Hammer throw

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Scottish hammer throw illustration from Frank R.Stockton's book "Round-about Rambles in Lands of Fact and Fancy"
The traditional Highland games version of event
The contemporary version of the hammer throw
World Athletics Championships 2007 in Osaka - Victory Ceremony for Hammer Throw with winner Ivan Tsikhan (middle)
Irish born American John Flanagan in the hammer throw competition at the Summer Olympics 1908 in London

The hammer throw is one of the four throwing events in regular track and field competitions, along with the discus throw, shot put and javelin. The "hammer" used in this sport is not like any of the tools also called by that name. It consists of a metal ball attached by a steel wire to a grip. The size of the ball varies between men's and women's competitions (see Competition section below for details).

Men's Hammer Throw Final - 28th Summer Universiade 2015
Safety net for hammer throw

History[edit]

With roots dating back to the 15th century, the contemporary version of the hammer throw is one of the oldest of Olympic Games competitions, first included at the 1900 games in Paris, France (the second Olympiad of the modern era). Its history since the late 1960s and legacy prior to inclusion in the Olympics have been dominated by European and Eastern European influence, which has affected interest in the event in other parts of the world.

The hammer evolved from its early informal origins to become part of the Scottish Highland games in the late 18th century, where the original version of the event is still contested today.

While the men's hammer throw has been part of the Olympics since 1900, the International Association of Athletics Federations did not start ratifying women's marks until 1995. Women's hammer throw was first included in the Olympics at the 2000 summer games in Sydney, Australia, after having been included in the World Championships a year earlier.

Competition[edit]

The men's hammer weighs 16 pounds (7.26 kg) and measures 3 feet 11 34 inches (121.3 cm) in length, and the women's hammer weighs 8.82 lb (4 kg) and 3 ft 11 in (119.4 cm) in length.[1] Like the other throwing events, the competition is decided by who can throw the implement the farthest.

Although commonly thought of as a strength event, technical advancements in the last 30 years have evolved hammer throw competition to a point where more focus is on speed in order to gain maximum distance.

The throwing motion involves about two swings from stationary position, then three, four or very rarely five rotations of the body in circular motion using a complicated heel-toe movement of the foot. The ball moves in a circular path, gradually increasing in velocity with each turn with the high point of the hammer ball toward the target sector and the low point at the back of the circle. The thrower releases the ball from the front of the circle.

As of 2015 the men's hammer world record is held by Yuriy Sedykh, who threw 86.74 m (284 ft 6​34 in) at the 1986 European Athletics Championships in Stuttgart, West Germany on 30 August.

The world record for the women's hammer is held by Anita Włodarczyk, who threw 82.98 m (272 ft 2​34 in) during the Kamila Skolimowska Memorial on 28 August 2016.

All-time top 25[edit]

Men[edit]

