Poseidon was one of the twelve Olympian deities of the pantheon in Greek mythology. His main domain was the ocean, and he is called the God of the Sea, additionally, he is referred to as Earth-Shaker due to his role in causing earthquakes, and has been called the tamer of horses. He is usually depicted as a male with curly hair. The name of the sea-god Nethuns in Etruscan was adopted in Latin for Neptune in Roman mythology, both were sea gods analogous to Poseidon. According to some folklore, he was saved by his mother Rhea, who concealed him among a flock of lambs and pretended to have birth to a colt. There is a Homeric hymn to Poseidon, who was the protector of many Hellenic cities, according to the references from Plato in his dialogues Timaeus and Critias, the island of Atlantis was the chosen domain of Poseidon. The form Ποτειδάϝων appears in Corinth, the origins of the name Poseidon are unclear. Walter Burkert finds that the second element da- remains hopelessly ambiguous, another theory interprets the second element as related to the word *δᾶϝον dâwon, this would make *Posei-dawōn into the master of waters.
There is the possibility that the word has Pre-Greek origin, Plato in his dialogue Cratylus gives two alternative etymologies, either the sea restrained Poseidon when walking as a foot-bond, or he knew many things. If surviving Linear B clay tablets can be trusted, the name occurs with greater frequency than does di-u-ja. A feminine variant, po-se-de-ia, is found, indicating a lost consort goddess. Poseidon carries frequently the title wa-na-ka in Linear B inscriptions, as king of the underworld, the chthonic nature of Poseidon-Wanax is indicated by his title E-ne-si-da-o-ne in Mycenean Knossos and Pylos, a powerful attribute. In the cave of Amnisos Enesidaon is related with the cult of Eileithyia and she was related with the annual birth of the divine child. During the Bronze Age, a goddess of nature, dominated both in Minoan and Mycenean cult, and Wanax was her companion in Mycenean cult. It is possible that Demeter appears as Da-ma-te in a Linear B inscription, in Linear B inscriptions found at Pylos, E-ne-si-da-o-ne is related with Poseidon, and Si-to Po-tini-ja is probably related with Demeter.
Tablets from Pylos record sacrificial goods destined for the Two Queens, the Two Queens may be related with Demeter and Persephone, or their precursors, goddesses who were not associated with Poseidon in periods. The violated Demeter was Demeter Erinys, in Arcadia, Demeters mare-form was worshiped into historical times. Her xoanon of Phigaleia shows how the local cult interpreted her, a Medusa type with a horses head with snaky hair, holding a dove and a dolphin, probably representing her power over air and water
Caria was a region of western Anatolia extending along the coast from mid-Ionia south to Lycia and east to Phrygia. The Ionian and Dorian Greeks colonized the west of it and joined the Carian population in forming Greek-dominated states there, the inhabitants of Caria, known as Carians, had arrived there before the Greeks. The Carians did speak an Anatolian language, known as Carian, cramers detailed catalog of Carian towns in classical Greece is based entirely on ancient sources. The multiple names of towns and geomorphic features, such as bays and headlands, coastal Caria begins with Didyma south of Miletus, but Miletus had been placed in the pre-Greek Caria. South of it is the Iassicus Sinus and the towns of Iassus and Bargylia, giving a name of Bargyleticus Sinus to Güllük Körfezi, and nearby Cindye. After Bargylia is Caryanda or Caryinda, and on the Bodrum Peninsula Myndus,56 miles miles from Miletus, in the vicinity is Naziandus, exact location unknown. On the tip of the Bodrum Peninsula is Termera, and on the other side Ceramicus Sinus and it was formerly crowded with numerous towns.
Halicarnassus, a Dorian Greek city, was planted there among six Carian towns, Sibde, Euranium, Pedasa or Pedasum and these with Myndus and Synagela constitute the eight Lelege towns. Also on the north coast of the Ceramicus Sinus is Ceramus and Bargasus, on the south of the Ceramicus Sinus is the Carian Chersonnese, or Triopium Promontory, called Doris after the Dorian colony of Cnidus. At the base of the peninsula is Bybassus or Bybastus from which an earlier names and it was now Acanthus and Doulopolis. South of the Carian Chersonnese is Doridis Sinus, the Gulf of Doris, there are three bays in it, Bubassius and Schoenus, the last enclosing the town of Hyda. In the gulf somewhere are Euthene or Eutane, Pitaeum, on the south shore is the Cynossema, or Onugnathos Promontory, opposite Symi. South of there is the Rhodian Peraea, a section of the coast under Rhodes and it includes Loryma or Larymna in Oedimus Bay, Tisanusa, the headland of Paridion, Panydon or Pandion with Physicus, Physca or Physcus, called Cressa.
