Halloween costumes are costumes worn on or around Halloween, a festival which falls on October 31. An early reference to wearing costumes at Halloween comes from Scotland in 1585, but they may pre-date this. There are many references to the custom during the 18th and 19th centuries in the Celtic countries of Scotland, Ireland and Wales, it has been suggested that the custom comes from the Celtic festivals of Samhain and Calan Gaeaf, or from the practise of "souling" during the Christian observance of Allhallowtide. Wearing costumes and mumming has long been associated with festivals at other times of the year, such as on Christmas. Halloween costumes are traditionally based on frightening folkloric beings. However, by the 1930s costumes based on characters in mass media such as film and radio were popular. Halloween costumes have tended to be worn by young people, but since the mid-20th century they have been worn by adults also; the wearing of costumes at Halloween may come from the belief that supernatural beings, or the souls of the dead, roamed the earth at this time.
The practice may have originated in a Celtic festival, held on 31 October–1 November, to mark the beginning of winter. It was called Samhain in Ireland and the Isle of Man, Calan Gaeaf in Wales and Brittany; the festival is believed to have pre-Christian roots. After the Christianization of Ireland in the 5th century, some of these customs may have been retained in the Christian observance of All Hallows' Eve in that region—which continued to be called Samhain/Calan Gaeaf—blending the traditions of their ancestors with Christian ones, it was seen as a liminal time, when the spirits or fairies, the souls of the dead, could more come into our world. It was believed that the Aos Sí needed to be propitiated to ensure that the people and their livestock survived the winter. From at least the 16th century, the festival included mumming and guising, which involved people going house-to-house in costume reciting verses or songs in exchange for food, it may have been a tradition whereby people impersonated the Aos Sí, or the souls of the dead, received offerings on their behalf.
Impersonating these beings, or wearing a disguise, was believed to protect oneself from them. It is suggested that the mummers and guisers "personify the old spirits of the winter, who demanded reward in exchange for good fortune". F. Marian McNeill suggests the ancient pagan festival included people wearing masks or costumes to represent the spirits, that faces were marked with ashes taken from the sacred bonfire. In parts of southern Ireland, a man dressed as a Láir Bhán led youths house-to-house reciting verses—some of which had pagan overtones—in exchange for food. If the household donated food it could expect good fortune from the'Muck Olla'. In 19th century Scotland, youths went house-to-house with masked, painted or blackened faces threatening to do mischief if they were not welcomed. In parts of Wales, men went about dressed as fearsome beings called gwrachod, while in some places, young people cross-dressed. Elsewhere in Europe and costumes were part of other yearly festivals. However, in the Celtic-speaking regions they were "particularly appropriate to a night upon which supernatural beings were said to be abroad and could be imitated or warded off by human wanderers".
It has been suggested that the wearing of Halloween costumes developed from the custom of souling, practised by Christians in parts of Western Europe from at least the 15th century. At Allhallowtide, groups of poor people would go door-to-door, collecting soul cakes – either as representatives of the dead, or in return for saying prayers for them. One 19th century English writer said it "used to consist of parties of children, dressed up in fantastic costume, who went round to the farm houses and cottages, signing a song, begging for cakes, money, or anything that the goodwives would give them"; the soulers asked for "mercy on all Christian souls for a soul cake". The practice was mentioned by Shakespeare his play The Two Gentlemen of Verona. Christian minister Prince Sorie Conteh wrote on the wearing of costumes: "It was traditionally believed that the souls of the departed wandered the earth until All Saints' Day, All Hallows' Eve provided one last chance for the dead to gain vengeance on their enemies before moving to the next world.
