Hispaniola is an island in the Caribbean archipelago known as the Greater Antilles. It is the most populous island in the West Indies and the region's second largest after Cuba; the 76,192-square-kilometre island is divided into two separate, sovereign nations: the Spanish-speaking Dominican Republic to the east and French / Haitian Creole-speaking Haiti to the west. The only other shared island in the Caribbean is Saint Martin, shared between France and the Netherlands. Hispaniola is the site of the first European settlement in the Americas, La Navidad, as well as the first proper town, La Isabela, the first permanent settlement and current capital of the Dominican Republic, Santo Domingo; these settlements were founded successively in each of Christopher Columbus' first three voyages. The island was called by various names by the Taíno Amerindians. No known Taíno texts exist, historical evidence for those names comes through three European historians: the Italian Pietro Martyr d‘Anghiera, the Spaniards Bartolomé de las Casas and Gonzalo Fernández de Oviedo.
Fernández de Oviedo and de las Casas both recorded. D'Anghiera added another name, but research shows that the word does not seem to derive from the original Arawak Taíno language. Although the Taínos' use of Haití is verified, the name was used by all three historians, evidence suggests that it referred only to the northeast region now known as Los Haitises in the Dominican Republic, rather than the whole island; when Columbus took possession of the island in 1492, he named it Insula Hispana in Latin and La Isla Española in Spanish, with both meaning "the Spanish island". De las Casas shortened the name to Española, when d‘Anghiera detailed his account of the island in Latin, he rendered its name as Hispaniola. In the oldest documented map of the island, created by Andrés de Morales, Los Haitises is labeled Montes de Haití, de las Casas named the whole island Haiti on the basis of that particular region, as d'Anghiera states that the name of one part was given to the whole island. Due to Taíno, Spanish and French influences on the island the whole island was referred to as Haiti, Santo Domingo, St. Domingue, or San Domingo.
The colonial terms Saint-Domingue and Santo Domingo are sometimes still applied to the whole island, though these names refer to the colonies that became Haiti and the Dominican Republic. Since Anghiera's literary work was translated into English and French soon after being written, the name Hispaniola became the most used term in English-speaking countries for the island in scientific and cartographic works. In 1918, the United States occupation government, led by Harry Shepard Knapp, obliged the use of the name Hispaniola on the island, recommended the use of that name to the National Geographic Society; the name Haïti was adopted by Haitian revolutionary Jean-Jacques Dessalines in 1804, as the official name of independent Saint-Domingue, as a tribute to the Amerindian predecessors. It was adopted as the official name of independent Santo Domingo, as the Republic of Spanish Haiti, a state that existed from November 1821 until its annexation by Haiti in February 1822; the primary indigenous group on the island of Hispaniola was the Arawak/Taíno people.
The Arawak tribe originated in the Orinoco Delta. They traveled to Hispaniola around 1200 CE; each society on the island was a small independent kingdom with a lead known as a cacique. In 1492, considered the peak of the Taíno, there were five different kingdoms on the island, the Xaragua, Magua and Marien. Many distinct Taíno languages existed in this time period. There is still heated debate over the population of Taíno people on the island of Hispaniola in 1492, but estimates range upwards of 750,000. An Arawak/Taíno home consisted of a circular building with woven palm leaves as covering. Most individuals slept in fashioned hammocks, but grass beds were used; the cacique lived in a different structure with a porch. The Taíno village had a flat court used for ball games and festivals. Religiously, the Arawak/Taíno people were polytheists, their gods were called Zemí. Religious worship and dancing were common, medicine men or priests consulted the Zemí for advice in public ceremonies. For food, the Arawak/Taíno relied on fish as a primary source for protein.