  • Updated August 2015
Rank Mark Athlete Location Date Ref
1 86.74 m (284 ft 6​34 in)  Yuriy Sedykh (SUN) Stuttgart 30 August 1986
2 86.04 m (282 ft 3​14 in)  Sergey Litvinov (SUN) Dresden 3 July 1986
3 84.90 m (278 ft 6​12 in)  Vadim Devyatovskiy (BLR) Minsk 21 July 2005
4 84.86 m (278 ft 4​34 in)  Koji Murofushi (JPN) Prague 29 June 2003
5 84.62 m (277 ft 7​14 in)  Igor Astapkovich (BLR) Seville 6 June 1992
6 84.51 m (277 ft 3 in)  Ivan Tsikhan (BLR) Grodno 9 July 2008
7 84.48 m (277 ft 1​34 in)  Igor Nikulin (SUN) Lausanne 12 July 1990
8 84.40 m (276 ft 10​34 in)  Jüri Tamm (SUN) Banská Bystrica 9 September 1984
9 84.19 m (276 ft 2​12 in)  Adrián Annus (HUN) Szombathely 10 August 2003
10 83.93 m (275 ft 4​14 in)  Paweł Fajdek (POL) Szczecin 9 August 2015 [2]
11 83.68 m (274 ft 6​14 in)  Tibor Gécsek (HUN) Zalaegerszeg 19 September 1998
12 83.46 m (273 ft 9​34 in)  Andrey Abduvaliyev (SUN) Sochi 26 May 1990
13 83.43 m (273 ft 8​12 in)  Aleksey Zagornyi (RUS) Adler 10 February 2002
14 83.40 m (273 ft 7​14 in)  Ralf Haber (DDR) Athens 16 May 1988
15 83.38 m (273 ft 6​12 in)  Szymon Ziółkowski (POL) Edmonton 5 August 2001
16 83.30 m (273 ft 3​12 in)  Olli-Pekka Karjalainen (FIN) Lahti 14 July 2004
17 83.04 m (272 ft 5​14 in)  Heinz Weis (DEU) Frankfurt 29 June 1997
18 83.00 m (272 ft 3​12 in)  Balázs Kiss (HUN) Saint-Denis 4 June 1998
19 82.78 m (271 ft 7 in)  Karsten Kobs (DEU) Dortmund 26 June 1999
20 82.69 m (271 ft 3​12 in)  Krisztián Pars (HUN) Zürich 16 August 2014
21 82.64 m (271 ft 1​12 in)  Günther Rodehau (DDR) Dresden 3 August 1985
22 82.62 m (271 ft 0​34 in)  Sergey Kirmasov (RUS) Zalaegerszeg 30 May 1998
82.62 m (271 ft 0​34 in)  Andriy Skvaruk (UKR) Kiev 27 April 2002
24 82.58 m (270 ft 11 in)  Primož Kozmus (SVN) Celje 2 September 2009
25 82.54 m (270 ft 9​12 in)  Vasiliy Sidorenko (RUS) Krasnodar 13 May 1992

Non-legal marks[edit]

  • Ivan Tsikhan of Belarus also threw 86.73 on 3 July 2005 in Brest, but this performance was annulled due to drugs disqualification.

Women[edit]

  • Correct as of June 2018.[3]
Rank Mark Athlete Date Location Ref
1 82.98 m (272 ft 2​34 in)  Anita Włodarczyk (POL) 28 August 2016 Warsaw [4]
2 79.42 m (260 ft 6​34 in)  Betty Heidler (DEU) 21 May 2011 Halle
3 78.80 m (258 ft 6​14 in)  Tatyana Lysenko (RUS) 16 August 2013 Moscow
4 78.12 m (256 ft 3​12 in)  DeAnna Price (USA) 23 June 2018 Des Moines [5]
5 77.78 m (255 ft 2 in)  Gwen Berry (USA) 8 June 2018 Chorzów [6]
6 77.68 m (254 ft 10​14 in)  Zheng Wang (CHN) 29 March 2014 Chengdu
7 77.33 m (253 ft 8​14 in)  Zhang Wenxiu (CHN) 28 September 2014 Incheon
8 77.32 m (253 ft 8 in)  Aksana Miankova (BLR) 29 June 2008 Minsk
9 77.26 m (253 ft 5​12 in)  Gulfiya Agafonova (RUS) 12 June 2006 Tula
10 77.13 m (253 ft 0​12 in)  Oksana Kondratyeva (RUS) 30 June 2013 Zhukovskiy
11 76.90 m (252 ft 3​12 in)  Martina Hrašnová (SVK) 16 May 2009 Trnava
12 76.85 m (252 ft 1​12 in)  Malwina Kopron (POL) 26 August 2017 Taipei [7]
13 76.83 m (252 ft 0​34 in)  Kamila Skolimowska (POL) 11 May 2007 Doha
14 76.72 m (251 ft 8​14 in)  Mariya Bespalova (RUS) 23 June 2012 Zhukovsky
15 76.66 m (251 ft 6 in)  Volha Tsander (BLR) 23 June 2006 Minsk
16 76.63 m (251 ft 4​34 in)  Yekaterina Khoroshikh (RUS) 23 June 2006 Zhukovsky
17 76.62 m (251 ft 4​12 in)  Yipsi Moreno (CUB) 9 September 2008 Zagreb
18 76.56 m (251 ft 2 in)  Alena Matoshka (BLR) 12 June 2012 Minsk
19 76.33 m (250 ft 5 in)  Darya Pchelnik (BLR) 29 June 2008 Minsk
20 76.26 m (250 ft 2​14 in)  Hanna Malyshik (BLR) 27 April 2018 Brest
21 76.21 m (250 ft 0​14 in)  Yelena Konevtseva (RUS) 26 May 2007 Sochi
22 76.17 m (249 ft 10​34 in)  Anna Bulgakova (RUS) 24 July 2013 Moscow
23 76.07 m (249 ft 6​34 in)  Mihaela Melinte (ROU) 29 August 1999 Rüdlingen
24 76.05 m (249 ft 6 in)  Kathrin Klaas (DEU) 10 August 2012 London
25 75.73 m (248 ft 5​14 in)  Amanda Bingson (USA) 22 June 2013 Des Moines
 Sultana Frizell (CAN) 22 May 2014 Tucson

