Haiti the Republic of Haiti and called Hayti, is a country located on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean Sea, to the east of Cuba and Jamaica and south of The Bahamas and the Turks and Caicos Islands. It occupies the western three-eighths of the island. To its south-west lies the small island of Navassa Island, claimed by Haiti but is disputed as a United States territory under federal administration. Haiti is 27,750 square kilometers in size and has an estimated population of 11.1 million, making it the most populous country in the Caribbean Community and the second-most populous country in the Caribbean after Cuba. The island was inhabited by the indigenous Taíno people, who migrated from South America; the first Europeans arrived on 5 December 1492 during the first voyage of Christopher Columbus, who believed he had found India or China. Columbus subsequently founded the first European settlement in the Americas, La Navidad, on what is now the northeastern coast of Haiti.
The island was claimed by Spain and named La Española, forming part of the Spanish Empire until the early 17th century. However, competing claims and settlements by the French led to the western portion of the island being ceded to France in 1697, subsequently named Saint-Domingue. French colonists established lucrative sugarcane plantations, worked by vast numbers of slaves brought from Africa, which made the colony one of the richest in the world. In the midst of the French Revolution and free people of color launched the Haitian Revolution, led by a former slave and the first black general of the French Army, Toussaint Louverture. After 12 years of conflict, Napoleon Bonaparte's forces were defeated by Louverture's successor, Jean-Jacques Dessalines, who declared Haiti's sovereignty on 1 January 1804 — the first independent nation of Latin America and the Caribbean, the second republic in the Americas, the first country to abolish slavery, the only state in history established by a successful slave revolt.
Apart from Alexandre Pétion, the first President of the Republic, all of Haiti's first leaders were former slaves. After a brief period in which the country was split in two, President Jean-Pierre Boyer united the country and attempted to bring the whole of Hispaniola under Haitian control, precipitating a long series of wars that ended in the 1870s when Haiti formally recognised the independence of the Dominican Republic. Haiti's first century of independence was characterised by political instability, ostracism by the international community and the payment of a crippling debt to France. Political volatility and foreign economic influence in the country prompted the United States to occupy the country from 1915–34. Following a series of short-lived presidencies, François'Papa Doc' Duvalier took power in 1956, ushering in a long period of autocratic rule, continued by his son Jean-Claude'Baby Doc' Duvalier that lasted until 1986. Since 1986 Haiti has been attempting to establish a more democratic political system.
Haiti is a founding member of the United Nations, Organization of American States, Association of Caribbean States, the International Francophonie Organisation. In addition to CARICOM, it is a member of the International Monetary Fund, World Trade Organization, the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States. Poor and politically unstable, Haiti has the lowest Human Development Index in the Americas. Since the turn of the 21st century, the country has endured a coup d'état, which prompted a U. N. intervention, as well as a deadly earthquake that killed over 250,000. The name Haiti comes from the indigenous Taíno language, the native name given to the entire island of Hispaniola to mean, "land of high mountains." The h is silent in French and the ï in Haïti has a diacritical mark used to show that the second vowel is pronounced separately, as in the word naïve. In English, this rule for the pronunciation is disregarded, thus the spelling Haiti is used. There are different anglicizations for its pronunciation such as HIGH-ti, high-EE-ti and haa-EE-ti, which are still in use, but HAY-ti is the most widespread and best-established.
