Reuters is an international news organization. It has nearly 200 locations around the world; until 2008, the Reuters news agency formed part of an independent company, Reuters Group plc, a provider of financial market data. Since the acquisition of Reuters Group by the Thomson Corporation in 2008, the Reuters news agency has been a part of Thomson Reuters, making up the media division. Reuters transmits news in English, German, Spanish, Russian, Arabic, Japanese and Chinese, it was established in 1851. The Reuter agency was established in 1851 by Paul Julius Reuter in Britain at the London Royal Exchange. Paul Reuter worked at a book-publishing firm in Berlin and was involved in distributing radical pamphlets at the beginning of the Revolutions in 1848; these publications brought much attention to Reuter, who in 1850 developed a prototype news service in Aachen using homing pigeons and electric telegraphy from 1851 on in order to transmit messages between Brussels and Aachen, in what today is Aachen's Reuters House.
Upon moving to England, he founded Reuter's Telegram Company in 1851. Headquartered in London, the company covered commercial news, serving banks, brokerage houses, business firms; the first newspaper client to subscribe was the London Morning Advertiser in 1858. Afterwards more newspapers signed up, with Britannica Encyclopedia writing that "the value of Reuters to newspapers lay not only in the financial news it provided but in its ability to be the first to report on stories of international importance." Reuter's agency built a reputation in Europe and the rest of the world as the first to report news scoops from abroad. Reuters was the first to report Abraham Lincoln's assassination in Europe, for instance, in 1865. In 1872, Reuters expanded into the far east, followed by South America in 1874. Both expansions were made possible by advances in overland telegraphs and undersea cables. In 1883, Reuters began transmitting messages electrically to London newspapers. In 1923, Reuters began using radio to transmit a pioneering act.
In 1925, The Press Association of Great Britain acquired a majority interest in Reuters, full ownership some years later. During the world wars, The Guardian reported that Reuters "came under pressure from the British government to serve national interests. In 1941 Reuters deflected the pressure by restructuring itself as a private company." The new owners formed the Reuters Trust. In 1941, the PA sold half of Reuters to the Newspaper Proprietors' Association, co-ownership was expanded in 1947 to associations that represented daily newspapers in New Zealand and Australia; the Reuters Trust Principles were put in place to maintain the company's independence. At that point, Reuters had become "one of the world's major news agencies, supplying both text and images to newspapers, other news agencies, radio and television broadcasters." At that point, it directly or through national news agencies provided service "to most countries, reaching all the world's leading newspapers and many thousands of smaller ones," according to Britannica.
In 1961, Reuters scooped news of the erection of the Berlin Wall. Reuters was one of the first news agencies to transmit financial data over oceans via computers in the 1960s. In 1973, Reuters "began making computer-terminal displays of foreign-exchange rates available to clients." In 1981, Reuters began making electronic transactions on its computer network and afterwards developed a number of electronic brokerage and trading services. Reuters was floated as a public company in 1984, when Reuters Trust was listed on the stock exchanges such as the London Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. Reuters published the first story of the Berlin Wall being breached in 1989; the share price grew during the dotcom boom fell after the banking troubles in 2001. In 2002, Brittanica wrote that most news throughout the world came from three major agencies: the Associated Press and Agence France-Presse. Reuters merged with Thomson Corporation in Canada in 2008. In 2009, Thomson Reuters withdrew from the LSE and the NASDAQ, instead listing its shares on the Toronto Stock Exchange and the New York Stock Exchange.
The last surviving member of the Reuters family founders, Baroness de Reuter, died at age 96 on 25 January 2009. The parent company Thomson Reuters is headquartered in Toronto, provides financial information to clients while maintaining its traditional news-agency business. In 2012, Thomson Reuters appointed Jim Smith as CEO; every major news outlet in the world subscribed to Reuters as of 2014. Reuters operated in more than 200 cities in 94 countries in about 20 languages as of 2014. In July 2016, Thomson Reuters agreed to sell its intellectual property and science operation for $3.55 billion to private equity firms. In October 2016, Thomson Reuters announced relocations to Toronto; as part of cuts and restructuring, in November 2016, Thomson Reuters Corp. eliminated 2,000 worldwide jobs out of its around 50,000 employees. Reuters employs 600 photojournalists in about 200 locations worldwide. Reuters journalists use the Reuters Handbook of Journalism as a guide for fair presentation and disclosure of relevant interests, to maintain the values of integrity and freedom upon which their reputation for reliability, accuracy and exclusivity relies.
