In geography and archaeology, a settlement, locality or populated place is a community in which people live. The complexity of a settlement can range from a small number of dwellings grouped together to the largest of cities with surrounding urbanized areas. Settlements may include hamlets, villages and cities. A settlement may have known historical properties such as the date or era in which it was first settled, or first settled by particular people. In the field of geospatial predictive modeling, settlements are "a city, village or other agglomeration of buildings where people live and work". A settlement conventionally includes its constructed facilities such as roads, field systems, boundary banks and ditches, ponds and woods, wind and water mills, manor houses and churches; the oldest remains that have been found of constructed dwellings are remains of huts that were made of mud and branches around 17,000 BC at the Ohalo site near the edge of the Sea of Galilee. The Natufians built houses in the Levant, around 10,000 BC.
Remains of settlements such as villages become much more common after the invention of agriculture. Landscape history studies the form of settlements – for example whether they are dispersed or nucleated. Urban morphology can thus be considered a special type of cultural-historical landscape studies. Settlements can be ordered by centrality or other factors to define a settlement hierarchy. A settlement hierarchy can be used for classifying settlement all over the world, although a settlement called a'town' in one country might be a'village' in other countries. Geoscience Australia defines a populated place as "a named settlement with a population of 200 or more persons"; the Committee for Geographical Names in Australasia used the term localities for rural areas, while the Australian Bureau of Statistics uses the term "urban centres/localities" for urban areas. The Agency for Statistics in Bosnia and Herzegovina uses the term "populated place" for rural, "municipality" and "town" for urban areas.
The Bulgarian Government publishes a National Register of Populated places. The Canadian government uses the term "populated place" in the Atlas of Canada, but does not define it. Statistics Canada uses the term localities for historical named locations; the Croatian Bureau of Statistics records population in units called settlements. The Census Commission of India has a special definition of census towns; the Central Statistics Office of the Republic of Ireland has a special definition of census towns. There are various types of inhabited localities in Russia. Statistics Sweden uses the term localities for various densely populated places; the common English-language translation is urban areas. The UK Department for Communities and Local Government uses the term "urban settlement" to denote an urban area when analysing census information; the Registrar General for Scotland defines settlements as groups of one or more contiguous localities, which are determined according to population density and postcode areas.
The Scottish settlements are used as one of several factors defining urban areas. The United States Geological Survey has a Geographic Names Information System that defines three classes of human settlement: Populated place − place or area with clustered or scattered buildings and a permanent human population. A populated place is not incorporated and by definition has no legal boundaries. However, a populated place may have a corresponding "civil" record, the legal boundaries of which may or may not coincide with the perceived populated place. Census − a statistical area delineated locally for the tabulation of Census Bureau data. Civil − a political division formed for administrative purposes."Populated places may be defined in the context of censuses and be different from general-purpose administrative entities, such as "place" as defined by the U. S. Census Bureau or census-designated places. In the field of geospatial predictive modeling, settlements are "a city, village, or other agglomeration of buildings where people live and work".
The Global Human Settlement Layer framework produces global spatial information about the human presence on the planet over time. This in the form of built up population density maps and settlement maps; this information is generated with evidence-based analytics and knowledge using new spatial data mining technologies. The framework uses heterogeneous data including global archives of fine-scale satellite imagery, census data, volunteered geographic information; the data is processed automatically and generates analytics and knowledge reporting objectively and systematically about the presence of population and built-up infrastructures. The GHSL operates in an free data and methods access policy; the term "Abandoned populated places" is a Feature Designation Name in databases sourced by the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency and GeoNames. Populated places can be abandoned. Sometimes the structures are still accessible, such as in a ghost town, these may become tourist attractions; some places that have the appearance of a ghost town, may still be defined as populated places by government entities.
A town may become a ghost town because the economic activity that supported it has failed, because of a government action, such as the building of a dam that floods t
St. Gallen or traditionally St Gall, in German sometimes Sankt Gallen is a Swiss town and the capital of the canton of St. Gallen, it evolved from the hermitage of Saint Gall, founded in the 7th century. Today, it represents the center of eastern Switzerland, its economy consists of the service sector. Internationally, the town is known as the home of the University of St. Gallen, one of world's leading business schools; the main tourist attraction is the Abbey of a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The Abbey's renowned library contains books from the 9th century; the official language of St. Gallen is German, but the main spoken language is the local variant of the Alemannic Swiss German dialect; the city has good transport links to the rest of the country and to neighbouring Germany and Austria. It functions as the gate to the Appenzellerland; the city of St. Gallen grew around the Abbey of St Gall, founded in the 8th century; the abbey is said to have been built at the site of the hermitage of Irish missionary Gallus, who according to legend had established himself by the river Steinach in AD 612.
