Norway the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic country in Northern Europe whose territory comprises the western and northernmost portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula. The Antarctic Peter I Island and the sub-Antarctic Bouvet Island are dependent territories and thus not considered part of the kingdom. Norway lays claim to a section of Antarctica known as Queen Maud Land. Norway has a total area of 385,207 square kilometres and a population of 5,312,300; the country shares a long eastern border with Sweden. Norway is bordered by Finland and Russia to the north-east, the Skagerrak strait to the south, with Denmark on the other side. Norway has an extensive coastline, facing the Barents Sea. Harald V of the House of Glücksburg is the current King of Norway. Erna Solberg has been prime minister since 2013. A unitary sovereign state with a constitutional monarchy, Norway divides state power between the parliament, the cabinet and the supreme court, as determined by the 1814 constitution; the kingdom was established in 872 as a merger of a large number of petty kingdoms and has existed continuously for 1,147 years.
From 1537 to 1814, Norway was a part of the Kingdom of Denmark-Norway, from 1814 to 1905, it was in a personal union with the Kingdom of Sweden. Norway was neutral during the First World War. Norway remained neutral until April 1940 when the country was invaded and occupied by Germany until the end of Second World War. Norway has both administrative and political subdivisions on two levels: counties and municipalities; the Sámi people have a certain amount of self-determination and influence over traditional territories through the Sámi Parliament and the Finnmark Act. Norway maintains close ties with both the United States. Norway is a founding member of the United Nations, NATO, the European Free Trade Association, the Council of Europe, the Antarctic Treaty, the Nordic Council. Norway maintains the Nordic welfare model with universal health care and a comprehensive social security system, its values are rooted in egalitarian ideals; the Norwegian state has large ownership positions in key industrial sectors, having extensive reserves of petroleum, natural gas, lumber and fresh water.
The petroleum industry accounts for around a quarter of the country's gross domestic product. On a per-capita basis, Norway is the world's largest producer of oil and natural gas outside of the Middle East; the country has the fourth-highest per capita income in the world on the World IMF lists. On the CIA's GDP per capita list which includes autonomous territories and regions, Norway ranks as number eleven, it has the world's largest sovereign wealth fund, with a value of US$1 trillion. Norway has had the highest Human Development Index ranking in the world since 2009, a position held between 2001 and 2006, it had the highest inequality-adjusted ranking until 2018 when Iceland moved to the top of the list. Norway ranked first on the World Happiness Report for 2017 and ranks first on the OECD Better Life Index, the Index of Public Integrity, the Democracy Index. Norway has one of the lowest crime rates in the world. Norway has two official names: Norge in Noreg in Nynorsk; the English name Norway comes from the Old English word Norþweg mentioned in 880, meaning "northern way" or "way leading to the north", how the Anglo-Saxons referred to the coastline of Atlantic Norway similar to scientific consensus about the origin of the Norwegian language name.
The Anglo-Saxons of Britain referred to the kingdom of Norway in 880 as Norðmanna land. There is some disagreement about whether the native name of Norway had the same etymology as the English form. According to the traditional dominant view, the first component was norðr, a cognate of English north, so the full name was Norðr vegr, "the way northwards", referring to the sailing route along the Norwegian coast, contrasting with suðrvegar "southern way" for, austrvegr "eastern way" for the Baltic. In the translation of Orosius for Alfred, the name is Norðweg, while in younger Old English sources the ð is gone. In the 10th century many Norsemen settled in Northern France, according to the sagas, in the area, called Normandy from norðmann, although not a Norwegian possession. In France normanni or northmanni referred to people of Sweden or Denmark; until around 1800 inhabitants of Western Norway where referred to as nordmenn while inhabitants of Eastern Norway where referred to as austmenn. According to another theory, the first component was a word nór, meaning "narrow" or "northern", referring to the inner-archipelago sailing route through the land.
The interpretation as "northern", as reflected in the English and Latin forms of the name, would have been due to folk etymology. This latter view originated with philologist Niels Halvorsen Trønnes in 1847; the form Nore is still used in placenames such as the village of Nore and lake Norefjorden in Buskerud county, still has the same meaning. Among other arguments in favour of the theor
Half-Breed is the tenth studio album by American singer-actress Cher, released in September, 1973 by MCA. For the production of the album Cher returned with Al Capps. Half-Breed was her second record for MCA and was promoted on her successful The Sonny & Cher Comedy Hour television show. After its release, the album faced mixed reviews from critics, the RIAA certified it gold on March 4, 1974; the album was her second solo album to receive a certification by RIAA. The second album released by Cher in 1973 was Half-Breed. After the failure of the previous pop-standard style album, Bittersweet White Light, Cher permanently abandoned her husband Sonny Bono as a producer for her albums. Snuff Garrett returned to work with Cher after the success of Cher and the minor hit Foxy Lady, recording another narrative ballad album; the opening track of the album is the cover of the hit song written by Paul and Linda McCartney, "My Love", released in March 1973. The album contains two other covers: the Bee-Gees' "How Can You Mend a Broken Heart", The Beatles' "The Long and Winding Road".