In order to avoid being recognised by any soul that might be seeking such vengeance, people would don masks or costumes to disguise their identities". In the Middle Ages and relics of martyred saints were paraded through the streets at Allhallowtide; some churches who could not afford these things had people dress as saints instead. Some believers continue the practice of dressing as saints, biblical figures, reformers in Halloween celebrations today. Many Christians in continental Europe in France, believed that on Halloween "the dead of the churchyards rose for one wild, hideous carnival," known as the danse macabre, depicted in church decoration. An article published by Christianity Today claimed the danse macabre was enacted at village pageants and at court masques, with people "dressing up as corpses from various strata of society", suggested this was the origin of Halloween costume parties; the custom of guising at Halloween in North America is first recorded in 1911, where a newspaper in Kingston, Ontario reported children going "guising" around the neighborhood.
In 19th century America, Halloween was celebrated with costume parades and "licentious revelries". However, efforts we
Helen C. Redman was an American interventional radiologist, noted for being the founding member of the American Association for Women Radiologists in 1981 and the first female president of the Radiological Society of North America from 1994-1995. After graduating with a bachelor's degree in biology from the University of Rochester in 1957, Redman completed medical school at Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York, she went on to complete internship and radiology residency at Palo Alto Stanford Hospital, graduating in 1965. At Stanford, she was the first female radiology resident Redman was a pioneer in interventional radiology and a supporter of women in medicine. In addition to her classic textbook Gastrointestinal Angiography, she authored 81 original peer-reviewed articles and 23 book chapters, she was the first woman member of the Society of Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology, the first female president and chairman of the Radiological Society of North America, the first female president of the Texas Radiological Society.
In 1997, she was named one of "20 Most Influential People in Radiology" by Diagnostic Imaging. In the last months of her life, she was awarded the gold medals of the RSNA, SCVIR, Texas Radiological Society
John Rocca is as a dance music performer and record producer, most well known for his band Freeez. During the early 1980s, Rocca formed, played with, wrote for and managed his first band, Freeez. After his entrepreneurial first self-funded and self-released effort, "Keep in Touch", became a No. 49 hit in the UK Singles Chart, his next effort, "Southern Freeez", was a chart success in various countries in Europe and around the world, reaching No. 8 in the UK Singles Chart. Both singles were number one hits in the UK Blues and Soul charts. During 1983, one of the first records to use digital sampling, "IOU", featured Rocca's falsetto voice and became one of the major dance successes of the 1980s electro music style, it scored number one in dance charts in Europe and the US Billboard Hot Dance Music/Club Play and had popular music chart success across the world, spending three weeks at number 2 in the UK. As a solo artist, Rocca scored number one again, this time with "I Want It To Be Real", on the US Hot Dance Music/Club Play chart during 1984.
After releasing some experimental output on his own Cobra Records label in the late 80s, Rocca resurfaced in the early 90s with his Midi Rain project. Several singles were popular in the UK dance charts including "Eyes", "Always", "Shine" - the latter reaching No. 1 on the Billboard US Hot Dance Music/Club Play chart. Rocca would retire from the music business during 1993, moving into Telecommunications. Unreleased album Extra Extra I. O. U. - The Best Of John Rocca Freeez I. O. U. Southern Freeez John Rocca discography at Discogs Midi Rain discography at Discogs
The 2007 National Hockey League All-Star Game was held in Dallas, on January 24, 2007. The Western Conference was victorious, defeating the Eastern Conference 12–9. On January 23, 2006, NHL Commissioner Gary Bettman announced that the event to be held during the 2006–07 season would take place at American Airlines Center, home of the Dallas Stars; the Stars were hosting an All-Star Game for the first time since 1972, when they were known as the Minnesota North Stars. The starting lines for both conferences were announced on January 9, 2007, the full rosters were announced January 13, 2007; this was the first NHL All-Star game since 2004. The 2004–05 NHL lockout forced the cancellation of that year's game and the 2005–06 season did not include an All-Star game due to the 2006 Winter Olympics; this event was broadcast by Versus, CBC and RDS. The fan voting process had been revised so as to allow fans to vote for their favorite players as many times as they wished; this had created a humorous fan voting campaign around Vancouver Canucks defenceman Rory Fitzpatrick, urging many to vote him into the game as a write-in candidate, designed to show that the revised system would lead to ballot box stuffing, in an effort to get the league to change the system.