Beyond Cressa is the Calbis River, on the other side is Caunus, with Pisilis or Pilisis and Pyrnos between. Then follow some cities that some assign to Lydia and some to Caria, Calynda on the Indus River, Carya, Carysis or Cari and Alina in the Gulf of Glaucus, other Carian towns in the gulf are Clydae or Lydae and Aenus. At the base of the east end of Latmus near Euromus, the name Chrysaoris once applied to all of Caria, Euromus was originally settled from Lycia. Its towns are Tauropolis and Chrysaoris and these were all incorporated into Mylasa. Connected to the latter by a way is Labranda
Ada of Caria
Ada of Caria was a member of the House of Hecatomnus and ruler of Caria in the 4th century BC, first as Persian Satrap and as Queen under the auspices of Alexander III of Macedon. Ada was the daughter of Hecatomnus, satrap of Caria, and sister of Mausolus, Artemisia and she was married to her brother Idrieus, who succeeded Artemisia in 351 BC and died in 344 BC. On the death of her husband Ada became satrap of Caria, Ada fled to the fortress of Alinda, where she maintained her rule in exile. When Alexander the Great entered Caria in 334 BC, Ada adopted Alexander as her son, in return, Alexander accepted the offer and gave Ada formal command of the Siege of Halicarnassus. After the fall of Halicarnassus, Alexander returned Alinda and made Ada queen of the whole of Caria, adas popularity with the populace in turn ensured the Carians loyalty to Alexander. According to Turkish archaeologists, the tomb of Ada has been discovered and her remains are on display in the archaeological museum of Bodrum.
Carney and Dunasteia in Caria, American Journal of Philology 126, turkey beyond the Maeander ISBN 0-87471-038-3. Wiki Classical Dictionary, Ada Livius, Ada by Jona Lendering Ada from Smith, Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology Photos of Halicarnassus Includes a picture of the skeleton of Ada
Mausolus was the eldest son of Hecatomnus, a native Carian who became the satrap of Caria when Tissaphernes died, around 395 BC. He moved his capital from Mylasa, the ancient seat of the Carian kings and he is best known for the monumental shrine, the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus and named for him by order of his widow Artemisia. Antipater of Sidon listed the Mausoleum as one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, the site and a few remains can still be seen in the Turkish town of Bodrum. The term mausoleum has come to be used generically for any grand tomb
Hecatomnus of Mylasa or Hekatomnos was an early 4th-century BC ruler of Caria. He was the satrap of Caria for the Persian Achaemenid king Artaxerxes II, the basis for Hecatomnus political power was twofold, he was both a high appointed Persian official and a powerful local dynast, who founded the hereditary dynasty of the Hecatomnids. Hecatomnus was the son and successor of Hyssaldomus, a ruler of Mylasa. It is likely that Hecatomnus had been a supporter of Tissaphernes, at some time after 395 BC Hecatomnus became the first satrap of Caria, which was until part of other satrapies, usually that of Lydia. The designation of Caria as a separate satrapy was part of a reorganization of Persian power in western Anatolia by Artaxerxes II in the aftermath of Cyruss revolt, Hecatomnus was the first non-Persian official to be elevated to the position of satrap. He acceded as satrap perhaps in 394 BC, but no than 390 BC, Isocrates states that he was still ruling in 380 BC. Two ancient sources and Isocrates, report that Hecatomnus secretly supplied Evagoras with sums of money to raise troops and was in fact ready to rise against the Persian King.
