish guaranteed ₤15,000 to the Association, which saved it from financial collapse. The Charlotte Jane and Randolph arrived in Lyttelton Harbour on 16 December 1850, the Sir George Seymour on the 17th, the British press dubbed the settlers on these first four ships the Canterbury Pilgrims. A further 24 shiploads of Canterbury Association settlers, making a total of approximately 3,500, the affairs of the Canterbury Association were wound up in 1853. English, Te Ara — the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, updated 11-Jul-2005, a sort of conscience, the Wakefields Auckland University Press. Bishop Harper and the Canterbury Settlement