Despite having no points in 18 games and one point in 22 games, Fitzpatrick had accumulated 428,832 votes, good for second-place among the defencemen when preliminary results were released. Reaction to the campaign was mixed—supporters of the campaign saw an opportunity to consider sending a hardworking but otherwise unspectacular player onto the all-star teams as recognition for their hard work, while opponents claim that it would take spots on the team away from players who generate interest in the league. Among notable opponents of the campaign were Phoenix Coyotes head coach Wayne Gretzky as well as Hockey Night in Canada commentator Don Cherry; the campaign was unsuccessful, as Fitzpatrick finished third among Western Conference defencemen and was not named as an All-Star reserve. Slate suggested that Fitzpatrick had the requisite number of votes and that the NHL altered the results in reaction to ballot stuffing by an automatic script; the league chose to unveil the new Rbk EDGE uniform designs, which would be employed by all 30 teams in the following season.
The new uniforms are designed to retain less water leading to less fatigue and improved performance. Similar designs have been employed in recent international hockey competitions. Critics of the new uniform design claim that the uniforms are more form-fitting than before, that the new sweaters would not allow horizontal striping at the bottom of the sweater, a design, a part of many current jerseys, including those of all six Original Six teams. However, some players have embraced the new uniforms, claiming that the new jerseys made them feel faster on the ice; the concerns over the striping would be alleviated with the league-wide rollout of the Edge system the following season, although several teams opted to go with non-traditional designs. In particular, the Ottawa Senators, Pittsburgh Penguins, Tampa Bay Lightning would adopt new uniforms using a modified version of the template used for these All-Star uniforms; this year's All-Star design would be reused in the next game, albeit with some slight changes.
Notes * Scott Niedermayer did not play. Ed Jovanovski was named as his replacement on the roster. ** Henrik Zetterberg was named to the West all-star team, but did not play. Andy McDonald was named as his replacement. Attendance: 18,532 Referees: Greg Kimmerly, Mike Leggo Linesmen: Lonnie Cameron, Jay Sharrers MVP: Daniel Briere List of All-Star First-Team NHL hockey players List of NHL seasons http://www.girlsgames5.com/ Game highlights of the 55th NHL All-Star Game on YouTube Game highlights of the 2007 Youngstars Game on YouTube NHL All-Star Game All-Star Game rosters NHL YoungStars Game rosters Super Skills http://www.girlsgames5.com/
Hugh Frederick Hough was an American author. He received the Pulitzer Prize for Breaking News Reporting with Art Petacque for uncovering new evidence that led to the reopening of efforts to solve the 1966 murder of Valerie Percy. Hough was born in Sandwich, Illinois on April 15, 1924 to Lila Hough, he attended the University of Illinois School of Journalism for his Bachelor of Arts degree. He met his future wife Ellen Marie Wasemann while at the University of Illinois and during the War she worked as a Junior Clerk-Typist in the University's Library School office. Once World War II broke, Hough joined the United States Air Force from 1943 to 1945, he served in the 465th Bombardment Group as a Staff sergeant. Upon returning, Hough joined the staff at the Chicago Sun-Times in 1952, after working as a sports editor at the Dixon Evening Telegraph. In 1974, his reporting with Art Petacque uncovered new evidence that led to the reopening of the 1966 murder of Valerie Percy, earning them the Pulitzer Prize for Breaking News Reporting.
He died on April 18, 1986 due to illness. Upon his death, the University of Illinois created a scholarship fund in his name for students enrolled in their College of Communications
Children's Healthcare Is a Legal Duty is an American nonprofit membership organization that works to stop child abuse and neglect based on religious beliefs, cultural traditions, quackery. CHILD opposes religious exemptions from child safety laws; these exemptions have been used as a defense in criminal cases when parents have withheld lifesaving medical care on religious grounds. These exemptions have discouraged reporting and investigation of religion-based medical neglect of children and spawned many outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases and deaths. CHILD publicizes the ideological abuse and neglect of children, lobbies for equal protection laws for children, files lawsuits and amicus curiae briefs in related cases. CHILD was founded in 1983 by Douglas Swan after the death of their son, Matthew; when Matthew developed a high fever in 1977, several Christian Science practitioners, who claimed they were healing Matthew, persuaded the Swans not to seek medical treatment for him. After he had been ill for 12 days, the Swans did take Matthew to the hospital, but his illness had progressed too far and he died of meningitis.