All the songs that Cher covered in the album were number-one hits by the original artists on the US "Billboard 200" in the early 1970s. David Paich contributed for the arrangements in the album; the last song of the album, "Chastity Sun", was re-written by Cher. Entitled "Ruby Jean & Billy Lee", it was a song by soft rock band Seals and Crofts released in their 1973 album Diamond Girl; the re-written version by Cher was a dedication to Chaz Bono. In August 1993, the original album was combined with Dark Lady and issued on one CD. Called Half Breed/Dark Lady, this release included all the tracks from both original albums. In contrast, several budget CDs have been released titled Half Breed by various labels; these albums use different covers, contain only two tracks from the original album alongside selected tracks from other Cher albums, including Cher, Foxy Lady, Dark Lady. The original Half-Breed album in its entirety remains unreleased on compact disc. Half-Breed received mixed reviews from music critics.
Peter Fawthrop of AllMusic gave the album three-and-a-half stars and pointed out that the title track is "the only song here which would turn up on a greatest-hits collection", that "there are plenty of other melodic, hippie-era tunes which are tailor-made for nights around the campfire." About the album style, it read "Melancholy and bittersweet from start to finish, there are enough charms to keep it lighthearted". Rolling Stone reviewer Paul Gambaccini gave a negative review for the album and to the production work of Snuff Garrett, but regarding Cher said that "Cher's amazingly powerful voice is not being used and it is frustrating to hear it squandered on rubbish." Half-Breed debuted on the Billboard 200 at No. 171 in late September peaking at No. 28. During 1974, sales reached 500,000 copies in North America, it was certified gold; the album charted in the Canadian album chart and reached No. 21. In Europe, it charted only on the Norway album chart. Like a number of her previous albums, it did not enter the UK Albums Chart.
Like her previous successful albums Gypsys, Tramps & Thieves and Foxy Lady, only two singles were released. "Half-Breed" was the first single released. It was her second song that reached number one in the Billboard Hot 100 and it peaked in the Adult Contemporary chart at No. 3. It reached number one in New Zealand; the song was performed live in The Cher Comedy Hour, featuring Cher dressed as an Indian. A second and final single, "Carousel Man", was released as a promo in 1974, it was issued only to radio DJs in 1973 and managed to peak at No. 11 in the Billboard Airplay chart. Cher – lead vocals Snuff Garrett – record producer Al Capps – arrangement assistance David Paich – arrangement assistance Lennie Roberts – sound engineer Richard Grant – album art concept Gene Trindl – cover photo J. Engstead – liner photos
Am I Blue?
"Am I Blue?" is a song copyrighted by Harry Akst and Grant Clarke in 1929 and featured in four films that year, most notably with Ethel Waters in the movie On with the Show. It has appeared in 42 movies, most Funny Face and The Cotton Club, has become a standard covered by numerous artists. Eddie Cochran recorded his version of "Am I Blue" sometime between May and August 1957, it was released on the B-side of Liberty Records single 55087. The A-side was "Drive In Show". Personnel used in the recording session: Eddie Cochran – guitars, vocals Perry Botkin – rhythm guitar Connie "Guybo" Smith – double bass The Johnny Mann Chorus – backing vocals American singer-actress Cher recorded and released "Am I Blue" in 1973, it was released on single and the album Bittersweet White Light. Annette Hanshaw recorded the song on May 31, 1929 A recording of the song in a medley with "Blue Room" was made on July 14, 1942 by Eddy Duchin and released by Columbia Records as catalog number 36746, with the flip side a medley of "Sometimes I'm Happy" and "Pretty Baby."