The monastery itself was founded by Saint Othmar in c. 720. The abbey prospered in the 9th century and became a site of pilgrimage and a center of trade, with associated guest houses and other facilities, a hospital, one of the first monastery schools north of the Alps. By the tenth century, a settlement had grown up around the abbey. In 926 Magyar raiders attacked surrounding town. Saint Wiborada, the first woman formally canonized by the Vatican saw a vision of the impending attack and warned the monks and citizens to flee. While the monks and the abbey treasure escaped, Wiborada chose to stay behind and was killed by the raiders. Between 924 and 933 the Magyars again threatened the abbey, its books were removed for safekeeping to Reichenau. Not all the books were returned. On 26 April 937 a fire consumed much of the abbey. However, the library was spared. About 954 a protective wall was raised around the abbey. A wall with gates and towers was built in 953/954 under abbot Anno and 971-975 under abbot Notker, first establishing the abbey and its associated settlement as a city.
From the 12th century, the city of St. Gall pushed for independence from the abbey. In 1180, an imperial reeve, not answerable to the abbot, was installed in the city. In 1207, Abbot Ulrich von Sax was granted the rank of Imperial Prince by Philip of Swabia, King of the Germans; as an ecclesiastical principality, the Abbey of St. Gallen was to constitute an important territorial state and a major regional power in northern Switzerland; the city of St. Gallen proper progressively freed itself from the rule of the abbot. Abbot Wilhelm von Montfort in 1291 granted special privileges to the citizens. By about 1353 the guilds, headed by the cloth-weavers guild, had gained control of the civic government. In 1415 the city bought its liberty from the German king Sigismund. In 1405, the Appenzell estates of the abbot rebelled and in 1411 they became allies of the Old Swiss Confederation. A few months the town of St. Gallen became an ally, they joined the "everlasting alliance" as full members of the Confederation in 1454 and in 1457 became free from the abbot.
However, in 1451 the abbey became an ally of Zurich, Lucerne and Glarus who were all members of the Confederation. Ulrich Varnbüler was an early mayor of St. Gallen and one of the most colorful. Hans, the father of Ulrich, was prominent in city affairs in St. Gallen in the early 15th century. Ulrich entered public affairs in the early 1460s and attained the various offices and honours that are available to a talented and ambitious man, he demonstrated fine qualities as field commander of the St. Gallen troops in the Burgundian Wars. In the Battle of Grandson his troops were part of the advance units of the Confederation and took part in their famous attack. A large painting of Ulrich returning triumphantly to a hero's welcome in St. Gallen is still displayed in St. Gallen. After the war, Varnbüler represented St. Gallen at the various parliaments of the Confederation. In December 1480, Varnbüler was offered the position of mayor for the first time. From that time on, he served in several leadership positions and was considered the city's intellectual and political leader.
According to Vadian, who understood his contemporaries well, "Ulrich was a intelligent and eloquent man who enjoyed the trust of the citizenry to a high degree." His reputation among the Confederates was substantial. However, in the late 1480s, he became involved in a conflict, to have serious negative consequences for him and for the city. In 1463, Ulrich Rösch had assumed the management of the abbey of Saint Gall, he was an ambitious prelate, whose goal was to return the abbey to prominence by every possible means, following the losses of the Appenzell War. His restless ambition offended the material interests of his neighbours; when he arranged for the help of the Pope and the Emperor to carry out a plan to move the abbey to Rorschach on Lake Constance, he encountered stiff resistance from the St. Gallen citizenry, other clerics, the Appenzell nobility in the Rhine Valley, who were concerned for their holdings. At this point, Varnbüler entered the conflict against the prelate, he wanted to restrain the increase of the abbey's power and at the same time increase
Nobility is a social class ranked under royalty and found in some societies that have a formal aristocracy. Nobility possesses more acknowledged privileges and higher social status than most other classes in society; the privileges associated with nobility may constitute substantial advantages over or relative to non-nobles, or may be honorary, vary by country and era. As referred to in the Medieval chivalric motto "noblesse oblige", nobles can carry a lifelong duty to uphold various social responsibilities, such as honorable behavior, customary service, or leadership positions. Membership in the nobility, including rights and responsibilities, is hereditary. Membership in the nobility has been granted by a monarch or government, unlike other social classes where membership is determined by wealth, lifestyle, or affiliation. Nonetheless, acquisition of sufficient power, military prowess, or royal favour has enabled commoners to ascend into the nobility. There are a variety of ranks within the noble class.