The Taíno relied on agriculture as a primary food source. The indigenous people of Hispaniola raised crops in a conuco, a large mound packed with leaves and fixed crops to prevent erosion; some common agricultural goods were cassava, squash, peppers, peanuts and tobacco, used as an aspect of social life and religious ceremonies. The Arawak/Taíno people traveled and used hollowed canoes with paddles when on the water for fishing or for migration purposes, upwards of 100 people could fit into a single canoe; the Taíno came in contact with another indigenous tribe, often. The Caribs lived in modern day Puerto Rico and northeast Hispaniola and were known to be hostile towards other tribes
The Minister for Europe and International Development is a junior ministerial post in the Scottish Government. As a result, the minister does not attend the Scottish Cabinet; the minister supports the Cabinet Secretary for the Constitution and External Affairs, a full member of the cabinet. The post was created in September 2012; the role was modified in February 2020 with migration moving to another post. The specific responsibilities of the minister are: International development Post-Brexit Relations Cross government co-ordination on the European Union Fair trade Scottish diaspora In September 2012 the position of Minister for External Affairs and International Development was created, it was changed again in May 2016, after the 2016 election, again in June 2018. The current Minister for Europe and International Development is Jenny Gilruth; the Scottish Cabinet on Scottish Government website Minister for International Development and Europe on Scottish Government website
The Council for National Security or CNS known as the Council for Democratic Reform or CDR, was the military junta that governed Thailand after staging a coup d'état against Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra. The council was led by Army Commander General Sonthi Boonyaratglin who acted as the prime minister and the cabinet, until General Surayud Chulanont was appointed as a new prime minister. Under the CNS-drafted interim constitution, the Council continued to maintain considerable power over the drafting of a permanent constitution; the council came to an end by operation of section 298, paragraph 2, of the Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand, Buddhist Era 2550, which prescribes: "The National Security Council...shall vacate office en masse at the time when the Council of Ministers carrying out the administration of state affairs on the date of promulgation of this Constitution vacate office." The former Thai name of the council, "คณะปฏิรูปการปกครองในระบอบประชาธิปไตยอันมีพระมหากษัตริย์ทรงเป็นประมุข", could be translated as the "Council for Reforming the Democratic Regime of Government with the King as Head".
This name was translated in several ways by the media, such as: Administrative Reform Group under the Democratic System with the King as Head of State Administrative Reform Council Committee of Political Reformation Under Democracy Council for Democratic Reform under Constitutional Monarchy Democratic Reform Council Political Reform Council Military Council for Political ReformOn 21 September 2006, the council spokesperson asked the local press to report its name in full, noted that "The name is important in relaying a right message and its shortened version might be misleading". Both before and after this, most news reports used a shorter name; the junta changed its English name to "Council for Democratic Reform" claiming that the change was in order to remove misunderstanding and false interpretation about the role of the monarchy. Actual rationale was debatable. Article 34 of the 2006 Interim Constitution changed the name "Council for Democratic Reform" to "Council for National Security".
Sonthi received the appointment and blessing of king Bhumibol Adulyadej, quoted as saying, "So as to maintain peace and order in the nation, His Majesty the King has graciously granted a Royal Command appointing General Sonthi Boonyaratglin as Leader of the Council for Democratic Reform. The people is requested to remain calm while all public servants are to follow Orders issued by General Sonthi Boonyaratglin, henceforth onwards." The junta consists of the leaders of all branches of the Thai military and police: A week after the coup, Sonthi's former classmate Gen Boonsrang Naimpradit was promoted from Deputy Supreme Commander to the post of Supreme Commander, replacing Ruangroj Mahasaranon. Junta Secretary General, Winai Phattiyakul, was promoted to the post of Permanent Secretary for Defence. Gen Sonthi promoted his classmates and lieutenants in the coup, 1st Army Region Commander Lt-Gen Anupong Paochinda and 3rd Army Region Commander Lt-Gen Saprang Kalayanamitr, to the post of Assistant Army Commander.
On 22 September, the Council gave Police General Kowit Wattana absolute power over all police matters. He was made chair of a new National Police Commission, the membership of which had not yet been announced; the Commission will be assigned to amend the 2004 National Police Bill over the next year. Under the pre-coup legal framework, the Premier had been responsible for Chairing the Commission. A restructuring reflected power shifts among the junta an increase in the power of the army and a decrease in the power of the police and navy. Police chief Kowit Watana, after the coup, had reshuffle senior police personnel to weaken the power base of Thaksin Shinawatra, was demoted from junta Deputy Chief to a member. Navy Commander Admiral Sathiraphan Keyanond, second in command of the junta, was demoted to being a member. In a statement on 21 September, the Council stated its reasons for taking power, gave a commitment to restore democratic government within one year; the statement described the coup as a “brief intervention in order to restore peace and justice in the country.”
The reasons given for the coup were: The statement continued: “The Council’s intervention has no other aim than to strengthen democracy through democratic reforms, including the holding of generally-accepted free and fair elections. Leaving the country under protracted political uncertainty, on the other hand, would erode people’s trust and confidence in the foundations of democracy.” The 2006 coup was followed by increased divisiveness in Thai society, leading to many more lese majeste cases despite the king's expressed wish that these be decreased. By late 2011, the United Nations and United States and other western countries had expressed extreme concerns over the lese majeste laws and lack of protection of human rights in the kingdom; the junta pledged to appoint a civilian government, step aside, reinstate human rights, hold elections within a year, not change key Thaksin-government policies like universal healthcare and microcredit village funds. The junta appointed retired General Surayud Chulanont as Premier, changed its name to the Council for National Security and institutionalized its power in the Interim Constitution, lifted their ban on politica