Ham is pork from a leg cut, preserved by wet or dry curing, with or without smoking. As a processed meat, the term "ham" includes both whole cuts of meat and ones that have been mechanically formed. Ham is made around the world, including a number of regional specialties, such as Westphalian ham and some varieties of Spanish jamón. In addition, numerous ham products have specific geographical naming protection, such as prosciutto di Parma in Europe, Smithfield ham in the US; the preserving of pork leg as ham has a long history, with Cato the Elder writing about the "salting of hams" in his De Agri Cultura tome around 160 BC. There are claims. Larousse Gastronomique claims an origin from Gaul, it was well established by the Roman period, as evidenced by an import trade from Gaul mentioned by Marcus Terentius Varro in his writings. The modern word "ham" is derived from the Old English ham or hom meaning the hollow or bend of the knee, from a Germanic base where it meant "crooked", it began to refer to the cut of pork derived from the hind leg of a pig around the 15th century.

Because of the preservation process, ham is a compound foodstuff or ingredient, being made up of the original meat, as well as the remnants of the preserving agent, such as salt, but it is still recognised as a food in its own right. Ham is produced by curing raw pork by salting known as dry curing, or brining known as wet curing. Additionally, smoking may be employed. Besides salt, several ingredients may be used to obtain flavoring and preservation, from black pepper to saffron. Traditional dry cure hams may use only salt as the curative agent, such as with San Daniele or Parma hams, although this is comparatively rare; this process involves cleaning the raw meat, covering it in salt while it is pressed draining all the blood. Specific herbs and spices may be used to add flavour during this step; the hams are washed and hung in a dark, temperature-regulated place until dry. It is hung to air for another period of time; the duration of the curing process varies by the type of ham, for example, Serrano ham curing in 9–12 months, Parma hams taking more than 12 months, Iberian ham taking up to 2 years to reach the desired flavour characteristics.

Some dry cured hams, such as the Jinhua ham, take 8 to 10 months to complete. Most modern dry cure hams use nitrites, which are added along with the salt. Nitrates are used because they prevent bacterial growth and, in a reaction with the meat's myoglobin, give the product a desirable dark red color; the amount and mixture of salt and nitrites used have an effect on the shrinkage of the meat. Because of the toxicity of nitrite, some areas specify a maximum allowable content of nitrite in the final product. Under certain conditions during cooking, nitrites in meat can react with degradation products of amino acids, forming nitrosamines, which are known carcinogens; the dry curing of ham involves a number of enzymatic reactions. The enzymes involved are exopeptidases; these enzymes cause proteolysis of muscle tissue, which creates large numbers of small peptides and free amino acids, while the adipose tissue undergoes lipolysis to create free fatty acids. Salt and phosphates act as strong inhibitors of proteolytic activity.

Animal factors influencing enzymatic activity include age and breed. During the process itself, conditions such as temperature, water content, redox potential, salt content all have an effect; the salt content in dry-cured ham varies throughout a piece of meat, with gradients determinable through sampling and testing or non-invasively through CT scanning. Wet-cured hams are brined, which involves the immersion of the meat in a brine, sometimes with other ingredients such as sugar added for flavour. Meat is kept in the brine for around 3 to 14 days. Wet curing has the effect of increasing volume and weight of the finished product, by about 4%; the wet curing process can be achieved by pumping the curing solution into the meat. This can be quicker, increase the weight of the finished product by more than immersion, ensure a more distribution of salt through the meat; this process is quicker than traditional brining being completed in a few days. Ham can be additionally preserved through smoking, in which the meat is placed in a smokehouse to be cured by the action of smoke.

The main flavor compounds of smoked ham are guaiacol, its 4-, 5-, 6-methyl derivatives as well as 2,6-dimethylphenol. These compounds are produced by combustion of lignin, a major constituent of wood used in the smokehouse. In many countries the term is now protected with a specific definition. For instance, in the United States, the Code of Federal Regulations says that "the word'ham', without any prefix indicating the species of animal from which derived, shall be used in labeling only in connection with the hind legs of swine". In addition to the main categories, some processing choices can affect legal labeling. For instance, in the United States, a "smoked" ham must have been smoked by hanging over burning wood chips in a smokehouse or an atomized spray of liquid smoke such that the product appearance is equivalent. However, injecting "smoke flavor" is not legal grounds for claiming the ham was "smoked". Hams can only be labeled "ho

Joyrex J9ii

Joyrex J9ii is an album by Richard D. James under the alias Caustic Window; the release has received more than one pressing. The title of this release is similar to another Caustic Window release titled Joyrex J9i. All tracks were re-released on the album Compilation. A full, slower version of the drone track that can just about be heard in the mix of "The Garden Of Linmiri" can be found on the Analogue Bubblebath 3 CD release as track 11. 100 copies were released in a Wilton LP size cardboard mailer, with a photocopied label on the front stating the following: REPHLEX DISCO ASSAULT KIT CAUSTIC WINDOW - JOYREX J9 EP MISSION CONTROL: PO BOX 2676 LONDON N11 1AZ IN THE EVENT OF A LACK OF DANCEFLOOR STIMULUS BREAK THIS SEAL. DO NOT HESITATE IN USING THIS EQUIPMENT TO SECURE ANY SUBVERSIVE CLUB SITUATION WHERE BACKUP IS UNAVAILABLE, and on the rear flap: CAUTIONThe manufacturers of this package will not accept responsibility for any brain damage, hearing loss or haemorrhaging resulting from reception of the recordings within.