Legal recognition of nobility has been more common in monarchies, but nobility existed in such regimes as the Dutch Republic, the Republic of Genoa, the Republic of Venice, the Old Swiss Confederacy, remains part of the legal social structure of some non-hereditary regimes, e.g. Channel Islands, San Marino, the Vatican City in Europe. Hereditary titles and styles added to names, as well as honorifics distinguish nobles from non-nobles in conversation and written speech. In many nations most of the nobility have been un-titled, some hereditary titles do not indicate nobility; some countries have had non-hereditary nobility, such as the Empire of Brazil or life peers in the United Kingdom. The term derives from the abstract noun of the adjective nobilis. In ancient Roman society, nobiles originated as an informal designation for the political governing class who had allied interests, including both patricians and plebeian families with an ancestor who had risen to the consulship through his own merit.
In modern usage, "nobility" is applied to the highest social class in pre-modern societies, excepting the ruling dynasty. In the feudal system, the nobility were those who held a fief land or office, under vassalage, i.e. in exchange for allegiance and various military, services to a suzerain, who might be a higher-ranking nobleman or a monarch. It came to be seen as a hereditary caste, sometimes associated with a right to bear a hereditary title and, for example in pre-revolutionary France, enjoying fiscal and other privileges. While noble status conferred significant privileges in most jurisdictions, by the 21st century it had become a honorary dignity in most societies, although a few, residual privileges may still be preserved and some Asian and African cultures continue to attach considerable significance to formal hereditary rank or titles. Nobility is a historical and legal notion, differing from high socio-economic status in that the latter is based on income, possessions or lifestyle.
Being wealthy or influential cannot ipso facto make one noble, nor are all nobles wealthy or influential. Various republics, including former Iron Curtain countries, Greece and Austria have expressly abolished the conferral and use of titles of nobility for their citizens; this is distinct from countries which have not abolished the right to inherit titles, but which do not grant legal recognition or protection to them, such as Germany and Italy, although Germany recognizes their use as part of the legal surname. Still other countries and authorities allow their use, but forbid attachment of any privilege thereto, e.g. Finland and the European Union, while French law protects lawful titles against usurpation. Although many societies have a privileged upper class with substantial wealth and power, the status is not hereditary and does not entail a distinct legal status, nor differentiated forms of address. Not all of the benefits of nobility derived from noble status per se. Privileges were granted or recognised by the monarch in association with possession of a specific title, office or estate.
Most nobles' wealth derived from one or more estates, large or small, that might include fields, orchards, hunting grounds, etc. It included infrastructure such as castle and mill to which local peasants were allowed some access, although at a price. Nobles were expected to live "nobly", that is, from the proceeds of these possessions. Work involving manual labour or subordination to those of lower rank was either forbidden or frowned upon socially. On the other hand, membership in the nobility was a prerequisite for holding offices of trust in the realm and for career promotion in the military, at court and the higher functions in the government and church. Prior to the French Revolution, European nobles commanded tribute in the form of entitlement to cash rents or usage taxes, labour or a portion of the annual crop yield from commoners or no
Alberta is a western province of Canada. With an estimated population of 4,067,175 as of 2016 census, it is Canada's fourth most populous province and the most populous of Canada's three prairie provinces, its area is about 660,000 square kilometres. Alberta and its neighbour Saskatchewan were districts of the Northwest Territories until they were established as provinces on September 1, 1905; the premier has been Rachel Notley since May 2015. Alberta is bounded by the provinces of British Columbia to the west and Saskatchewan to the east, the Northwest Territories to the north, the U. S. state of Montana to the south. Alberta is one of three Canadian provinces and territories to border only a single U. S. state and one of only two landlocked provinces. It has a predominantly humid continental climate, with stark contrasts over a year. Alberta's capital, Edmonton, is near the geographic centre of the province and is the primary supply and service hub for Canada's crude oil, the Athabasca oil sands and other northern resource industries.