In May 2000, Kurt Schork, an American reporter, was killed in an ambush while on assignment in Sierra Leone. In April and August 2003, news cameramen Taras Protsyuk and Mazen Dana were killed in separate incidents by U. S. troops in Iraq. In July 2007, Namir Noor-Eldeen and Saeed Chmagh were killed when they w
Hanyu Pinyin abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan. It is used to teach Standard Mandarin Chinese, written using Chinese characters; the system includes four diacritics denoting tones. Pinyin without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet, in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters; the pinyin system was developed in the 1950s by many linguists, including Zhou Youguang, based on earlier forms of romanizations of Chinese. It was published by revised several times; the International Organization for Standardization adopted pinyin as an international standard in 1982, was followed by the United Nations in 1986. The system was adopted as the official standard in Taiwan in 2009, where it is used for international events rather than for educational or computer-input purposes, but "some cities and organizations, notably in the south of Taiwan, did not accept this", so it remains one of several rival romanization systems in use.
The word Hànyǔ means'the spoken language of the Han people', while Pīnyīn means'spelled sounds'. In 1605, the Jesuit missionary Matteo Ricci published Xizi Qiji in Beijing; this was the first book to use the Roman alphabet to write the Chinese language. Twenty years another Jesuit in China, Nicolas Trigault, issued his Xi Ru Ermu Zi at Hangzhou. Neither book had much immediate impact on the way in which Chinese thought about their writing system, the romanizations they described were intended more for Westerners than for the Chinese. One of the earliest Chinese thinkers to relate Western alphabets to Chinese was late Ming to early Qing dynasty scholar-official, Fang Yizhi; the first late Qing reformer to propose that China adopt a system of spelling was Song Shu. A student of the great scholars Yu Yue and Zhang Taiyan, Song had been to Japan and observed the stunning effect of the kana syllabaries and Western learning there; this galvanized him into activity on a number of fronts, one of the most important being reform of the script.
While Song did not himself create a system for spelling Sinitic languages, his discussion proved fertile and led to a proliferation of schemes for phonetic scripts. The Wade–Giles system was produced by Thomas Wade in 1859, further improved by Herbert Giles in the Chinese–English Dictionary of 1892, it was popular and used in English-language publications outside China until 1979. In the early 1930s, Communist Party of China leaders trained in Moscow introduced a phonetic alphabet using Roman letters, developed in the Soviet Oriental Institute of Leningrad and was intended to improve literacy in the Russian Far East; this Sin Wenz or "New Writing" was much more linguistically sophisticated than earlier alphabets, but with the major exception that it did not indicate tones of Chinese. In 1940, several thousand members attended a Border Region Sin Wenz Society convention. Mao Zedong and Zhu De, head of the army, both contributed their calligraphy for the masthead of the Sin Wenz Society's new journal.
Outside the CCP, other prominent supporters included Sun Fo. Over thirty journals soon appeared written in Sin Wenz, plus large numbers of translations, some contemporary Chinese literature, a spectrum of textbooks. In 1940, the movement reached an apex when Mao's Border Region Government declared that the Sin Wenz had the same legal status as traditional characters in government and public documents. Many educators and political leaders looked forward to the day when they would be universally accepted and replace Chinese characters. Opposition arose, because the system was less well adapted to writing regional languages, therefore would require learning Mandarin. Sin Wenz fell into relative disuse during the following years. In 1943, the U. S. military engaged Yale University to develop a romanization of Mandarin Chinese for its pilots flying over China. The resulting system is close to pinyin, but does not use English letters in unfamiliar ways. Medial semivowels are written with y and w, apical vowels with r or z.
