The haloalkanes are a group of chemical compounds derived from alkanes containing one or more halogens. They are a subset of the general class of halocarbons, although the distinction is not made. Haloalkanes are used commercially and are known under many chemical and commercial names, they are used as flame retardants, fire extinguishants, propellants and pharmaceuticals. Subsequent to the widespread use in commerce, many halocarbons have been shown to be serious pollutants and toxins. For example, the chlorofluorocarbons have been shown to lead to ozone depletion. Methyl bromide is a controversial fumigant. Only haloalkanes which contain chlorine and iodine are a threat to the ozone layer, but fluorinated volatile haloalkanes in theory may have activity as greenhouse gases. Methyl iodide, a occurring substance, does not have ozone-depleting properties and the United States Environmental Protection Agency has designated the compound a non-ozone layer depleter. For more information, see Halomethane.
Haloalkane or alkyl halides are the compounds which have the general formula "RX" where R is an alkyl or substituted alkyl group and X is a halogen. Haloalkanes have been known for centuries. Chloroethane was produced synthetically in the 15th century; the systematic synthesis of such compounds developed in the 19th century in step with the development of organic chemistry and the understanding of the structure of alkanes. Methods were developed for the selective formation of C-halogen bonds. Versatile methods included the addition of halogens to alkenes, hydrohalogenation of alkenes, the conversion of alcohols to alkyl halides; these methods are so reliable and so implemented that haloalkanes became cheaply available for use in industrial chemistry because the halide could be further replaced by other functional groups. While most haloalkanes are human-produced, non-artificial-source haloalkanes do occur on Earth through enzyme-mediated synthesis by bacteria and sea macroalgae. More than 1600 halogenated organics have been identified, with bromoalkanes being the most common haloalkanes.
Brominated organics in biology range from biologically produced methyl bromide to non-alkane aromatics and unsaturates. Halogenated alkanes in land plants are more rare, but do occur, as for example the fluoroacetate produced as a toxin by at least 40 species of known plants. Specific dehalogenase enzymes in bacteria which remove halogens from haloalkanes, are known. From the structural perspective, haloalkanes can be classified according to the connectivity of the carbon atom to which the halogen is attached. In primary haloalkanes, the carbon that carries the halogen atom is only attached to one other alkyl group. An example is chloroethane. In secondary haloalkanes, the carbon that carries the halogen atom has two C–C bonds. In tertiary haloalkanes, the carbon that carries the halogen atom has three C–C bonds. Haloalkanes can be classified according to the type of halogen on group 7 responding to a specific halogenoalkane. Haloalkanes containing carbon bonded to fluorine, chlorine and iodine results in organofluorine, organochlorine and organoiodine compounds, respectively.
Compounds containing more than one kind of halogen are possible. Several classes of used haloalkanes are classified in this way chlorofluorocarbons, hydrochlorofluorocarbons and hydrofluorocarbons; these abbreviations are common in discussions of the environmental impact of haloalkanes. Haloalkanes resemble the parent alkanes in being colorless odorless, hydrophobic; the melting and boiling points of chloro-, bromo-, iodoalkanes are higher than the analogous alkanes, scaling with the atomic weight and number of halides. This is due to the increased strength of the intermolecular forces—from London dispersion to dipole-dipole interaction because of the increased polarizability, thus carbon tetraiodide is a solid. Many fluoroalkanes, however, go against this trend and have lower melting and boiling points than their nonfluorinated analogues due to the decreased polarizability of fluorine. For example, methane has a melting point of -182.5 °C whereas tetrafluoromethane has a melting point of -183.6 °C.
As they contain fewer C–H bonds, halocarbons are less flammable than alkanes, some are used in fire extinguishers. Haloalkanes are better solvents than the corresponding alkanes because of their increased polarity. Haloalkanes containing halogens other than fluorine are more reactive than the parent alkanes—it is this reactivity, the basis of most controversies. Many are alkylating agents, with primary haloalkanes and those containing heavier halogens being the most active; the ozone-depleting abilities of the CFCs arises from the photolability of the C–Cl bond. Haloalkanes are of wide interest because they are widespread and have diverse beneficial and detrimental impacts; the oceans are estimated to release 1-2 million tons of bromomethane annually. A large number of pharmaceuticals contain halogens fluorine. An estimated one fifth of pharmaceuticals contain fluorine, including several of the most used drugs. Examples include 5-fluorouracil, paroxetine, ciprofloxacin and fluconazole; the beneficial effects arise because the C-F bond is unreactive.