About 290 km south of the capital is the largest city in Alberta. Calgary and Edmonton centre Alberta's two census metropolitan areas, both of which have populations exceeding one million, while the province has 16 census agglomerations. Tourist destinations in the province include Banff, Drumheller, Sylvan Lake and Lake Louise. Alberta is named after the fourth daughter of Queen Victoria. Princess Louise was the wife of Marquess of Lorne, Governor General of Canada. Lake Louise and Mount Alberta were named in her honour. Alberta, with an area of 661,848 km2, is the fourth-largest province after Quebec and British Columbia. To the south, the province borders on the 49th parallel north, separating it from the U. S. state of Montana, while to the north the 60th parallel north divides it from the Northwest Territories. To the east, the 110th meridian west separates it from the province of Saskatchewan, while on the west its boundary with British Columbia follows the 120th meridian west south from the Northwest Territories at 60°N until it reaches the Continental Divide at the Rocky Mountains, from that point follows the line of peaks marking the Continental Divide in a southeasterly direction until it reaches the Montana border at 49°N.
The province extends 660 km east to west at its maximum width. Its highest point is 3,747 m at the summit of Mount Columbia in the Rocky Mountains along the southwest border while its lowest point is 152 m on the Slave River in Wood Buffalo National Park in the northeast. With the exception of the semi-arid steppe of the south-eastern section, the province has adequate water resources. There are numerous lakes used for swimming, fishing and a range of water sports. There are three large lakes, Lake Claire in Wood Buffalo National Park, Lesser Slave Lake, Lake Athabasca which lies in both Alberta and Saskatchewan; the longest river in the province is the Athabasca River which travels 1,538 km from the Columbia Icefield in the Rocky Mountains to Lake Athabasca. The largest river is the Peace River with an average flow of 2161 m3/s; the Peace River originates in the Rocky Mountains of northern British Columbia and flows through northern Alberta and into the Slave River, a tributary of the Mackenzie River.
Alberta's capital city, Edmonton, is located at about the geographic centre of the province. It is the most northerly major city in Canada, serves as a gateway and hub for resource development in northern Canada; the region, with its proximity to Canada's largest oil fields, has most of western Canada's oil refinery capacity. Calgary is about 280 km south of Edmonton and 240 km north of Montana, surrounded by extensive ranching country. 75% of the province's population lives in the Calgary–Edmonton Corridor. The land grant policy to the railroads served as a means to populate the province in its early years. Most of the northern half of the province is boreal forest, while the Rocky Mountains along the southwestern boundary are forested; the southern quarter of the province is prairie, ranging from shortgrass prairie in the southeastern corner to mixed grass prairie in an arc to the west and north of it. The central aspen parkland region extending in a broad arc between the prairies and the forests, from Calgary, north to Edmonton, east to Lloydminster, contains the most fertile soil in the province and most of the population.
Much of the unforested part of Alberta is given over either to grain or to dairy farming, with mixed farming more common in the north and centre, while ranching and irrigated agriculture predominate in the south. The Alberta badlands are located in southeastern Alberta, where the Red Deer River crosses the flat prairie and farmland, features deep canyons and striking landforms. Dinosaur Provincial Park, near Brooks, showcases the badlands terrain, desert flora, remnants from Alberta's past when dinosaurs roamed the lush landscape. Alberta has a humid continental climate with cold winters; the province is open to cold arctic weather systems from the north, which produce cold conditions in winter. As the fronts between the air masses shift north and south across Alberta, the temperature can change rapidly. Arctic
Afghanistan the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located in South-Central Asia. Afghanistan is bordered by Pakistan in the south and east, its territory covers 652,000 square kilometers and much of it is covered by the Hindu Kush mountain range, which experiences cold winters. The north consists of fertile plains, while the south-west consists of deserts where temperatures can get hot in summers. Kabul serves as its largest city. Human habitation in Afghanistan dates back to the Middle Paleolithic Era, the country's strategic location along the Silk Road connected it to the cultures of the Middle East and other parts of Asia; the land has been home to various peoples and has witnessed numerous military campaigns, including those by Alexander the Great, Muslim Arabs, British and since 2001 by the United States with NATO-allied countries. It has been called "unconquerable" and nicknamed the "graveyard of empires"; the land served as the source from which the Kushans, Samanids, Ghaznavids, Khaljis, Hotaks and others have risen to form major empires.