However, Ruzicka strongly doubts the veracity of these reports, Hecatomnus had not shown at any other time insubordination or disaffection towards the Persian monarchy. Unlike other rebellious satraps Hecatomnus was not a Persian of noble or royal blood, thus, it seems highly unlikely that he would have engaged in treasonous activity without any tangible hope to benefit from it. Ruzicka offers two explanations for the reports by Diodorus and Isocrates, which must have been based on some contemporary rumours. In both cases he names Evagoras as the source of the rumours. Evagoras might have wanted to compromise Hecatomnus in the eyes of his master, later, he managed to engineer the recall and disgrace of another satrap who was campaigning against him. Evagoras might have wanted to create the impression that Hecatomnus was his ally in order to impress the Egyptian king Hakor with whom he was negotiating for support against Artaxerxes. From Egypt the rumour could have filtered to Athens through the Athenian general Chabrias who was serving with Hakor as a military adviser.
Hecatomnus was a native of Mylasa, and made that city his capital, hence the figure of Zeus Labrandenos appears on his coins walking and carrying a labrys over his shoulder, from the celebrated temple of that name near Mylasa. In August 2010, law enforcement officials arresting individuals believed to be digging for antiquities discovered what Turkish officials believe to be the tomb of Hecatomnus. A marble sarcophagus and numerous frescoes were discovered in the tomb, although officials believed many relics had already taken from the tomb. Smith, Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, Boston, Stephen Ruzicka, the Hecatomnids in the Fourth Century B. C
Mausoleum at Halicarnassus
The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus or Tomb of Mausolus was a tomb built between 353 and 350 BC at Halicarnassus for Mausolus, a satrap in the Persian Empire, and his sister-wife Artemisia II of Caria. The structure was designed by the Greek architects Satyros and Pythius of Priene, the Mausoleum was approximately 45 m in height, and the four sides were adorned with sculptural reliefs, each created by one of four Greek sculptors—Leochares, Scopas of Paros and Timotheus. The finished structure of the mausoleum was considered to be such a triumph that Antipater of Sidon identified it as one of his Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. It was destroyed by successive earthquakes from the 12th to the 15th century, the word mausoleum has now come to be used generically for an above-ground tomb. In the 4th century BC, Halicarnassus was the capital of a regional kingdom within the Achaemenid Empire on the western coast of Asia Minor. In 377 BC, the ruler of the region, Hecatomnus of Milas and left the control of the kingdom to his son.
Hecatomnus, a local satrap under the Persians, took control of several of the neighboring cities, after Artemisia and Mausolus, he had several other daughters and sons, Ada and Pixodarus. Mausolus extended its territory as far as the southwest coast of Anatolia and Mausolus ruled from Halicarnassus over the surrounding territory for 24 years. Mausolus, although descended from people, spoke Greek and admired the Greek way of life. He founded many cities of Greek design along the coast and encouraged Greek democratic traditions, Mausolus decided to build a new capital, one as safe from capture as it was magnificent to be seen. He chose the city of Halicarnassus and Mausolus spent huge amounts of tax money to embellish the city. They commissioned statues and buildings of gleaming marble, in 353 BC, Mausolus died, leaving Artemisia to rule alone. As the Persian satrap, and as the Hecatomnid dynast, Mausolus had planned for himself an elaborate tomb, when he died the projects was continued by his siblings.
The tomb became so famous that Mausoluss name is now the eponym for all stately tombs, Artemisia lived for only two years after the death of her husband. The urns with their ashes were placed in the yet unfinished tomb. As a form of sacrifice ritual the bodies of a number of dead animals were placed on the stairs leading to the tomb. It is likely that Mausollos started to plan the tomb before his death, as part of the works in Halicarnassus. Artemisia spared no expense in building the tomb and she sent messengers to Greece to find the most talented artists of the time
Strabo was a Greek geographer and historian who lived in Asia Minor during the transitional period of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire. Strabo was born to an affluent family from Amaseia in Pontus, Strabos life was characterized by extensive travels. He journeyed to Egypt and Kush, as far west as coastal Tuscany and as far south as Ethiopia in addition to his travels in Asia Minor and the time he spent in Rome. Travel throughout the Mediterranean and Near East, especially for scholarly purposes, was popular during this era and was facilitated by the relative peace enjoyed throughout the reign of Augustus. He moved to Rome in 44 BC, and stayed there and writing, in 29 BC, on his way to Corinth, he visited the island of Gyaros in the Aegean Sea. Around 25 BC, he sailed up the Nile until reaching Philae and it is not known precisely when Strabos Geography was written, though comments within the work itself place the finished version within the reign of Emperor Tiberius. Some place its first drafts around 7 BC, others around 17 or 18 AD, the latest passage to which a date can be assigned is his reference to the death in AD23 of Juba II, king of Maurousia, who is said to have died just recently.