The name was restored by Haitian revolutionary Jean-Jacques Dessalines as the official name of independent Saint-Domingue, as a tribute to the Amerindian predecessors. In French, Haiti's nickname is the "Pearl of the Antilles" because of both its natural beauty, the amount of wealth it accumulated for the Kingdom of France; the island of Hispaniola, of which Haiti occupies the western three-eighths, has been inhabited since about 5000 BC by groups of Native Americans thought to have arrived from Central or South America. Genetic studies show. Amongst these early settlers were the Ciboney peoples, followed by the Taíno, speakers of an Arawakan language, elements of which have been preserved in Haitian Creole; the Taíno name for the entire island was Haiti, or alternatively Quisqeya. In Taíno society the largest unit of political organisation was led by a cacique, or chief, as the Europeans understood them; the island of Hipaniola was divided among five'caciquedoms': the Magua in the north east, the Marien in the north west, the Jaragua
Cymphonique Miller, known professionally as Cymphonique, is an American singer-songwriter and actress. She is the sister of Romeo Miller, she is best known in the acting world for her leading role as Kacey Simon on the Nickelodeon sitcom How to Rock. Miller has performed in theme parks across the United States, she has toured with Raven-Symoné, Ashley Tisdale, Demi Lovato, JoJo, Wonder Girls, College Boyys and Elizabeth Tselepi. She came in second place to Jasmine, her songs "Butterflies", "Lil Miss Swagger" and "Daddy I'm A Rockstar" received airplay on Radio Disney. The music video for "Lil Miss Swagger," released when she was 12 years old, received more than 11 million YouTube views. Miller has guest-starred on True Jackson, VP, The Troop and Just Jordan. In 2012, Miller contributed to the music for the Nickelodeon series How to Rock; the show lasted one season. She sings the theme song of Winx Club, an Italian animated series on Nickelodeon, was the voice of Princess Krystal on the show, she is featured on the Big Time Rush song, "I Know You Know".
In 2011, Miller was nominated for "Best Female Hip-Hop Artist" at the BET Awards. On July 7, 2012, Miller performed the half-time show at the Los Angeles Sparks' Girl Scouts night at The Staples Center. Miller appeared on Mad TV, in numerous national commercials, in public service announcements. In 2013, she released a mixtape entitled Passion; the same year, she appeared in the film The Demsey Sisters alongside Lynn Whitfield and Denyce Lawton. Studio albums As Featured ArtistPromotional singlesGuest appearancesMusic videosAs featured artist Official website Cymphonique Miller on IMDb
The Chevy Revolution Tour is a snowboarding competition series created in 2005 by U. S. Snowboarding to bridge the gap between grassroots level and elite snowboarding competitions; the sole purpose of the Chevy Revolution Tour is to help young riders make the jump to elite level competition and to progress the sport of snowboarding. Featuring halfpipe and snowboardcross the tour, hosted annually by top resorts across the country, is the main vein for qualification into the Chevy U. S. Snowboarding Grand Prix series. Competition is open to all riders 13 and older for halfpipe and slopestyle and 15 and older for SBX events. In addition to the Chevy U. S. Snowboarding Grand Prix, the Chevy Revolution Tour serves as a qualifier for the US Open, FIS Junior World Snowboarding Championships, USASA Open Class Nationals and the Visa U. S. Snowboarding Cup – a World Cup competition held annually in Lake Placid, NY. On the line is $10,000 in prize money, plus the top male and female junior riders receive an invitation to join U.
S. Snowboarding's Project Gold Team, an opportunity to train with U. S. Snowboarding at its annual summer camp. Jan. 11–13, 2008 – Spirit Mountain, MN Friday, Jan 11 – Snowboardcross Saturday, Jan 12 – Halfpipe featuring Junior Jam Sunday, Jan 13 – Slopestyle featuring Junior Jam Jan. 20–22, 2008 – Copper Mountain, CO Sunday, Jan 20 – Snowboardcross Monday, Jan 21 – Slopestyle Tuesday, Jan 22 – Halfpipe Jan. 26–27, 2008 – Park City Mountain Resort, UT Saturday, Jan 26 – Halfpipe Sunday, Jan 27 – Slopestyle Feb. 22–24, 2008 – Mt. Hood Meadows, OR Friday, Feb 22 – Snowboardcross Saturday, Feb 23 – Halfpipe Sunday, Feb 24 – Slopestyle Feb 29 – March 2, 2008 – Sno Mountain, PA Friday, Feb 29, – Snowboardcross Saturday, March 1 – Halfpipe Sunday, March 2 – Slopestyle Chevrolet Revolution Tour official site Chevy U. S. Snowboarding Grand Prix official site U. S. Snowboarding official site U. S. Ski & Snowboard Association official site