The political history of the modern state of Afghanistan began with the Hotak and Durrani dynasties in the 18th century. In the late 19th century, Afghanistan became a buffer state in the "Great Game" between British India and the Russian Empire, its border with British India, the Durand Line, was formed in 1893 but it is not recognized by the Afghan government and it has led to strained relations with Pakistan since the latter's independence in 1947. Following the Third Anglo-Afghan War in 1919 the country was free of foreign influence becoming a monarchy under King Amanullah, until 50 years when Zahir Shah was overthrown and a republic was established. In 1978, after a second coup Afghanistan first became a socialist state and a Soviet Union protectorate; this evoked the Soviet–Afghan War in the 1980s against mujahideen rebels. By 1996 most of Afghanistan was captured by the Islamic fundamentalist group the Taliban, who ruled most of the country as a totalitarian regime for over five years.
The Taliban were forcibly removed by the NATO-led coalition, a new democratically-elected government political structure was formed, but they still control a significant portion of the country. Afghanistan is a unitary presidential Islamic republic with a population of 31 million composed of ethnic Pashtuns, Tajiks and Uzbeks, it is a member of the United Nations, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, the Group of 77, the Economic Cooperation Organization, the Non-Aligned Movement. Afghanistan's economy is the world's 108th largest, with a GDP of $64.08 billion. The name Afghānistān is believed to be as old as the ethnonym Afghan, documented in the 10th-century geography book Hudud ul-'alam; the root name "Afghan" was used in reference to a member of the ethnic Pashtuns, the suffix "-stan" means "place of" in Persian. Therefore, Afghanistan translates to land of the Afghans or, more in a historical sense, to land of the Pashtuns. However, the modern Constitution of Afghanistan states that "he word Afghan shall apply to every citizen of Afghanistan."
Excavations of prehistoric sites by Louis Dupree and others suggest that humans were living in what is now Afghanistan at least 50,000 years ago, that farming communities in the area were among the earliest in the world. An important site of early historical activities, many believe that Afghanistan compares to Egypt in terms of the historical value of its archaeological sites; the country sits at a unique nexus point where numerous civilizations have interacted and fought. It has been home to various peoples through the ages, among them the ancient Iranian peoples who established the dominant role of Indo-Iranian languages in the region. At multiple points, the land has been incorporated within large regional empires, among them the Achaemenid Empire, the Macedonian Empire, the Indian Maurya Empire, the Islamic Empire. Many empires and kingdoms have risen to power in Afghanistan, such as the Greco-Bactrians, Hephthalites, Kabul Shahis, Samanids, Ghurids, Kartids, Timurids and the Hotak and Durrani dynasties that marked the political origins of the modern state.
Archaeological exploration done in the 20th century suggests that the geographical area of Afghanistan has been connected by culture and trade with its neighbors to the east and north. Artifacts typical of the Paleolithic, Neolithic and Iron ages have been found in Afghanistan. Urban civilization is believed to have begun as early as 3000 BCE, the early city of Mundigak may have been a colony of the nearby Indus Valley Civilization. More recent findings established that the Indus Valley Civilisation stretched up towards modern-day Afghanistan, making the ancient civilisation today part of Pakistan and India. In more detail, it extended from what today is northwest Pakistan to northwest India and northeast Afghanistan. An Indus Valley site has been found on the Oxus River at Shortugai in northern Afghanistan. There are several smaller IVC colonies to be found in Afghanistan as well. After 2000 BCE, successive waves of semi-nomadic
Hameau de la Reine
The Hameau de la Reine is a rustic retreat in the park of the Château de Versailles built for Marie Antoinette in 1783 near the Petit Trianon in Yvelines, France. It served as a private meeting place for a place of leisure. Designed by the Queen's favoured architect, Richard Mique with the help of the painter Hubert Robert, it contained a meadowland with lakes and streams, a classical Temple of Love on an island with fragrant shrubs and flowers, an octagonal belvedere, with a neighbouring grotto and cascade. There are various buildings in a rustic or vernacular style, inspired by Norman or Flemish design, situated around an irregular pond fed by a stream that turned a mill wheel; the building scheme included a farmhouse, a dairy, a dovecote, a boudoir, a barn that burned down during the French Revolution, a mill and a tower in the form of a lighthouse. Each building is decorated with an orchard or a flower garden; the largest and most famous of these houses is the "Queen's House", connected to the Billiard house by a wooden gallery, at the center of the village.
