Halogen lamp

A halogen lamp known as a tungsten halogen, quartz-halogen or quartz iodine lamp, is an incandescent lamp consisting of a tungsten filament sealed into a compact transparent envelope, filled with a mixture of an inert gas and a small amount of a halogen such as iodine or bromine. The combination of the halogen gas and the tungsten filament produces a halogen cycle chemical reaction which redeposits evaporated tungsten to the filament, increasing its life and maintaining the clarity of the envelope; this allows the filament to operate at a higher temperature than a standard incandescent lamp of similar power and operating life. The small size of halogen lamps permits their use in compact optical systems for projectors and illumination; the small glass envelope may be enclosed in a much larger outer glass bulb for a bigger package. Standard and halogen incandescent bulbs are much less efficient than LED and compact fluorescent lamps, have been banned in many jurisdictions because of this. A carbon filament lamp using chlorine to prevent darkening of the envelope was patented in 1882, chlorine-filled "NoVak" lamps were marketed in 1892.

The use of iodine was proposed in a 1933 patent, which described the cyclic redeposition of tungsten back onto the filament. In 1959, General Electric patented a practical lamp using iodine. In 2009, the EU and other European countries began a phase-out of inefficient bulbs; the production and importation of directional mains-voltage halogen bulbs was banned on 1 September 2016 and non-directional halogen bulbs followed on 1 September 2018. Australia will ban halogen light bulbs from September 2020. In ordinary incandescent lamps, evaporated tungsten deposits onto the inner surface of the bulb, causing the bulb to blacken and the filament to grow weak until it breaks; the presence of the halogen, sets up a reversible chemical reaction cycle with this evaporated tungsten. The halogen cycle keeps the bulb clean and causes the light output to remain constant throughout the bulb's life. At moderate temperatures the halogen reacts with the evaporating tungsten, the halide formed being moved around in the inert gas filling.

At some point, however, it will reach higher temperature regions within the bulb where it dissociates, releasing tungsten back onto the filament and freeing the halogen to repeat the process. However, the overall bulb envelope temperature must be higher than in conventional incandescent lamps for this reaction to succeed: it is only at temperatures of above 250 °C on the inside of the glass envelope that the halogen vapor can combine with the tungsten and return it to the filament rather than the tungsten becoming deposited on the glass. A 300 watt tubular halogen bulb operated at full power reaches a temperature of about 540 °C, while a 500 watt regular incandescent bulb operates at only 180 °C and a 75 watt regular incandescent at only 130 °C; the bulb must be made of a high-melting-point glass. Since quartz is strong, the gas pressure can be higher, which reduces the rate of evaporation of the filament, permitting it to run a higher temperature for the same average life; the tungsten released in hotter regions does not redeposit where it came from, so the hotter parts of the filament thin out and fail.

Quartz iodine lamps, using elemental iodine, were the first commercial halogen lamps launched by GE in 1959. Quite soon, bromine was not used in elemental form. Certain hydrocarbon bromine compounds gave good results. Regeneration of the filament is possible with fluorine, but its chemical reactivity is so great that other parts of the lamp are attacked; the halogen is mixed with a noble gas krypton or xenon. The first lamps used only tungsten for filament supports, but some designs use molybdenum – an example being the molybdenum shield in the H4 twin filament headlight for the European Asymmetric Passing Beam. For a fixed power and life, the luminous efficacy of all incandescent lamps is greatest at a particular design voltage. Halogen lamps made for 12 to 24 volt operation have good light outputs, the compact filaments are beneficial for optical control; the ranges of multifaceted reflector "MR" lamps of 20–50 watts were conceived for the projection of 8 mm film, but are now used for display lighting and in the home.

More wider beam versions have become available designed for direct use on supply voltages of 120 or 230 V. Tungsten halogen lamps behave in a similar manner to other incandescent lamps when run on a different voltage; however the light output is reported as proportional to V 3, the luminous efficacy proportional to V 1.3. The normal relationship regarding the lifetime is that it is proportional to V − 14. For example, a bulb operated at 5% higher than its design voltage would produce about 15% more light, the luminous efficacy would be about 6.5% higher, but would be expected to have only half the rated life. Halogen lamps are manufactured with enough halogen to match the rate of tungsten evaporation at their design voltage. Increasing the applied voltage increases the rate of evaporation, so at some p

Torquay Athletic RFC

Torquay Athletic RFC is an English rugby union team formed in 1875, based in Torquay, Devon. The club operates 5 senior men's teams as well as youth and mini teams, with the men's first team playing in Tribute Cornwall/Devon following their relegation from Tribute Western Counties West at the end of the 2017-18 season. Nicknamed the "Tics", the first team's kit is black and white hoops and they play home games at the Recreation Ground, they have a local rivalry with Paignton RFC. There is some debate over. Although the club uses 1875 as the official date, Ray Batten's book "A History of Torquay Athletic R. F. C." Implies that it was not formed until 1886 because the earlier incarnation "The Torquay Athletic and Football Club" was a different organization. In 1890 the club reached the final of the Devon Senior Cup losing 6-10 to Exeter at the County Ground. Seven years the club were back in a final, this time in the Devon Junior Cup, with the Athletic reserve side winning the cup. In 1904 Torquay Athletic moved to the Recreation Ground, replacing Torquay United, tenants there for the previous four years.

