A hamlet is a small or small human settlement. In different jurisdictions and geographies, a hamlet may be the size of a town, village or parish, or may be considered to be a smaller settlement or subdivision or satellite entity to a larger settlement; the word and concept of a hamlet have roots in the Anglo-Norman settlement of England, where the old French hamlet came to apply to small human settlements. In British geography, a hamlet is considered smaller than a village and distinctly without a church or other place of worship; the word comes from Anglo-Norman hamelet, corresponding to Old French hamelet, the diminutive of Old French hamel. This, in turn, is a diminutive of Old French ham borrowed from Franconian languages. Compare with modern French hameau, Dutch heem, German Heim, Old English hām and Modern English home. In Afghanistan, the counterpart of the hamlet is the qala meaning "fort" or "hamlet"; the Afghan qala is a fortified group of houses with its own community building such as a mosque, but without its own marketplace.
The qala is the smallest type of settlement in Afghan society, outsized by the village, larger and includes a commercial area. In Canada's three territories, hamlets are designated municipalities; as of January 1, 2010: Northwest Territories had 11 hamlets, each of which had a population of less than 900 people as of the 2016 census. In Canada's provinces, hamlets are small unincorporated communities within a larger municipality, such as many communities within the single-tier municipalities of Ontario or within Alberta's specialized and rural municipalities. Canada's two largest hamlets—Fort McMurray and Sherwood Park—are located in Alberta, they each have populations, within their main urban area, in excess of 60,000—well in excess of the 10,000-person threshold that can choose to incorporate as a city in Alberta. As such, these two hamlets have been further designated by the Province of Alberta as urban service areas. An urban service area is recognized as equivalent to a city for the purposes of provincial and federal program delivery and grant eligibility.
During the 18th century, for rich or noble people, it was fashionable to create their own hameau in their gardens. They were a group of some houses or farms with rustic appearance, but in fact were comfortable; the best known is the Hameau de la Reine built by the queen Marie-Antoinette in the park of the Château de Versailles. Or the Hameau de Chantilly built by Prince of Condé in Chantilly, Oise. Lieu-dit is another name for hamlet; the difference is that a hamlet is permanently inhabited. The German word for hamlet is Weiler. A Weiler has, compared to no infrastructure. There are hamlets with churches, these are called "Kirchweiler"; the houses and farms of a Weiler can be scattered. In North West Germany, a group of scattered farms is called Bauernschaft. In a Weiler there are no street names, the houses are just numbered. In different states of India, there are different words for hamlet. In Haryana and Rajasthan it is called "dhani" or "Thok". In Gujarat a hamlet is called a "nesada". In Maharashtra it's called a "pada".
In southern Bihar in the Magadh division, a hamlet is called a "bigha". All over Indonesia, hamlets are translated as kampung, they are known as dusun in Central Java and East Java, banjar in Bali, jorong or kampuang in West Sumatra. In Pakistan a hamlet is called a gron. In Poland a hamlet is called osada, is a small rural settlement differing by type of buildings or inhabited by population connected with some place or workplace, it can be a part of other settlement, like village. In Romania hamlets are called cătunuri, they represent villages that contain several houses at most, they are considered villages, statistically, they are placed in the same category. Like villages, they do not have a separate administration, thus are not an administrative division, but are part of a parent commune. In the Russian language there are several words which mean "a hamlet", but all of them are equal; the most common word is деревня. The once common Russian word хутор for the smallest type of rural settlement is now obsolete.
A hamlet in Russia has a church, some little shops, a school and a local culture center, in which different culture events and national holidays take place. A hamlet in Russia consists of several tens of wooden houses. In the past hamlets were the most common kind of settlement in Russia, but nowadays many hamlets in Russia are settled only
Enrique Beotas López, was a Spanish journalist. He had a Degree in Advertising from the Complutense University of Madrid. Among other positions, throughout his professional career, always around the different aspects of communication, he was General Technical Coordinator of the Municipal Tourism Board of the Madrid City Council during the mayor's office of Enrique Tierno Galván, Founder and Head of the Office of Information of People's Alliance, General Technical Coordinator of social media of the People's Party and Director of Communication of the electoral campaign of Manuel Fraga in Galicia, he was General Director of the corporate advertising division of YR, General Director of Capital Image, Account Director of Burson Marsteller, Director of External Relations of Antena 3, Deputy General Director of Communication and Institutional Relations of the radio group Onda Cero, Director of Relationships Institutional and Corporate of "Unidad Editorial", General Director of Institutional Relations and Corporate Responsibility of the Acciona Group and Founder of the Quator Group and Vice President of the "Federation of Professional Associations of Radio and Television".