A working farm was close to the fantasy-like setting of the Queen's Hamlet. The hameau is the best-known of a series of rustic garden constructions built at the time, notably the Prince of Condé's Hameau de Chantilly, the inspiration for the Versailles hamlet; such model farms, operating under principles espoused by the Physiocrats, were fashionable among the French aristocracy at the time. One primary purpose of the hameau was to add to the ambiance of the Petit Trianon, giving the illusion that it was deep in the countryside rather than within the confines of Versailles; the rooms at the hameau allowed for more intimacy than the grand salons at Versailles or at the Petit Trianon. Abandoned after the French Revolution, it is open to the public. Inspired by a wave of naturalism in art and garden design, the Hameau de la Reine was constructed between 1782 and 1783; the garden surroundings of the Petit Trianon, of which the hameau de la Reine is an extension, began their transformation from formal pattern gardens.
Under Louis XV it had been an arboretum and the new arrangements eliminated this famous botanical garden, replacing it with a more informal "natural" garden of winding paths, curving canals and lakes under the direction of Antoine Richard, gardener to the Queen. Richard Mique modified the landscape design to provide vistas of lawn to west and north of the Petit Trianon, encircled by belts of trees. Beyond the lake to the north, the hameau was sited like a garden stage set inspired in its grouping and vernacular building by Dutch and Flemish genre paintings, philosophically influenced by Rousseau's cult of "nature", reflecting contemporary picturesque garden principles set forth by Claude-Henri Watelet and by ideas of the philosophes, their "radical notions co-opted into innocent forms of pleasure and ingenious decoration" as William Adams has pointed out. Artists played a more direct role in French picturesque than they had done in England, as can be seen by Hubert Robert's involvement; the stylistic design of the Hameau de la Reine was influenced by the hameau de Chantilly, a rustic "village" with half-timbered façades and reed-thatched roofs.
A wave of naturalism and an affinity towards the "simple" life was sweeping across France in the 18th century. French aristocrats loved to act like shepherds and shepherdesses, while still enjoying the comforts of their social position; this idealism of the natural life came from the influential works of Jean Jacques Rousseau, who emphasized Nature. The hamlet seemed rustic and natural from the outside, while the Rococo interior provided the desired comfort and luxury of the Queen and her friends; the Petit Trianon built for Madame de Pompadour under the reign of Louis XV, was a private domain. Encircling the Petit Trianon was the Jardin Anglais, a wilder style of garden that arose in response to traditional French manicured gardens; the Hamlet is built in a hybrid architectural style. A combination of Norman and French styles came together to create the village full of sylvan charm. Norman, the cottages have half-timbered façades and reed coverings; the brick, "sparrow-stepped" gables and the stained glass windows are distinctly Flemish.
The roofs covered with dormer windows and the plaster-covered façades, were native to France. The French architect Richard Mique designed and built the Hamlet with the garden in mind, it is an extension of the Jardin Anglais, his buildings lend themselves to the surrounding landscape in their arrangement around a small lake, giving the illusion of a perfect and functioning village. The barn used as a ballroom, was destroyed during the French Revolution, while the rest of the houses survived the tumultuous period of French history. Courtiers at the Palace of Versailles surrounded Marie Antoinette, leaving her in need of a refuge, she escaped the responsibilities and structure of court life to her private estate. The Hamlet was part of Marie Antoinette’s estate, she enjoyed dressing as a young shepherdess or milkmaid and acting like a peasant, while surrounded by the comforts of a royal lifestyle; this unintentional mockery of the economically depressed French peasants helped build the resentment towards the monarchy among the French people leading to the French Revolution.
While still in power, Marie Antoinette enjoyed acting as a tableau vivant, as if she were part of a painting. She brought her idyllic, picturesque village to life
Louis Joseph, Prince of Condé
Louis Joseph de Bourbon was Prince of Condé from 1740 to his death. A member of the House of Bourbon, he held the prestigious rank of Prince du Sang. Born on 9 August 1736 at Chantilly, Louis Joseph was the only son of Louis Henri I, Prince of Condé and Landgravine Caroline of Hesse-Rotenburg; as a cadet of the reigning House of Bourbon, he was a prince. His father Louis Henri, was the eldest son of Louis de Bourbon, Prince of Condé and his wife Louise Françoise de Bourbon, legitimated daughter of Louis XIV and Madame de Montespan. During his father's lifetime, the infant Louis Joseph was known as the Duke of Enghien. At the age of four, following his father's death in 1740, his mother's death in 1741, he was placed under the care of his paternal uncle, Count of Clermont, his father's youngest brother. Louis Joseph had Henriette de Bourbon, Mademoiselle de Verneuil. Through his mother, he was a first cousin of King Victor Amadeus III of Sardinia and of Marie Thérèse of Savoy, Princess de Lamballe.