The rugby club have occupied the ground since, renting it from Torquay Town Council, sharing it with the local cricket club, with occasional Devon CCC cricket games played there. The Recreation Ground itself remains unchanged since it first opened back in the 1870s and remains a great example of the grounds of the period. With a permanent home in place Torquay Athletic would establish itself as one of the better sides in the county and in 1907 the club won the Devon Senior Cup for the first time in the club's history. Winning the cup, would not however prove to be a catalyst for success, as Athletic would fall behind the dominant sides of the time, Devonport Albion and Plymouth RFC; the club had to wait 63 years for their next senior cup win reclaiming it for the second time in 1979. The advent of the national leagues in 1987 saw Torquay Athletic placed in South West Division 1 - division 5 of the English rugby union league system. League rugby was not successful for the club as after only two seasons they were relegated to South West 2.

They bounced back the following year as they were promoted from South West 2 after claiming the runners up spot. The rest of the nineties was a period of stability for the club as they kept afloat in South West Division 1 and they reached the final of the Devon Senior Cup in 1998 losing against Tiverton despite having home advantage; the start of the 21st century proved to be an interesting one for Athletic as they yo-yoed up and down the league system. They suffered two relegation's in three years, first from South West Division 1 at the end of 2001 and South West 2 West in 2003, to fall to the lowest league position in their history. After a bad start to the decade Athletic bounced back, just missing out on promotion by losing the playoff 7-18 away to Gloucester-based side, Spartans in 2004 before winning Western Counties West in 2005-06, they won the Devon Senior Cup for the third time in 2007, defeating Paignton in the final. Success in the cup was not replicated in the league and in 2010 Torquay Athletic were once more relegated.

Two years they came close to promotion after finishing second in Tribute Western Counties West, but were comfortably beaten 7-39 away to another Gloucester based side, Old Centralians. The 2017-18 season would see Torquay once again suffer the agony of relegation, going down on the last day of the season to drop to level 8 - the lowest level that they have played at since the leagues began; the Recreation Ground is located on Rathmore Road in Torquay, near to the sea front and next to the train station. It consists of a rugby/cricket pitch alongside a Victorian-era grandstand underneath, the club-house and changing facilities, while a stand-alone cricket pavilion and scoreboard is situated at the opposite end of the ground. Parking is available at the ground; the ground capacity for both rugby and cricket is around 3,000, most of, standing, including 300 seats in the grandstand. The grandstand had seating for 600 but at present only half of it is used as the other half has fallen into ruin and is unsafe for spectators.

First Team Devon RFU Senior Cup winners: 1907, 1979, 2007 Tribute Western Counties West champions: 2005-06 Devon Intermediate Plate winners: 2011Second Team Devon Junior Cup winners: 1897 Chris Bell - Plymouth born Centre who played youth rugby at Athletic before going to forge a career in the Premiership with clubs including Harlequins and Wasps. Gained youth international caps for England. Mike Davis - Torquay born Lock who played at Athletic in his youth and went to gain 16 caps for England at lock as well as coaching the national side from 1979 to 1982. Lee Mears - Torquay born Hooker who started with Torquay Athletic minis before going on to have a successful career with Bath as well as gaining 42 caps for England and 4 caps for the British and Irish Lions. Cecil Pritchard - capped 8 times by Wales in the 1920s. Played part of his career at Torquay and Barnstaple after moving to the south-west from his home country. Died in 1966. Gwyn Richards - fly-half who played for the club in the 1920s after spending much of his early career in his native Wales with the likes of Bridgend RFC and Cardiff RFC.

Gained a solitary cap for Wales in 1927 before switching to rugby league. Died in 1985. John Widdicombe - local lad who went on to play for Newport in Wales as well as being called up by Barbarians. Now forwards coach at the club. Devon RFU Torquay Athletic RFC Devon RFU

2004 French Open – Mixed Doubles

Defending champions Lisa Raymond and Mike Bryan lost in the first round to Arantxa Sánchez Vicario and Daniel Nestor. Tatiana Golovin and Richard Gasquet won the title, defeating Cara Black and Wayne Black in the final. Elena Likhovtseva / Mahesh Bhupathi Virginia Ruano Pascual / Mark Knowles Lisa Raymond / Mike Bryan Cara Black / Wayne Black Rennae Stubbs / Kevin Ullyett Martina Navratilova / Leander Paes Alicia Molik / Paul Hanley Myriam Casanova / Cyril Suk Main draw