Fluorine-substituted ethers are volatile anesthetics, including the commercial product
Adelolf, Count of Boulogne, was a younger brother of Arnulf I, Count of Flanders and was given the County of Boulogne by his father. He was a son of Baldwin II, Count of Flanders, of Ælfthryth, daughter of Alfred the Great, he was named for his maternal great-grandfather, King Æthelwulf of Wessex. Baldwin II's extensive lands and many offices in what is now the north of modern France and the west of Belgium were divided among his sons on his death in 918; the elder, became Count of Flanders while Adelolf succeeded his father as count of Saint-Pol, Count of Boulogne and of Thérouanne. He was the lay abbot of the Abbey of Saint Bertinus at Saint-Omer. In 926 Adelolf was sent as an ambassador to his maternal first cousin King Æthelstan of England by Count Hugh the Great, effective ruler of northern France under Rudolph, Duke of Burgundy, elected king of France in 923. Adelolf was to seek the English king's agreement to a marriage between Hugh and another of Æthelstan's sisters. Among the lavish gifts sent to Æthelstan, an avid collector of relics, were said to be the sword of the Roman Emperor Constantine the Great and the Holy Lance.
The embassy was a success and Hugh was married to Æthelstan's half-sister Eadhild. In 933, Æthelstan's half-brother Edwin was drowned and his body cast ashore. Adelolf received the body of his kinsman with honour and took it to the Abbey of Saint Bertin for burial. Adelolf was the father of Arnulf II, Count of Boulogne, of an illegitimate son named Baldwin, guardian of Arnulf II, Count of Flanders. Adelolf died in 933, he was buried at Saint-Bertin
Sarah E. Hampson is a Canadian author and journalist. Since 1999, she has been writing for The Globe and Mail, a national Canadian newspaper, with her Interview column being nominated for a National Newspaper Award in 2000. Hampson joined The Globe and Mail as a permanent columnist and has been publishing multiply columns since including Generation Ex. Sarah Hampson was born c. 1958/1959 in Montreal, Canada. She has four siblings, her family relocating during her childhood, living in Switzerland as well as in Toronto and Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. In Hampson's memoir Happily Ever After Marriage: There's Nothing Like Divorce to Clear the Mind, she writes that she was close to her paternal and maternal grandmothers during her childhood and adult life. Growing up, Hampson had an interest in writing. One of Hampson's high school friends, stated to her, "ou've been talking about wanting to be a writer since you were like 15." Hampson attended Smith College in Northampton, United States, graduating in 1979 with a Bachelor of Arts in English literature.
“It’s not that I defined myself as a feminist but as a young woman." Hampson said about her time at Smith College. Following her graduation in 1979 from Smith College, Hampson worked in advertising as a copywriter and creative director in London and Toronto, as well as working for Ted Bates advertising firm. In 1990, after the birth of her third son, she left advertising. In 1991, Hampson submitted a writing piece to The Global and Mail "Facts & Arguments" section, earning her first byline; the same here, she wrote a few interior design stories for Canadian House and Home magazine and Toronto Life. In 1993, Hampson started her journalism career, she wrote for Toronto Life, Saturday Night, Report on Business and Canadian Art, among other publications. She has done interviews with high-profile individuals, some being Isiah Thomas, NBA basketball player and Emanuel Sandhu, So You Think You Can Dance contestant. “People are such interesting beings," Hampson says to the Ryerson Review of Journalism "there are so many things going on with them—what happened today, what happened yesterday, what they’re here to speak to you about, what their background is, what they’re going to do tomorrow."Hampson has been praised for her work in The Global and Mail, “What sets the interview column apart is Sarah’s willingness to go off-message and take her subject off-message,” says Kevin Siu, editor of the Globe and Mail's Life section, where Hampson’s columns appear.
In 2007, Hampson started "Generation Ex", a personal column about social contagion of divorce. She is described as The Globe and Mail's "divorce expert". Following the popular column, in 2010, Hampson published Happily Ever After Marriage, a memoir about her life and divorce. In 2016, Hampson published Dr. Coo Solves The Problem with a children's picture book. Sarah has three sons, Nick and Luke. After being married for 20 years, she divorced her husband and writes about divorce in her professional life. Ever After Marriage: There's Nothing Like Divorce to Clear the Mind, Knopf Canada 2010, ISBN 9780307397683 Dr. Coo Solves The Problem with Pigeons 2016 List of The Globe and Mail columnists Sarah Hampson official webpage on The Globe and Mail Sarah Hampson on Facebook Sarah Hampson on Twitter
The 1996 NFL draft was the procedure by which National Football League teams selected amateur college football players. It is known as the NFL Annual Player Selection Meeting; the draft was held April 20–21, 1996, at the Paramount Theatre at Madison Square Garden in New York City, New York. No teams chose to claim any players in the supplemental draft that year; this draft is considered one of the best draft classes for the position of wide receiver. Keyshawn Johnson, Terry Glenn, Eddie Kennison, Marvin Harrison, Eric Moulds, Bobby Engram, Terrell Owens, Muhsin Muhammad, Amani Toomer, Jermaine Lewis, Joe Horn have all achieved success in the pros, with all except Kennison and Toomer having reached the Pro Bowl at least once, a total of 26 Pro Bowl appearances for the group. In addition to the class having had several successful receivers, none of the five wide receivers drafted in the first round have been busts, as all of them spent at least a reasonable amount of time as starters in the NFL.
