Haile Selassie

Haile Selassie I was Crown Prince and Regent of the Ethiopian Empire from 1916 to 1928, King and Regent from 1928 to 1930, Emperor from 1930 to 1974. He is a defining figure in modern Ethiopian history, he was a member of the Solomonic dynasty who traced his lineage to Emperor Menelik I. Selassie's internationalist views led to Ethiopia becoming a charter member of the United Nations. At the League of Nations in 1936, he condemned Italy's use of chemical weapons against its people during the Second Italo-Ethiopian War, he has been criticized by some historians for his suppression of rebellions among the landed aristocracy, which opposed his reforms. During his rule the Harari people were persecuted and many left the Harari Region, his regime was criticized by human rights groups, such as Human Rights Watch, as autocratic and illiberal. Among the Rastafari movement, whose followers are estimated to number between 700,000 and one million, Haile Selassie is revered as the returned messiah of the Bible, God incarnate.

Beginning in Jamaica in the 1930s, the Rastafari movement perceives Haile Selassie as a messianic figure who will lead a future golden age of eternal peace and prosperity. He was an Ethiopian Orthodox Christian throughout his life; the 1973 famine in Ethiopia led to Selassie's removal from the throne. He was smothered to death on 27 August 1975 at age 83 following a coup d'état. Haile Selassie was known as a child as Lij Tafari Makonnen. Lij is translated as "child", serves to indicate that a youth is of noble blood, his given name, means "one, respected or feared". Like most Ethiopians, his personal name "Tafari" is followed by that of his father Makonnen and that of his grandfather Woldemikael, his Ge'ez name Haile Selassie was given to him at his infant baptism and adopted again as part of his regnal name in 1930. As Governor of Harar, he became known. Ras is a rank of nobility equivalent to Duke. In 1916, Empress Zewditu I appointed him to the position of Balemulu Silt'an Enderase. In 1928, she granted him the throne of Shewa, elevating his title to Negus or "King".

On 2 November 1930, after the death of Empress Zewditu, Tafari was crowned Negusa Nagast King of Kings, rendered in English as "Emperor". Upon his ascension, he took as his regnal name Haile Selassie I. Haile means in Ge'ez "Power of" and Selassie means trinity—therefore Haile Selassie translates to "Power of the Trinity". Haile Selassie's full title in office was "By the Conquering Lion of the Tribe of Judah, His Imperial Majesty Haile Selassie I, King of Kings of Ethiopia, Elect of God"; this title reflects Ethiopian dynastic traditions, which hold that all monarchs must trace their lineage to Menelik I, the offspring of King Solomon and the Queen of Sheba. To Ethiopians, Haile Selassie has been known by many names, including Janhoy, Talaqu Meri, Abba Tekel; the Rastafari movement employs many of these appellations referring to him as Jah, Jah Jah, Jah Rastafari. Haile Selassie's royal line descended from Sahle Selassie, he was born in the village of Ejersa Goro, in the Harar province of Ethiopia.

His mother was Woizero Yeshimebet Ali Abba Jifar, daughter of a ruling chief from Worre Ilu in Wollo province, Dejazmach Ali Abba Jifar. His maternal grandmother was of Gurage heritage. Tafari's father was Ras Makonnen Wolde Mikael, the grandson of King Sahle Selassie and governor of Harar. Ras Makonnen served as a general in the First Italo–Ethiopian War, playing a key role at the Battle of Adwa; as such, Haile Selassie claimed direct descent from Makeda, the Queen of Sheba, King Solomon of ancient Israel. Ras Makonnen arranged for Tafari as well as his first cousin, Imru Haile Selassie, to receive instruction in Harar from Abba Samuel Wolde Kahin, an Ethiopian capuchin monk, from Dr. Vitalien, a surgeon from Guadeloupe. Tafari was named Dejazmach at the age of 13, on 1 November 1905. Shortly thereafter, his father Ras Makonnen died at Kulibi, in 1906. Tafari assumed the titular governorship of Selale in 1906, a realm of marginal importance, but one that enabled him to continue his studies. In 1907, he was appointed governor over part of the province of Sidamo.