His paternal cousins included Louise Henriette de Bourbon, Duchess of Orléans, the sister of Louis François de Bourbon, Prince of Conti, head of another cadet branch of the royal dynasty. Viktoria of Hesse-Rotenburg, the Princess of Soubise, was another first cousin. Louis Joseph married Charlotte de Rohan in 1753, the daughter of the French king Louis XV's friend, Charles de Rohan, Prince of Soubise. Charlotte's mother, Anne Marie Louise de La Tour d'Auvergne, was a daughter of Emmanuel Théodose de La Tour d'Auvergne, the reigning Duke of Bouillon; the couple were married at Versailles on 3 May 1753. Together, they had three children: Marie de Bourbon, who died young. In 1770, his son married Bathilde d'Orléans, daughter of Louis Philippe I, Duke of Orléans, sister of Philippe Égalité; the marriage was supposed to heal relations between the Condé and Orléans branches of the royal family. Louis Joseph's wife Charlotte died in 1760, as time passed, his relationship with Maria Caterina Brignole, Princess of Monaco, became serious.
Maria was the daughter of Marquis of Groppoli and Maria Anna Balbi. By 1769, Maria had begun to set up a home in the Hôtel de Lassay, an annex of the Prince of Condé's primary residence, the Palais Bourbon. In 1770, her jealous husband, Honoré III, Prince of Monaco, ordered the borders of Monaco closed in an attempt to prevent her from escaping, she managed, nonetheless, to cross into France and found her way to Le Mans, southwest of Paris, where she took refuge in a convent. She was able to return to Paris. Due to Maria Caterina's illicit position as the Prince of Condé's mistress, the new French queen, 18-year-old Marie Antoinette, treated her poorly at court, which offended Louis Joseph. In about 1774, Louis Joseph and his mistress Maria began the construction of the Hôtel de Monaco, to be her permanent home in Paris, it was in the rue Saint-Dominique, near the Palais Bourbon, was completed in 1777. Subsequently, Prince Honoré of Monaco realized his relationship with Maria Caterina was finished and thereupon turned his attention to his own love affairs.
Maria Caterina wrote to her husband that their marriage could be summarised in three words: greed and jealousy. During both the reigns of King Louis XV and his grandson, King Louis XVI, Louis Joseph held the position of Grand Maître de France in the King's royal household, the Maison du Roi. Obtaining the rank of general, he fought in the Seven Years' War with some distinction, serving alongside his father-in-law, the Prince of Soubise, he was Governor of Burgundy. Furthermore, the Prince was the leader of the Condé army of émigrés, he used her great fortune to help finance the exiled French community's resistance movement. In 1765, named the heir of his paternal aunt, Élisabeth Alexandrine de Bourbon, Louis Joseph received generous pensions which Élisabeth Alexandrine had in turn acquired from her cousin, Louise-Françoise de Bourbon. In that same year, Louis Joseph repurchased the Palais Bourbon owned by his family, from King Louis XV, decided to rebuild it from a country house into a monumental palace, in the new Classical Revival style.
With this in mind, he purchased the neighboring Hôtel de Lassay in 1768, planning to make the two buildings into one. However, the palace was only finished at the end of the 1780s, when the French Revolution swept away the old regime, he moved from the Hôtel de Condé, where he was born, to the Palais Bourbon. The former residence was sold to King Louis XV in 1770, becoming the subsequent site of the Odéon Theatre. Among other estates, Louis Joseph inherited the famous Château de Chantilly, the main seat of the Condé line. At Chantilly, the prince conducted a number of improvements and embellishments in the years before the French Revolution, he had the Château d'Enghien built on the grounds of the estate to house guests when the prince entertained at Chantilly. It was constructed in 1769 by the architect, Jean François Leroy, was renamed the Château d'Enghien in honour of his grandson, Louis Antoine de Bourbon, Duke of Enghien, born at Chantilly in 1772, he commissioned a large garden in the English style as well as an hameau, much like the contemporary one that Queen Marie Antoinette had created at Versailles and at the Petit Trianon château.
Louis Joseph lived with his mistress Maria in France until the French revolution, when the couple left for Germany and Great