In 1944, the song was performed by Hoagy Carmichael and Lauren Bacall in the Howard Hawks directed film To Have and Have Not. The tune is played in a scene in the Warner Bros. cartoon Booby Hatched, when a duck is sitting on her eggs, her teeth chattering from the cold. In 1954, Dinah Washington recorded the song for the album After Hours with Miss "D" Jeri Southern recorded the song in 1957 for her Decca Records LP Jeri Gently Jumps. In 1957, early teen idol Ricky Nelson included the song on his debut album Ricky. Eddie Cochran, an early performer of rock and roll music recorded the song in 1957. Ray Charles on his 1959 Atlantic album The Genius of Ray Charles In 1961, Fats Domino recorded the song for the album Let the Four Winds Blow. Brenda Lee recorded her version for the album Reflections In Blue. In 1972, Bette Midler recorded the song for her album The Divine Miss M. In 1973, Cher released the song as the first and only single from her album of standards, Bittersweet White Light, it missed the Billboard Hot 100 chart Under Hot 100 Singles.
The song was performed by the character of Batman in the 2004 episode of the animated series Justice League Unlimited, "This Little Piggy". Wonder Woman hums the tune at the end of that episode. In 1969, Judy Garland and Johnnie Ray performed an duet cover of the song. Barbra Streisand recorded a version of "Am I Blue" for her 1975 film Funny Lady. In 1978, Robert Gordon recorded the song for his Rock Billy Boogie album. Diane Lane lipsynced it in the 1984 film The Cotton Club, it was not released on the soundtrack of the movie. In 1985, Nell Carter sang the song on the fifth episode of the fifth season of her hit sitcom Gimme a Break!. Linda Ronstadt recorded the song for her album For Sentimental Reasons; the deposed Qing emperor Henry Puyi sings the song during his 1925–31 playboy days in the Japanese concession of Tianjin in The Last Emperor by Bernardo Bertolucci. Billie Holiday's version of the song appeared in the 1989 movie Slaves of New York and 2009 movie Public Enemies. Charlie Rich recorded the song in 1991 for Paintings.
Rita Coolidge on her 2010 album, Out of the Blues List of "Am I Blue" versions on Second Hand Songs
The Sonny & Cher Comedy Hour
The Sonny & Cher Comedy Hour is an American variety show starring American pop-singer Cher and her husband Sonny Bono. The show ran on CBS in the United States, when it premiered in August 1971; the show was canceled May 1974, due to the couple's divorce, though the duo would reunite in 1976 for the identically formatted The Sonny & Cher Show, which ran until 1977. By 1971, Sonny and Cher had stopped producing hit singles as a duet act. Cher's first feature film, was not a success, the duo decided to sing and tell jokes in nightclubs across the country. CBS head of programming Fred Silverman offered them their own show; the Sonny & Cher Comedy Hour was supposed to be a summer replacement series, but high ratings gave Silverman sufficient reason to bring it back that year, with a permanent spot on the schedule. The show was taped at CBS Television City in Hollywood; the show was a Top 20 hit in the ratings for its entire run. Each episode would open with the show's theme song, which would segue into the first few notes of "The Beat Goes On".
Every episode, Sonny would exchange banter with Cher, allowing Cher to put down Sonny in a comic manner. Comedy skits would follow. At the end of each episode and Cher would sing their hit "I Got You Babe" to the audience, sometimes with daughter Chastity Bono in tow. There were many regular cast members; some notables include Teri Garr, Murray Langston, Steve Martin. Regulars included: Peter Cullen Freeman King Murray Langston Clark Carr Tom Solari Ted Zeigler Steve Martin Billy Van Bob Einstein Teri Garr Among the many guests who appeared on The Sonny & Cher Comedy Hour were Carol Burnett, George Burns, Glen Campbell, Tony Curtis, Bobby Darin, Phyllis Diller, Farrah Fawcett, Merv Griffin, The Jackson 5, Jerry Lee Lewis, Ronald Reagan, Burt Reynolds, The Righteous Brothers, Dinah Shore, Sally Struthers, The Supremes, Chuck Berry, Dick Clark; the show was scheduled to return for a fourth season in October 1974. However and Cher separated that fall, resulting in the cancellation of the show. In 2004, selected episodes from The Sonny & Cher Comedy Hour were released in a three-disc set on Region 1 DVD.
The Vamp Sketch: A sequence featuring at least three mini-skits with Cher playing notorious women in history, each one preceded by Cher in a parlor setting lying atop an old-style upright piano with Sonny pretending to play, singing one verse of the song between each mini-skit, followed by the chorus, "She was a scamp, a camp and a bit of tramp, she was a V-A-M-P, vamp". It ended with all the characters from each skit all converging to sing the final chorus together. In seasons, the Vamp sketch was replaced with "Shady Miss Lady Luck", a similar group of mini-sketches which were bracketed by Cher in a Las Vegas-style setting. Sonny's Pizza: Sonny as the proprietor of a pizza restaurant whose food, according to everyone except Sonny himself, is not fit to be eaten. Mr. & Ms.: Gender-bending sketch with Cher as the bread winner in the household, working as a business executive and wearing a three-piece suit. She would come home to Sonny, a beleaguered house-husband who complained about how bad his day had been.