He probably worked on the Geography for many years and revised it steadily, on the presumption that recently means within a year, Strabo stopped writing that year or the next, when he died. The first of Strabos major works, Historical Sketches, written while he was in Rome, is completely lost. Strabo studied under several prominent teachers of various specialties throughout his life at different stops along his Mediterranean travels. His first chapter of education took place in Nysa under the master of rhetoric Aristodemus, Strabo was an admirer of Homers poetry, perhaps a consequence of his time spent in Nysa with Aristodemus. At around the age of 21, Strabo moved to Rome, where he studied philosophy with the Peripatetic Xenarchus, despite Xenarchuss Aristotelian leanings, Strabo gives evidence to have formed his own Stoic inclinations. In Rome, he learned grammar under the rich and famous scholar Tyrannion of Amisus. Although Tyrannion was a Peripatetic, he was more relevantly a respected authority on geography, the final noteworthy mentor to Strabo was Athenodorus Cananites, a philosopher who had spent his life since 44 BC in Rome forging relationships with the Roman elite.
Athenodorus endowed to Strabo three important items, his philosophy, his knowledge, and his contacts, from his own first-hand experience, Athenodorus provided Strabo with information about regions of the empire which he would not otherwise have known. Strabo is most notable for his work Geographica, which presented a history of people. Although the Geographica was rarely utilized in its antiquity, a multitude of copies survived throughout the Byzantine Empire. It first appeared in Western Europe in Rome as a Latin translation issued around 1469, the first Greek edition was published in 1516 in Venice
In Greek mythology, Salmacis was an atypical naiad who rejected the ways of the virginal Greek goddess Artemis in favour of vanity and idleness. Her attempted rape of Hermaphroditus places her as the only nymph rapist in the Greek mythological canon, there dwelt a Nymph, not up for hunting or archery, unfit for footraces. In Ovids Metamorphoses, she becomes one with Hermaphroditus, and Hermaphroditus curses the fountain to have the effect on others. Salmacis could have been intended simply as a contrast to the tales in Ovids Metamorphoses. Salmacis fountain is located near the ancient Mausoleum of Halicarnassus, and it is now a tourist attraction located in present-day Bodrum, the waters of Salmacis fountain were said to have relaxing properties. Although excellent to drink, in times, it was thought to have the effect of making men effeminate. Ovid creates or recounts the myth of how the fountain came to be so in the story of Hermaphroditus, the following passage by Vitruvius gives a different story, In 1995, The Salmakis Inscription was discovered by Turkish authorities. A partially damaged but mainly well preserved inscription cut into an ancient wall and it was a poem in elegiac verse.
The first lines form the poet’s invocation of the goddess Aphrodite, early in Aphrodite’s story we encounter her son Hermaphroditus, as well as the water nymph Salmacis. The inscription was written sometime during the Hellenistic period, the poem was published anonymously in London in 1602. The British progressive rock band Genesis wrote and performed a song entitled Fountain of Salmacis on their 1971 album Nursery Cryme and it is an epic 8 minute-long piece which tells the story of Salmacis attempted rape of Hermaphroditus. At the end of the song, the state that Salmacis and Hermaphroditus were joined as one. The Fontana Greca is a located in Gallipoli, southern Italy. The fountain has bas-reliefs depicting three metamorphoses in Greek mythology, the center bas-relief shows Eros flying beside Aphrodite, while Hermaphroditus and Salmacis are shown below laying together and embracing. A sculpture by François-Joseph Bosio, La nymphe Salmacis, can be seen on display at the Louvre Museum in Paris, Ovids story of Salmacis and the boy Hermaphroditus is retold by Francis Beaumont in his epyllion Salmacis and Hermaphroditus.