It is alleged that during his late teens, Haile Selassie was married to Woizero Altayech, that from this union, his daughter Princess Romanework was born. Following the death of his brother Yelma in 1907, the governorate of Harar was left vacant, its administration was left to Menelik's loyal general, Dejazmach Balcha Safo. Balcha Safo's administration of Harar was ineffective, so during the last illness of Menelik II, the brief reign of Empress Taitu Bitul, Tafari was made governor of Harar in 1910 or 1911. On 3 August, he married Menen Asfaw of niece of the heir to the throne Lij Iyasu; the extent to which Tafari Makonnen contributed to the movement that would come to depose Lij Iyasu has been discussed extensively in Haile Selas

Jong Islamieten Bond

Jong Islamieten Bond or Islamic youth association was a youth organization during Dutch East Indies ruling established in Batavia on January 1, 1925. The organization was established by Indonesian young students with the first goal to provide courses on Islam to Muslim students to engage the sense of brotherhood amongst the educated Muslim youth from different regions of the archipelago who were members of local associations, such as Jong Java, Jong Sumatra, others. JIB was not a political organization; the first elected chairman at the first JIB Congress in 1925 in Yogyakarta, when giving the speech said, "In the courses and debates which we hold, we try as far as possible to enhance the understanding of religion and politics from the point of Islam to members, but JIB will not join any political activities". The composition of the first Executive Committee of the newly created JIB were: Raden Samsurijal; the Commissioners were Moegni, Soewardi, Soetan Palindih, Kasman Singodimedjo, Mohammad Koesban and Haji Hashim.

The Executive Committee of the new JIB has four branches: Batavia, Yogyakarta and Madiun. The position of the Central Executive Board was located in Batavia. During the JIB membership campaign, Syahbuddin Latif was sent to Yogyakarta and Madiun, Mohammad Koesban to Solo, Kasman Singodimedjo to Purworedjo and Kutorejo while Samsurijal and the advisor to JIB, Haji Agus Salim to Bandung to establish a JIB branch; as of December 1925 JIB had 7 branches with 1,004 members. At the JIB Congress II in Solo in 1926, Wiwoho was elected as chairman replacing Samsurijal. At the JIB Congress in 1929 in Batavia, Kasman Singodimedjo was elected as the chairman replacing Wiwoho, moved the position of the DPP to Jakarta. At the JIB Congress in 1935 in Jakarta, M. Arif Aini was elected as the chairman and the position of the DPP moved to Semarang. To disseminate their ideas and thoughts, JIB published a magazine named an Nur in Dutch, the first Islamic scholarly magazine in Indonesia, published since March 1925.

The magazine survived until the dissolution of the JIB itself. JIB formed Indonesian Scout Organizations, the first scout organization that uses the name of Indonesia, a term, not used at the time. In each branch, JIB held Islamic religious courses. In October 1931 JIB built a HIS school, an elementary school for higher class indigenous children in Tegal and in November 1931 another HIS school was built in Batavia. During Japanese occupation of the Dutch East Indies, all organizations were put in freeze, including JIB. In 1947, the original frozen JIB transformed into a new organization called PII. "Jong Islamieten Bond". Retrieved July 2, 2014. Abdul Rahman, Momon. Jong Islamieten Bond: pergerakan pemuda Islam 1925-1942. Museum Sumpah Pemuda. Husni, Dardiri. Jong Islamieten Bond: A Study of a Muslim Youth Movement in Indonesia During the Dutch Colonial Era, 1924-1942. Alaf Riau Graha UNRI Press. ISBN 978-97934-97648

Destroy the Opposition

Destroy the Opposition is the third album by the death metal band Dying Fetus from Maryland, U. S, it was produced by Steve Carr. This album marks a change in Dying Fetus's direction, with political themes becoming dominant, which has continued in all of their subsequent albums. Albert Mudrian, in his 2004 book Choosing Death, cited Destroy the Opposition as one of the most important albums released in 2000; the album was included in Decibel's Top 100 Albums of the decade list for the 2000s, as well as to Decibel's "Hall of Fame". The album was released in the same year. John Gallagher – guitars, vocals Jason Nethertonbass guitar, vocals Sparky Voyles – guitars Kevin Talleydrums