The Fortune Teller: Cher inside a fortune-telling vending machine. When Sonny would insert a quarter to hear his fortune, she would give bad news or insults, but anyone else a given week's guest star, would get a good fortune that would immediately come true. At the Laundrette: Laundromat sketch with Cher as Laverne, a housewife with tacky fashion sense cracking jokes to straight-woman Olivia, played by Garr. In 1974, Sonny and Cher agreed to end the show, their timeslot was given to Tony Dawn the next fall. They both starred in separate variety shows over the next two years. Sonny Bono's 1974 variety series, The Sonny Comedy Revue, led off the ABC Sunday night lineup, but lasted just 13 episodes. While it retained the creative team behind The Sonny & Cher Comedy Hour, Bono's solo effort was a victim of the show's weak time slot and the established hits it faced on NBC and CBS. People assumed that his show would be the greater success when it was heard that Cher was to appear in her own show on CBS.
Starting in early 1975, Cher returned to network television with her solo variety show, entitled Cher, which aired on CBS. It was renewed for the 1975-76 season. However, during the second season Cher herself decided to end the show to work with Sonny again. Although Sonny's show had most of the cast and crew from the comedy hour and was expected to be the bigger hit, Cher's show became the greater success, both in the ratings and by fan response. Due to contracts, Cher was unable to perform many of her sketches and characters from the comedy hour on her show. Among the many guests who appeared on the Cher show were Bette Midler, Elton John, Pat Boone, David Bowie, Ray Charles, Steve Martin, The Jackson 5, Ike & Tina Turner, Wayne Newton, Linda Ronstadt, Flip Wilson, Lily Tom
A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music as belonging to a shared tradition or set of conventions. It is to be distinguished from musical form and musical style, although in practice these terms are sometimes used interchangeably. Academics have argued that categorizing music by genre is inaccurate and outdated. Music can be divided into different genres in many different ways; the artistic nature of music means that these classifications are subjective and controversial, some genres may overlap. There are varying academic definitions of the term genre itself. In his book Form in Tonal Music, Douglass M. Green distinguishes between form, he lists madrigal, canzona and dance as examples of genres from the Renaissance period. To further clarify the meaning of genre, Green writes, "Beethoven's Op. 61 and Mendelssohn's Op. 64 are identical in genre – both are violin concertos – but different in form. However, Mozart's Rondo for Piano, K. 511, the Agnus Dei from his Mass, K. 317 are quite different in genre but happen to be similar in form."
Some, like Peter van der Merwe, treat the terms genre and style as the same, saying that genre should be defined as pieces of music that share a certain style or "basic musical language." Others, such as Allan F. Moore, state that genre and style are two separate terms, that secondary characteristics such as subject matter can differentiate between genres. A music genre or subgenre may be defined by the musical techniques, the style, the cultural context, the content and spirit of the themes. Geographical origin is sometimes used to identify a music genre, though a single geographical category will include a wide variety of subgenres. Timothy Laurie argues that since the early 1980s, "genre has graduated from being a subset of popular music studies to being an ubiquitous framework for constituting and evaluating musical research objects". Among the criteria used to classify musical genres are the trichotomy of art and traditional musics. Alternatively, music can be divided on three variables: arousal and depth.
Arousal reflects the energy level of the music. These three variables help explain why many people like similar songs from different traditionally segregated genres. Musicologists have sometimes classified music according to a trichotomic distinction such as Philip Tagg's "axiomatic triangle consisting of'folk','art' and'popular' musics", he explains that each of these three is distinguishable from the others according to certain criteria. The term art music refers to classical traditions, including both contemporary and historical classical music forms. Art music exists in many parts of the world, it emphasizes formal styles that invite technical and detailed deconstruction and criticism, demand focused attention from the listener. In Western practice, art music is considered a written musical tradition, preserved in some form of music notation rather than being transmitted orally, by rote, or in recordings, as popular and traditional music are. Most western art music has been written down using the standard forms of music notation that evolved in Europe, beginning well before the Renaissance and reaching its maturity in the Romantic period.