The story is retold in the song The Fountain of Salmacis by Genesis, in his poem Hermaphroditus, Algernon Charles Swinburne mentions Salmacis. A novel of short stories by Italian writer Mario Soldati called Salmace, in the story it tells of the transformation of a man into a woman, in a highly metaphorical context. Within the fictional book Complacency of the Learned from the webcomic Homestuck, Naiad nymph of Halicarnassus in Caria - Theoi Project Nymphai Kariai, Naiad Nymphs of the Land of Caria - Theoi Project The Salmakis Fountain - University of Southern Denmark
The Carians were the ancient inhabitants of Caria in southwest Anatolia. It is not clear when the Carians enter into history, the definition is dependent on corresponding Caria and the Carians to the Karkiya or Karkisa mentioned in the Hittite records. Bronze Age Karkisa are first mentioned as having aided the Assuwa League against the Hittite King Tudhaliya I and this they did, allowing Manapa-Tarhunta to take back his kingdom. In 1274 BC, Karkisa are mentioned among those who fought on the Hittite Empire side against the Egyptians in the Battle of Kadesh. Taken as a whole, Hittite records seem to point at a Luwian ancestry for the Carians and, as such, they would have lost their literacy through the Dark Age of Anatolia. Yet, the supposition is suitable from a linguistic point-of-view given that the Phoenicians were calling them KRK in their abjad script and they were referred to as krka in Old Persian. In some translations of Biblical texts, the Carians are mentioned in 2 Kings 11,4,11,19 and perhaps alluded to in 2 Samuel 8,18,15,18, and 20,23.
They are named as mercenaries in inscriptions found in ancient Egypt and Nubia, dated to the reigns of Psammetichus I and they are sometimes referred to as the Cari or Khari. Carian remnants have been found in the ancient city of Persepolis or modern Takht-e-Jamshid in Iran, according to Thucydides, it was largely the Carians who settled the Cyclades prior to the Minoans. The Middle Bronze Age expansion of the Minoans into this region seems to have come at their expense, in doing so, Minos expelled the Carians, many of which had turned to piracy as a way of life. During the Athenian purification of Delos, all graves were exhumed, yet the Carians roamed throughout the whole of Greece serving on expeditions for pay. And when they were driven thence into Asia, even here they were unable to live apart from the Greeks, the Carians were often linked by Greek writers to the Leleges, but the exact nature of the relationship between Carians and Leleges remains mysterious. The two groups seem to have distinct, but intermingled with each other.
Strabo wrote that they were so intermingled that they were often confounded with each other, Athenaeus stated that the Leleges stood in relation to the Carians as the Helots stood to the Lacedaemonians. This confusion of the two peoples is in Herodotus, who wrote that the Carians, when they were allegedly living amid the Cyclades, were known as Leleges. The Carian language belongs to the Luwic group of the Anatolian family of languages, other Luwic languages besides Luwian proper are Lycian and Milyan. Although the ancestors of Carian and Lycian must have very close to Luwian. One of the Carian ritual centers was Mylasa, where they worshipped their supreme god, unlike Zeus, this was a warrior god
The Dorians were one of the four major ethnic groups among which the Hellenes of Classical Greece considered themselves divided. They are almost always referred to as just the Dorians, as they are called in the earliest literary mention of them in the Odyssey, and yet, all Hellenes knew which localities were Dorian, and which were not. Dorian states at war could more likely, but not always, Dorians were distinguished by the Doric Greek dialect and by characteristic social and historical traditions. In the 5th century BC, Dorians and Ionians were the two most politically important Greek ethne, whose ultimate clash resulted in the Peloponnesian War, the degree to which fifth-century Hellenes self-identified as Ionian or Dorian has itself been disputed. At one extreme Édouard Will concludes that there was no true ethnic component in fifth-century Greek culture, at the other extreme John Alty reinterprets the sources to conclude that ethnicity did motivate fifth-century actions. Moderns viewing these ethnic identifications through the fifth- and fourth-century BC literary tradition have been influenced by their own social politics.
Accounts vary as to the Dorians’ place of origin, mythology gave them a Greek origin and eponymous founder, Dorus son of Hellen, the mythological patriarch of the Hellenes. The origin of the Dorians is a multi-faceted concept, in modern scholarship the term often has meant the location of the population disseminating the Doric Greek dialect within a hypothetical Proto-Greek speaking population. This dialect is known from records of classical northwest Greece, the Peloponnesus and Crete, a historical event is associated with the overthrow, called anciently the Return of the Heracleidai and by moderns the Dorian Invasion. This theory of a return or invasion presupposes that West Greek speakers resided in northwest Greece, no other records than Mycenaean are known to have existed in the Bronze Age, so a West Greek of that time and place cannot be proved or disproved. West Greek speakers were in western Greece in classical times, unlike the East Greeks, they are not associated with any evidence of displacement events.