Notes[edit]

The following athletes have had their performances (inside 77.40 m) annulled due to doping offense:

Time Athlete Nation Date Location Ref
78.69 m Aksana Miankova  Belarus 18 July 2012 Minsk
78.19 m Aksana Miankova  Belarus April 2012 Brest

Below is a list of throws equal or superior to 77.40 m:

  • Anita Włodarczyk also threw 82.87 m (2017), 82.29 m (2016), 81.77 m (2016), 81.74 (2016), 81.63 m (2017), 81.27 m (2016), 81.08 m (2015), 80.85 m (2015), 80.79 m (2017), 80.73 m (2017), 80.69 m (2017), 80.42 m (2017), 80.40 m (2016), 80.31 m (2016), 80.26 m (2016), 79.80 m (2017), 79.73 m (2017), 79.72 m (2017), 79.68 m (2016, 2017), 79.67 m (2016), 79.63 m (2017), 79.62 m (2016), 79.61 m (2016), 79.59 m (2018), 79.58 m (2016), 79.48 m (2016), 79.45 m (2016), 79.39 m (2016), 79.27 m (2017), 79.23 m (2017), 79.07 m (2017), 79.06 m (2017), 78.94 m (2018), 78.76 m (2014), 78.74 m (2018), 78.69 m (2016), 78.59 m (2017), 78.55 m (2018), 78.54 m (2016), 78.52 m (2017), 78.46 m (2013), 78.35 m (2017), 78.30 m (2010), 78.28 m (2015), 78.24 m (2015), 78.22 m (2013), 78.17 m (2014), 78.16 m (2015), 78.14 m (2016), 78.10 (2016), 78.00 m (2017), 77.99 m (2017), 77.96 m (2009), 77.82 m (2018), 77.77 m (2017), 77.73 m (2015), 77.70 m (2016), 77.67 m (2017), 77.66 m (2014), 77.60 m (2012).
  • Tatyana Beloborodova also threw 78.51 m (2012), 78.15 m (2013), 77.80 m (2006), 77.41 m (2006).
  • Betty Heidler also threw 78.07 m (2012), 78.00 m (2014), 77.53 m (2011), 77.40 m (2011).
  • DeAnna Price also threw 77.65 m (2018).

Non-legal marks[edit]

Olympic medalists[edit]

Men[edit]