The identity of a "work" or "piece" of art music is defined by the notated version rather than by a particular performance, is associated with the composer rather than the performer. This is so in the case of western classical music. Art music may include certain forms of jazz, though some feel that jazz is a form of popular music. Sacred Christian music forms an important part of the classical music tradition and repertoire, but can be considered to have an identity of its own; the term popular music refers to any musical style accessible to the general public and disseminated by the mass media. Musicologist and popular music specialist Philip Tagg defined the notion in the light of sociocultural and economical aspects: Popular music, unlike art music, is conceived for mass distribution to large and socioculturally heterogeneous groups of listeners and distributed in non-written form, only possible in an industrial monetary economy where it becomes a commodity and in capitalist societies, subject to the laws of'free' enterprise... it should ideally sell as much as possible.
Popular music is found on most commercial and public service radio stations, in most commercial music retailers and department stores, in movie and television soundtracks. It is noted on the Billboard charts and, in addition to singer-songwriters and composers, it involves music producers more than other genres do; the distinction between classical and popular music has sometimes been blurred in marginal areas such as minimalist music and light classics. Background music for films/movies draws on both traditions. In this respect, music is like fiction, which draws a distinction between literary fiction and popular fiction, not always precise. Country music known as country and western, hillbilly music, is a genre of popular music that originated in the southern United States in the early 1920s; the polka is a Czech dance and genre of dance music familiar throughout Europe and the Americas. Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and particular
"Carousel Man" is a U. S. promo single recorded from the album Half-Breed. It was issued only to radio DJs in 1973 as a single, it charted on Billboard Adult Contemporary chart at #41, as well as on Canadian singles chart at #83. Allmusic retrospectively called it lighthearted. Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics
Do You Believe? (tour)
Do You Believe? known as the Believe Tour, was the fourth solo concert tour by American singer-actress Cher. The tour, which took place in 1999 and 2000, promoted Believe; the tour began on June 16, 1999 and was planned to end on December 15, 1999, but due to it being commercially successful, the tour was extended from December 30, 1999 to March 5, 2000 in North America. Cyndi Lauper, Wild Orchid, Michael McDonald and Julio Iglesias Jr. were the opening acts at different times during the tour. The August 28, 1999 performance at the MGM Grand Garden Arena was made into the Emmy Awards-nominated HBO television special Live in Concert, which aired the following day, by year's end was released on VHS and DVD; as stated by Billboard, the HBO television special was the highest-rated original program in over 2 years. Cher appeared in a variety of costumes during the performance, her opening outfit, involving a stringed skirt, meshed top over a cross, a huge red wig, was dubbed self-deprecatingly by her as the "Bozo the Clown-meets-Braveheart look" or the'Super Groundforce Girl' referring to Charlie Dimmock from the popular-at-the-time Groundforce Gardening show.
All in all there were 7 to 9 different ensembles, depending upon how one does the counting, with none lasting more than a handful of songs. Reviews of the show were favorable, given Cher's return to popularity and over-the-top appeal; the New York Times said Cher had "a quintessential rock voice... spectacularly styled with a rough and tumble vaudevillian edge." The Washington Post viewed it as "a dynamic, over-the-top extravaganza." The Dallas Morning News said "her concert was entertaining and gleefully glitzy." Cyndi Lauper and Wild Orchid from June 16 to August 28, 1999 Julio Iglesias, Jr. and Michael McDonald from September 1 to September 5, 1999 Cyndi Lauper and Julio Iglesias, Jr. from September 7 to September 28, 1999 Belinda Carlisle – Selected European dates Lou Bega – Selected US dates "I Still Haven't Found What I'm Looking For" "All or Nothing" "The Power" "We All Sleep Alone" "I Found Someone" "The Way of Love" "Half Breed" "Gypsys, Tramps & Thieves" "Dark Lady" "Take Me Home" "After All" "Walking in Memphis" "Just Like Jesse James" "Heart of Stone" "The Shoop Shoop Song" "Dov'è L'Amore" "Strong Enough" "If I Could Turn Back Time" "Believe"Notes "Heart of Stone" was dropped from the setlist after the first few shows.
Cancellations and rescheduled shows Lead Vocals: Cher Tour Director: Doriana Sanchez Musical Director: Paul Mirkovich Costume Design: Bob Mackie Keyboards: Paul Mirkovich Guitars: David Barry Keyboards: Darrel Smith Bass: Don Boyette Drums: Mark Schulman Background vocals: Stacy Campbell Background vocals: Patty Darcy Jones Dancer: Bubba Carr Dancer: Aaron Cash Dancer: Kristin Richardson Dancer: Suzanne Easter Dancer: Tovaris Wilson Dancer: Addie Yungmee GeneralAngelic Cher page documenting outfits versus setlist