Combined, 1996 wide receivers have totalled 7,646 receptions for 105,866 yards, eclipsing any other class by more than 1,000 receptions and 10,000 yards. It was one of the best draft years for middle linebackers, with Hall of Famer Ray Lewis and Hall candidate Zach Thomas selected. Lewis was selected MVP of that game. Lewis won Super Bowl XLVII in the final game of his career, made 13 career Pro Bowls while Thomas has made 7. Other linebackers who made at least one Pro Bowl from this draft are Tedy Bruschi, Kevin Hardy, Simeon Rice, John Mobley, Donnie Edwards. Randall Godfrey, Earl Holmes, Carlos Emmons had solid careers in the league. In contrast to its successes at wide receiver and linebacker, the 1996 draft had been rated as the worst for quarterbacks. None of the eight drafted quarterbacks made an All-Pro team. Half of the drafted quarterbacks never threw one pass in the NFL; as of 2018, this remains the last draft without a quarterback selected in the first round. The 1988 draft had been the last with no quarterback selected in the first round.
On draft day, the St. Louis Rams traded running back Jerome Bettis and a third round draft pick to the Pittsburgh Steelers in exchange for a second round pick for that year, as well as a fourth round pick the following year; the trade was made after the Rams drafted Nebraska running back Lawrence Phillips. Bettis went on to have a successful career with the Steelers as well as being one of the team's most popular players, while the Rams wouldn't have another feature back until they traded for Marshall Faulk three years due to Phillips' off-field problems. Jonathan Ogden, offensive tackle from UCLA, taken 1st round 4th overall by the Baltimore Ravens. Inducted: Professional Football Hall of Fame class of 2013. Marvin Harrison, wide receiver from Syracuse, taken 1st round 19th overall by the Indianapolis Colts. Inducted: Professional Football Hall of Fame class of 2016. Ray Lewis, linebacker from Miami, taken 1st round 26th overall by the Baltimore Ravens. Inducted: Professional Football Hall of Fame class of 2018.
Brian Dawkins, safety from Clemson, taken 2nd round 61st overall by the Philadelphia Eagles. Inducted: Professional Football Hall of Fame class of 2018. Terrell Owens, wide receiver from Chattanooga, taken 3rd round 89th overall by the San Francisco 49ers. Inducted: Professional Football Hall of Fame class of 2018. In the explanations below, denotes trades that took place during the 1994 Draft, while indicates trades completed pre-draft. Round one Round two Round three Round four Round five Round six Round seven NFL.com – 1996 Draft databaseFootball.com – 1996 Draft Pro Football Hall of Fame
Hangars Liquides known as HL, is a French electronic label. It was created by La Peste in 1998. Hangars Liquides was Speedcore-oriented but was categorized as experimental music within the hardcore techno scene. HL gained a good reputation and has been played around the world in many different music scenes: industrial, techno, hardcore, electronica and post rock. Releasing artists such as I:gor and Neurocore from Poland, Senical from Denmark, Bombardier from the US, Noize Creator from Germany, Venetian Snares from Canada, Jan Robbe from Belgium, French artists such as Al Zheimer, XKV8, Helius Zhamiq, Fist of Fury, Attila, EPC, La Peste and more, the label became a reference in itself: a lot of electronic music tracks from other labels have been described as having a "Hangars Liquides sound" or "Hangars Liquides style". S Since 2000, the label has released many different genres from acousmatic music to power electronics and flashcore. Flashcore identifies a style that some of those experimental artists share and a manifesto explains the aim of HL's vision of experimental music.
Hangars Liquides started to produce multimedia since 2001 when computer graphic artist Djehan Kidd joined the label to produce new media designed for the music. The label has a streaming radio as a way to diffuse its new creations, the creations are used in virtual reality worlds to produce an immersive gestalt listening experience for the visitors. After the year 2000, the label's artistic direction became electroacoustic and acousmatic oriented, with a big influence from the likes of musicians like Bernard Parmegiani and Francois Bayle. Since 2007 Hangars Liquides has become a non profit organization, its corporate status is to help "create and diffuse any kind of art" through cutting edge mediums that can be found within the range of software used for mediated realities, it has become an important content creator for providing immersive audiovisual experiences through Virtual Reality's leading platforms. In 2014 the virtual city of Hangars Liquides, created by Djehan Kidd on Second Life was featured by the Guardian as "the world's largest cyberpunk city" List of record labels Official Website Hangars Liquides at Discogs
The Rand Building is a historic commercial building in Huntsville, Alabama. Built in 1883, it and the adjacent building, the Donegan Block, represent a simplified Italianate architecture style common in smaller towns in the late 19th century, it is one of few remaining Italianate buildings. The two-story green-painted brick building has an elaborate bracketed metal cornice with decorative panels between the brackets; the street-level façade has large four-pane fixed windows supported by paneled bulkheads, with a central recessed entry. A second row of smaller windows runs above the first, below a smoothed concrete header panel which along which an awning runs the width of the building. On the second floor, three two-over-two sash windows with segmental arched tops are in a frame recessed one course from the rest of the building, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1980