According to the National Association of Counsel for Children, which gave an award to Rita Swan for her efforts, "Due in large part to CHILD's efforts, Massachusetts, South Dakota and Oregon have removed laws which provided exemptions from prosecution to parents who fail to provide medical care for their sick children based on religion". Rita and Douglas Swan founded CHILD as a legacy to Matthew. In 1977 he became ill with bacterial meningitis; the Swans, Christian Scientists at the time, were persuaded by Christian Scientist practitioners – the religion's name for its spiritual healers – not to seek medical treatment for their son. When one of the practitioners said Matthew might have a broken bone, which Christian Scientists are allowed to go to a doctor for, the Swans took their baby to a hospital after he had been ill for 12 days, but his illness had progressed too far, he died. Motivated by this tragedy, CHILD works to eliminate religious exemptions in child health and safety laws. Parents belonging to various religions, in particular Christian Science, have used these exemptions as legal defenses in criminal cases for failing to provide medical care for children who died.
Following the death of their son, the Swans left the Christian Science Church, in 1983, Rita Swan founded the nonprofit organization, Children's Healthcare is a Legal Duty, has worked "relentlessly" to publicize cases of religion-related child abuse and neglect. In 1998, Rita Swan and Seth Asser published a benchmark study in Pediatrics that analyzed 140 child deaths in which medical treatment was withheld; this study showed. In 1996 Congress added to the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act a provision that nothing in the act can "be construed as establishing a Federal requirement that a parent or legal guardian provide any medical service or treatment, against the religious beliefs of the parent or legal guardian". CHILD has opposed this provision on several fronts. CHILD's work has led to the repeal of some or all religious exemptions to child neglect laws in Colorado, Maryland, South Dakota, Oregon, Minnesota and Rhode Island. In 2009, CHILD lobbied to remove provisions from the federal Affordable Care Act that would have provided government funding and mandated insurance coverage for faith healing that did not include medical care.
CHILD'S mission is to end child abuse and religious-based medical neglect, cultural practices, or pseudoscience through public education, a limited amount of lobbying to support laws that protect children against maltreatment. The organization files lawsuits and amicus curiae briefs in related court cases. CHILD supports: Laws requiring medical care of children, including preventive and diagnostic measures, without exception for religious belief Reporting of child abuse and child neglect without religious exemption Licensing of child care facility, including those run by churches Ratification of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child The Swans filed a wrongful death suit against the Christian Science Church in 1980, but it was dismissed on First Amendment grounds, the U. S. Supreme Court declined to hear their case on appeal. In 2000, CHILD sued the director of the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services and the Secretary of the U. S. Department of Health and Human Services, over federal healthcare monies being directed to Christian Science facilities and others that provide no medical treatment.
The suit, alleging a violation of the establishment clause, was dismissed with summary judgment. Other legal cases include CHILD Inc. and Brown v. Deters challenging Ohio's religious defense to child endangerment and manslaughter and CHILD Inc. v. Vladeck against the federal government's use of medicare and medicaid funds for Christian Science nursing. American Academy of Pediatrics: 2012 President's Certificate for Outstanding Service awarded to Rita Swan, MA, PhD for efforts in children's rights to medical care and decades of work with the AAP on these issues. Iowa Chapter of the Methodist Federation for Social Action: 6 June 2010 Outstanding Social Justice Work Award. Omicron Delta Kappa chapter at Morningside College: 27 April 2003 Honoris Causa Award. National Association of Counsel for Children: 2001 Outstanding Legal Advocacy Award received by Rita Swan, MA, PhD for working to protect children from religious-based medical neglect