This provides circumstantial evidence that the Doric dialect disseminated among the Hellenes of northwest Greece, most scholars doubt that the Dorian invasion was the main cause of the collapse of the Mycenean civilization. The source of the West Greek speakers in the Peloponnesus remains unattested by any solid evidence, though most of the Doric invaders settled in the Peloponnese, they settled on Rhodes and Sicily, in what is now southern Italy. In Asia Minor existed the Dorian Hexapolis and Knidos in Asia Minor and Lindos, Kameiros and these six cities would become rivals with the Ionian cities of Asia Minor. Other such Dorian colonies, originally from Corinth, Megara, a mans name, Dōrieus, occurs in the Linear B tablets at Pylos, one of the regions invaded and subjugated by the Dorians. Pylos tablet Fn867 records it in the case as do-ri-je-we, *Dōriēwei. An unattested nominative plural, *Dōriēwes, would have become Dōrieis by loss of the w, the tablet records the grain rations issued to the servants of religious dignitaries celebrating a religious festival of Potnia, the mother goddess.
The nominative singular, Dōrieus, remained the same in the classical period, many Linear B names of servants were formed from their home territory or the places where they came into Mycenaean ownership
In Greek mythology Medusa was a monster, a Gorgon, generally described as a winged human female with living venomous snakes in place of hair. Gazers upon her hideous face would turn to stone, most sources describe her as the daughter of Phorcys and Ceto, though the author Hyginus makes her the daughter of Gorgon and Ceto. According to Hesiod and Aeschylus, she lived and died on an island named Sarpedon, the 2nd-century BCE novelist Dionysios Skytobrachion puts her somewhere in Libya, where Herodotus had said the Berbers originated her myth, as part of their religion. In classical antiquity the image of the head of Medusa appeared in the device known as the Gorgoneion. The three Gorgon sisters—Medusa and Euryale—were all children of the ancient marine deities Phorcys and his sister Ceto, in an ode written in 490 BC Pindar already speaks of fair-cheeked Medusa. In Ovids telling, Perseus describes Medusas punishment by Minerva as just, in most versions of the story, she was beheaded by the hero Perseus, who was sent to fetch her head by King Polydectes of Seriphus because Polydectes wanted to marry his mother.
The gods were well aware of this, and Perseus received help and he received a mirrored shield from Athena, winged sandals from Hermes, a sword from Hephaestus and Hadess helm of invisibility. Since Medusa was the one of the three Gorgons who was mortal, Perseus was able to slay her while looking at the reflection from the mirrored shield he received from Athena. During that time, Medusa was pregnant by Poseidon, when Perseus beheaded her, Pegasus, a winged horse, and Chrysaor, a giant wielding a golden sword, sprang from her body. Jane Ellen Harrison argues that her potency only begins when her head is severed, the basis of the Gorgoneion is a cultus object, a ritual mask misunderstood. In the Odyssey xi, Homer does not specifically mention the Gorgon Medusa, Lest for my daring Persephone the dread, harrisons translation states the Gorgon was made out of the terror, not the terror out of the Gorgon. According to Ovid, in northwest Africa, Perseus flew past the Titan Atlas, who stood holding the sky aloft, and transformed him into stone when he tried to attack him.
Furthermore, the poisonous vipers of the Sahara, in the Argonautica 4.1515, Ovids Metamorphoses 4.770, the blood of Medusa spawned the Amphisbaena. Perseus flew to Seriphos, where his mother was about to be forced into marriage with the king, King Polydectes was turned into stone by the gaze of Medusas head. It is immediately obvious that the Gorgons are not really three but one + two, the two unslain sisters are mere appendages due to custom, the real Gorgon is Medusa. A number of early scholars interpreted the myth of the Medusa as a quasi-historical. According to Joseph Campbell, In 1940, Sigmund Freuds Das Medusenhaupt was published posthumously and this article laid the framework for his significant contribution to a body of criticism surrounding the monster. Medusa is presented by Freud as the supreme talisman who provides the image of castration — associated in the mind with the discovery of maternal sexuality —