He collaborated in print media such as Marca, Ya, La Información de Madrid, El Mundo, La Razón', Grupo Promecal or El Correo Gallego, as well as magazines such as Actualidad Española, Ronda Iberia or Gaceta Ilustrada, among many others. He is the creator of La Rebotica, a socio-health radio program, with more than 20 years of success on radio stations such as: Onda Cero Radio,'Radio España','Radio Voz', Cadena SER, Cadena COPE,'Punto Radio','Gestiona Radio','Live Radio' or'Radio Obradoiro', he is the creator of Autor Autor, a radio program dedicated to Spanish creators, which in 2008, the Ministry of Culture granted the National Prize for the Promotion of Reading. He is the author and editor of the trilogy composed Por las Puertas de Madrid, Los Parques de Madrid and Madrid no te Olvida, he has authored titles such as Sonatine pour Ivette and Manuel Fraga: Cuaderno de notas de una vida. He is co-author of Los Pasos de Canogar. Has written and edited Lamazares: Apuntes Intimimos, Modesto Seara: la mirada universal, Gerardo Fernández Albor: la elegancia del compromiso and Carlos Moor: las raíces de un sueño that in 2014 was awarded at the prestigious Gourmand Awards.
In collaboration with El Correo Gallego, where his A Modiño interviews appeared every Saturday, he published 10 volumes of the Galicia Sixth Province collection, which includes his more than 300 conversations with Galician notables spread all over the world. He is co-author and editor of the interview book Authors of Life, he edited three installments of Ser Extremeño, seven from Castellanos y Leoneses por Derecho, five from Médicos de Rebotica, all of them co-authorshiped with various authors. He edited the book Virtuosos del Fogón as well as 15 installments of the collection Cuentos de Rebotica. On 24 July 2013, the train driver of an Alvia 730 train travelling to Ferrol, from Madrid took a curve well above the posted speed limit, derailed near Santiago de Compostela killing 80 people and injuring more than 140, he was one of the victims. Posthumously his latest work published, is Jose Manuel Romay Beccaria: The Permanent Equilibrium, which could not finish because of the accident, he received posthumously the Medal of Galicia, the highest medal in that region
The International Building Performance Simulation Association, is a non-profit international society of building performance simulation researchers and practitioners, dedicated to improving the built environment. IBPSA aims to provide a forum for researchers and practitioners to review building model developments, encourage the use of software programs, address standardization, accelerate integration and technology transfer, via exchange of knowledge and organization of national conferences. IBPSA is an international organization with regional affiliate organizations around the world. IBPSA is governed by a board of directors elected by the membership of all the regional affiliates. In addition to the president, vice-president and treasurer, the board is made up of members-at-large and representatives sent by the regional affiliates. IbpsaNEWS, IBPSA's online newsletter is published twice per year; the current edition and past issues are available at the IBPSA website. IBPSA is organizer of the bi-annual international IBPSA Building Simulation Conference and Exhibition.
Building Simulation is the premier international event in the field of building performance simulation. In addition to the international conferences, some regional affiliates organize local conferences, as well. All papers presented in the proceedings of these conferences are available at IBPSA's website; the Journal of Building Performance Simulation is the official peer-reviewed scientific journal of the International Building Performance Simulation Association. JBPS publishes articles of the highest quality that are original, cutting-edge, well-researched and of significance to the international community; the journal offers a forum for original review papers and researched case studies. JBPS is published by Taylor & Francis Group, co-edited by dr. Jan Hensen and dr. Ian Beausoleil-Morrison. There are two books that have been formally endorsed by IBPSA: Building Performance Simulation for Design and Operation Building Performance Analysis. Membership of IBPSA is organized through regional affiliates.
These affiliates plan and coordinate different types of activities, such as conferences, software workshops, etc. There are 28 regional IBPSA affiliates, spanning 5 continents: Argentina, Brazil, China, Czech Republic, Egypt, France, India, Italy, Korea, Netherlands + Flanders, Poland, Singapore, Spain, Turkey, United Arab Emirates and USA. IBPSA has partnered with ASHRAE and IESNA to develop the Building Energy Modeling Professional Certification scheme. In addition, IBPSA is supporter of mailing lists and question-and-answer websites that stimulation knowledge exchange and discussion among users of building performance simulation in research and practice. Recipients of the IBPSA Distinguished Achievement Award: 1991 Gint Mitalas 1993 Tamami Kusuda 1995 George Walton 1997 Jean Le Brun 1999 Joe Clarke 2001 Ed Sowell 2003 Curt Pedersen 2005 Fred Winkelmann 2007 Yi Jiang 2009 Terence J Williamson 2011 Tom Maver 2013 Qingyan Chen 2015 Godfried Augenbroe 2017 Ardeshir Mahdavi Air Infiltration and Ventilation Centre ASHRAE Building performance simulation Building performance CIBSE