This issue contained a blue t-shirt with a yellow Rephlex logo, some'Magic Gum' candy, the first issue of J9ii. A further 900 copies of the same record were released in Wilton LP size mailers, only this time without any t-shirts, with some substituting the'Magic Gum' candy for'Fizz Wizz' popping candy; these have a different front label on the mailer, this time stating: REPHLEXThe Caustic Window - Joyrex J9 EP p+c 1993 RePhleX The label on the rear flap is the same as before. The most common copies were released in plain back 12" sleeves without any of these extras, the only difference from the others records is the yellow/green label text. Printed circularly around this issues labels edge is the following: THE CAUSTIC WINDOW JOYREX J9 EP P+C 1993 REPHLEX - PO BOX 2676 LONDON N11 1AZ DISTRIBUTED BY KUDOS 071 328 4442 "Fantasia" – 6:01 "Clayhill Dub" – 3:23 "The Garden Of Linmiri" – 6:08 "We Are The Music Makers" – 3:59No track titles appear anywhere on the release. Track B1 appeared on the compilation Energy'93 under the name "cat 009 iii"

George Windsor Earl

George Windsor Earl was an English navigator and author of works on the Indian Archipelago. He coined the term'Indu-nesian' adopted as the name for Indonesia. Earl was born in London around 1813, he travelled to India after becoming a midshipman at age 14 joined the colonists in Western Australia in 1830. In 1832 he resumed his nautical career, working between Batavia and Singapore, gained the command of a trading ship, he returned to England and became involved in a scheme to colonise the North of Australia, leaving for Port Essington in 1838, but by 1845 the hardships and lack of success of the North Australia Expedition had exhausted him. He made a venture to the region, promoting cotton and trade, with a similar result. From 1855 until his death he held a variety of official administrative positions in the region, his last post was at Penang. Earl died on a sea journey to England in 1865, is buried at the Old Protestant Cemetery, George Town, Penang, in present-day Malaysia. G. W. Earl, who wrote on a diverse range of interests, was regarded as an authority on hydrography and a source of anthropological information on the peoples of the region.

His works include papers and books, a number of pamphlets and other material relating to proposed ventures in Australia. His first major publications were The Eastern Seas or Voyages and Adventures in the Indian Archipelago 1832-33-34... and Sailing directions for the Arafura Sea, 1839, a translation from Dutch narratives of Dirk Hendrik Kolff and others. The records of his observations of deep-sea channels was used by Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace when studying the disjuncts in the bio-geographic distribution of the region. In particular his pamphlet On the Physical Geography of South-Eastern Asia and Australia, published in 1845, described how shallow seas connected islands on the west with the Asian continent and with similar wildlife, islands on the east such as New Guinea were connected to Australia and were characterised by the presence of marsupials; this formed the insipiration for Alfred Russel Wallace to propose the faunal boundary line now known as the Wallace Line. He published a paper in 1850 that invented the term'Indu-nesians', for a quaint racial classification, derived from the Latin for India and island.

He published a seminal anthropological reference on the Papuan peoples, compiled from first hand accounts of other visitors to the region, though his direct contact or exploration of the land is unrecorded and seems unlikely. This work, The native races of the Indian Archipelago: Papuans, was the first in a projected series, further volumes on'Malayu-Polynesians', Moluccans were never realised. Amongst the sources for the material was information Earl obtained from interviews with Owen Stanley and Dumont d'Urville; the volume functioned as a standard reference on the people until the twentieth century, though based on a treatment as a racial classification, was noted for its focus on research from the field. The book included papers on racial types written in 1845, these were encouraged and edited by James Richardson Logan and published in Journal of the Indian Archipelago and Eastern Asia. George William Samuel Earl was born on 10 February 1832 in Hampstead, England to Percy William Earl, a ship's captain and Elizabeth née Sharp.

His sister, Elizabeth married John Loftus Hartwell, an Assistant-Surgeon in the army. George married Clara Siborne on 4 April 1846. George's granddaughter Anne'Nancy' Alt was the mother of Lt. Gen. Sir Frederick'Boy' Browning. NLA catalogue