Accent marks are used to indicate tone. Pinyin was created by Chinese linguists, including Zhou Youguang, as part of a Chinese government project in the 1950s. Zhou is called "the father of pinyin," Zhou worked as a banker in New York when he decided to return to China to help rebuild the country after the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949, he became an economics professor in Shanghai, in 1955, when China's Ministry of Education created a Committee for the Reform of the Chinese Written Language, Premier Zhou Enlai assigned Zhou Youguang the task of developing a new romanization system, despite the fact that he was not a professional linguist. Hanyu Pinyin was based on several existing systems: Gwoyeu Romatzyh of 1928, Latinxua Sin Wenz of 1931, the diacritic markings from zhuyin. "I'm not the father of pinyin," Zhou said years later. It's a lo
The Haima Freema is a Compact MPV, manufactured by the Chinese manufacturer Haima. The first generation Haima Freema is a rebadged first generation Mazda Premacy. Based on the same structure as the first generation Freema, the second generation Freema debuted in 2011 with prices starting at 83,800 yuan and ending at 109,800 yuan; the Haima Freema EV is the electric variant of the Haima Freema. It was launched in 2011 based on the first generation Freema, production of the Freema EV based on the second generation Freema carried on after the internal combustion engine version was discontinued. Official website
Hǎikǒu is the capital and most populous city of Hainan province, China. It is situated by the mouth of the Nandu River; the northern part of the city is the district of Haidian Island, separated from the main part of Haikou by the Haidian River, a branch of the Nandu. Administratively, Haikou is a prefecture-level city, comprising four districts, covering 2,280 square kilometres. There are 2,046,189 inhabitants in the built up area all living within the 4 urban districts of the city. Haikou was a port city. Today, more than half of the island's total trade still goes through its ports; the city is home to Hainan University. The hanzi characters comprising the city's name, 海口, mean mouth/port, respectively. Thus, the name "Haikou" is a word for "seaport" - similar to Portsmouth in England. Haikou served as the port for Qiongshan, the ancient administrative capital of Hainan island, located some 5 km inland to the south east. During its early history Haikou was a part of Guangdong province. In the 13th century it became a military post under the Ming dynasty.
The port is located west of the mouth of Hainan's principal river. When Qiongshan was opened to foreign trade under the Treaty of Tianjin in 1858, Haikou started to rival the old administrative city, it was known internationally based on the local dialect. In 1926, Haikou overtook Qiongshan in population and it was declared a separate administrative city. Haikou was developed as a port during the Sino-Japanese War when the Japanese invaded and occupied Hainan Island from early 1939 to 1945; the city and island of Hainan stayed under the control of the Nationalists until April 1950, when it fell to the Communists during the Landing Operation on Hainan Island. Since 1949, Haikou has maintained its position as Hainan's main port, handling more than half of the island's total trade, it has replaced Qiongshan as the island's administrative capital. In 1988, Haikou was made a prefecture-level city as well as the capital of the newly created Hainan Province. Haikou old town contains the oldest buildings in the city and was built by wealthy Chinese from the mainland and some "overseas Chinese" who had returned to their homeland.
The houses are a mixture of styles including Portuguese and Southeast Asian. The streets used to be divided into different areas selling Chinese and western medicine, for silk and bespoke clothes, one for fresh fish and meat, others for the sale of incense, paper and other goods. Various projects are under discussion to decide the best way to restore and preserve these historical buildings. Haikou is situated on the north coast of Hainan Island, by Haikou Bay, facing the Leizhou Peninsula across the Qiongzhou Strait that stretches west from Beibu Bay near Vietnam to the James Shoal bordering the South China Sea to the west. Most of the city is completely flat and only a few metres above sea level, it has an area of 2,304.84 km2. The Meishe River winds through the east side of the city flowing northward to the Haidian River; the northern part of Haikou City, the district of Haidian Island, is separated from the main part of Haikou by the Haidian River, a tributary of the Nandu River. The district is accessed by one of four bridges, the largest being Haikou Century Bridge, which connects the Guomao district with Haidian Island at the estuary of the Haidian River.
From east to west the remaining three road connections are provided by the Renmin and Xinbu Bridges. Directly to the northeast of Haikou and to the east of Haidian Island is Xinbu Island. Further information: Hainan#Annual fogHaikou is on the northern edge of the torrid zone, is part of the Intertropical Convergence Zone. April to October is the active period for tropical storms and typhoons, most of which occur between August and September. May to October is the rainy season with the heaviest rainfall occurring in September. Despite its location 378 km south of the Tropic of Cancer, the city has a humid subtropical climate, falling just short of a tropical climate, with strong monsoonal influences; as of 2018, Haikou has the second best air quality among major cities nationally, preceded only by Lhasa, Tibet. However, since 2009, due to an increase in the number of automobiles, there has been somewhat worsening air pollution. According to the 2005 statistical book issued by the National Bureau of Statistics, Haikou scored the highest among China's main cities in air quality, with 366 days of ambient air quality equal to or above grade II, with only 0.033 milligrams/m2 of particulate matter, 0.003 milligrams/m2 of sulphur dioxide, 0.013 milligrams/m2 of nitrogen dioxide.
In 1995, the Haikou city government began an initiative to improve the quality of life for its residents. With the approval of the World Health Organization, Ministry of Health, a ten-point plan was undertaken to address such issues as: Community health care Vaccinations for children Waste recycling Green belts and urban trees Environmentally friendly construction Public toilets Sewage treatment Communications Noise pollutionThe groundwater is of international standard, is classified as mineral water. By 2004, the city had established 43 new community health service centers reaching 85 percent of the population; the initiative has increased the size of Haikou's green spaces to 2,000 hectares, with trees lining 40 percent of its roads. Noise pollution has d
Haima S5 Young
The Haima S5 Young is a subcompact crossover produced by Haima Automobile positioned under the Haima S5 compact crossover. Price range of the Haima S5 Young crossover ranges from 75,800 yuan to 79,800 yuan; the Haima S5 Young was known as the Haima S3 during development phase. Haima Official Website
The Haima Fstar is a 5 to 8-seater microvan made by Haima Automobile. The Haima Fstar was launched in 2013 as Haima's first entry to the commercial microvan market; the Haima Fstar microvan was built on a chassis composed of two longitudinal beams and seven transverse beams, with the engine bay featuring a 1.2-liter DOHC 16-valve gasoline engine producing 91 hp and 112 Nm of torque
FAW Group Corporation is a Chinese state-owned automotive manufacturing company headquartered in Changchun, China. Its principal products are automobiles. FAW became China's first automobile manufacturer when it unveiled the nation's first domestically produced passenger car, the Hong Qi, in 1958. FAW is one of the "Big Four" Chinese automakers alongside Changan Automobile, Dongfeng Motor, SAIC Motor. In 2014, the company ranked third in terms of output making 2.7 million whole vehicles. The company has three publicly traded subsidiaries: FAW Car Co. Ltd. Tianjin FAW Xiali Automobile Co. Ltd. and Changchun FAWAY Automobile Components Co. Ltd.. In 1953, the first year of the first five-year plan, First Automobile Works broke ground on its first factory although it didn't produce its first product, the 4-ton Jie Fang CA-10 truck, until 1956. Soviet Russia lent assistance during these early years providing technical support and production machinery. Before its first factory opened, 39 Chinese FAW employees traveled to the Stalin Truck Factory for instruction in truck production.
Operations were conducted in the Soviet mold, Russia is credited with choosing Changchun as the location for the first FAW vehicle-manufacturing facility. The city boasted an industrial base left over from Japanese occupation and, situated in northeastern China, is near Russia. First Automobile Works made only commercial trucks but started producing passenger cars in 1958; these vehicles, the Hong Qi luxury sedans, were the first domestically produced Chinese automobiles. Only for party elite, the design changed little over their thirty-year production run. Following this, FAW's Audi products are the traditionally favored choice for ranking Chinese state officials; these Audis are, alongside Beijing Benz Mercedes Benzes some of the only Western luxury cars to have gained popularity in the Chinese market. In 1992, the name First Automobile Works was changed to China FAW Group Corporation. Though FAW was the fourth Chinese automaker to take on Western partners, its early joint venture with Volkswagen in 1990 saw it become the second Chinese auto company to develop a strong cooperative relationship with a foreign counterpart.
SAIC was the first, in 1984 and with VW. Other, failed foreign-Chinese joint ventures preceding FAW-VW are what is now Beijing Benz and the failed Guangzhou Peugeot Automobile Company. Volkswagen was the first foreign partner for FAW; the company acquired 50% ownership of Tianjin Automotive Xiali in September, 2002, renamed the brand FAW Tianjin. As a result, FAW ended up with Toyota as a foreign joint venture partner. FAW established a joint venture with General Motors in 2009 and has joint ventures with a handful of other foreign companies as well; the company produced more than 1.5 million vehicles in 2008, in 2009 it was the largest machinery corporation and the second largest auto manufacturer in China. In 2010, the 2.56 million units sold made it the third most-productive vehicle maker in China that year, one of its offerings, the FAW Xiali, was the 7th most-purchased car in China in 2010. It produced 2.6 million vehicles in the third-largest output of any China-based company. While it retained its third place rank, the number of whole vehicles produced in 2012 slowed to 2.3 million.
Passenger cars made up a scant 64% of total production that year. FAW sells products under at least ten different brands including its own; the following is an incomplete list. SiTech, a brand that focuses on electric vehicles. Established in 2018 with the first car called SiTech DEV1 launched. Besturn, established on August 18, 2006, It may be known as Ben Teng. Senia Dario Haima, a brand for Mazda-based vehicles built in Hainan Hong Qi Jiaxing, a brand of Tianjin FAW Xiali Automobile Company, a car manufacturing subsidiary of FAW Jie Fang Jilin, a maker of mini-vehicles, small trucks and vans that see commercial use, in Jilin City, Jilin province Junpai Oley, a new brand, targeting young buyers but was withdrawn. Pengxiang Shenli Yuan Zheng Tianjin XialiIts foreign joint ventures manufacture the following brands for sale in the Chinese market: Audi General Motors Mazda Toyota Volkswagen Hongqi E-HS3 Hongqi H5 Hongqi H7 Hongqi L5 Besturn B30 Besturn B50 Besturn B70 Besturn B70 RS Besturn B90 Besturn X40 Besturn X80 Besturn T77 Junpai A50 Junpai CX65 Junpai A70 Junpai D60 Junpai D80 Senia R7 Senia R9 Haima 1 Haima 2 Haima 3 Haima 7 Haima Family Haima Freema Haima M3 Haima M5 Haima M6 Haima M8 Haima S5 Haima S7 Haima V70 Including the Xiali passenger vehicle series.
FAW Weizhi V2 FAW Weizhi V5 FAW Weizhi Hatchback FAW Weizhi Sedan FAW Vita FAW Vizi FAW Xiali N3 FAW Xiali N5 FAW Xiali N7 FAW has at least 28 wholly owned subsidiaries and controlling shares in 18 owned subsidiaries. These include the wholly owned subsidiaries FAW Jie Fang Truck Co Ltd and FAW Bus and Coach Co Ltd, the foreign joint venture FAW-Volkswagen Automobile Co Ltd, the publicly traded FAW Car Co Ltd, Tianjin FAW Xiali Automobile Co Ltd, Changchun FAWAY Automobile Components Co Ltd. Unit/year production capacity figures may consider whole vehicles as discrete; the following is an incomplete list. The 9th Industrial Machinery Design and Research Institute A wholly owned subsidiary since 1958, this institute is responsible for production base design. Chengdu FAW Automobile Co Ltd Becoming a owned subsidiary in 2002 after the acquisition of the