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1900 Paris
details
John Flanagan
 United States
Truxtun Hare
 United States
Josiah McCracken
 United States
1904 St. Louis
details
John Flanagan
 United States
John DeWitt
 United States
Ralph Rose
 United States
1908 London
details
John Flanagan
 United States
Matt McGrath
 United States
Con Walsh
 Canada
1912 Stockholm
details
Matt McGrath
 United States
Duncan Gillis
 Canada
Clarence Childs
 United States
1920 Antwerp
details
Patrick Ryan
 United States
Carl Johan Lind
 Sweden
Basil Bennett
 United States
1924 Paris
details
Fred Tootell
 United States
Matt McGrath
 United States
Malcolm Nokes
 Great Britain
1928 Amsterdam
details
Pat O'Callaghan
 Ireland
Ossian Skiöld
 Sweden
Edmund Black
 United States
1932 Los Angeles
details
Pat O'Callaghan
 Ireland
Ville Pörhölä
 Finland
Peter Zaremba
 United States
1936 Berlin
details
Karl Hein
 Germany
Erwin Blask
 Germany
Fred Warngård
 Sweden
1948 London
details
Imre Németh
 Hungary
Ivan Gubijan
 Yugoslavia
Robert Bennett
 United States
1952 Helsinki
details
József Csermák
 Hungary
Karl Storch
 Germany
Imre Németh
 Hungary
1956 Melbourne
details
Hal Connolly
 United States
Mikhail Krivonosov
 Soviet Union
Anatoliy Samotsvetov
 Soviet Union
1960 Rome
details
Vasily Rudenkov
 Soviet Union
Gyula Zsivótzky
 Hungary
Tadeusz Rut
 Poland
1964 Tokyo
details
Romuald Klim
 Soviet Union
Gyula Zsivótzky
 Hungary
Uwe Beyer
 United Team of Germany
1968 Mexico City
details
Gyula Zsivótzky
 Hungary
Romuald Klim
 Soviet Union
Lázár Lovász
 Hungary
1972 Munich
details
Anatoliy Bondarchuk
 Soviet Union
Jochen Sachse
 East Germany
Vasiliy Khmelevskiy
 Soviet Union
1976 Montreal
details
Yuriy Sedykh
 Soviet Union
Aleksey Spiridonov
 Soviet Union
Anatoliy Bondarchuk
 Soviet Union
1980 Moscow
details
Yuriy Sedykh
 Soviet Union
Sergey Litvinov
 Soviet Union
Jüri Tamm
 Soviet Union
1984 Los Angeles
details
Juha Tiainen
 Finland
Karl-Hans Riehm
 West Germany
Klaus Ploghaus
 West Germany
1988 Seoul
details
Sergey Litvinov
 Soviet Union
Yuriy Sedykh
 Soviet Union
Jüri Tamm
 Soviet Union
1992 Barcelona
details
Andrey Abduvaliyev
 Unified Team
Igor Astapkovich
 Unified Team
Igor Nikulin
 Unified Team
1996 Atlanta
details
Balázs Kiss
 Hungary
Lance Deal
 United States
Oleksandr Krykun
 Ukraine
2000 Sydney
details
Szymon Ziółkowski
 Poland
Nicola Vizzoni
 Italy
Igor Astapkovich
 Belarus
2004 Athens
details
Koji Murofushi
 Japan
Not awarded[8] Eşref Apak
 Turkey
2008 Beijing
details
Primož Kozmus
 Slovenia
Vadim Devyatovskiy
 Belarus[9]
Ivan Tsikhan
 Belarus[9]
2012 London
details
Krisztián Pars
 Hungary
Primož Kozmus
 Slovenia
Koji Murofushi
 Japan
2016 Rio de Janeiro
details
Dilshod Nazarov
 Tajikistan
Ivan Tsikhan
 Belarus
Wojciech Nowicki
 Poland

Women[edit]

Games Gold Silver Bronze
2000 Sydney
details
Kamila Skolimowska
 Poland
Olga Kuzenkova
 Russia
Kirsten Münchow
 Germany
2004 Athens
details
Olga Kuzenkova
 Russia
Yipsi Moreno
 Cuba
Yunaika Crawford
 Cuba
2008 Beijing
details
Yipsi Moreno
 Cuba
Zhang Wenxiu
 China
Manuela Montebrun
 France
2012 London
details
Anita Włodarczyk
 Poland
Betty Heidler
 Germany
Zhang Wenxiu
 China
2016 Rio de Janeiro
details
Anita Włodarczyk
 Poland
Zhang Wenxiu
 China
Sophie Hitchon
 Great Britain

World Championships medalists[edit]

Men[edit]

Championships Gold Silver Bronze
1983 Helsinki
details
 Sergey Litvinov (URS)  Yuriy Sedykh (URS)  Zdzisław Kwaśny (POL)
1987 Rome
details
 Sergey Litvinov (URS)  Jüri Tamm (URS)  Ralf Haber (GDR)
1991 Tokyo
details
 Yuriy Sedykh (URS)  Igor Astapkovich (URS)  Heinz Weis (GER)
1993 Stuttgart
details
 Andrey Abduvaliyev (TJK)  Igor Astapkovich (BLR)  Tibor Gécsek (HUN)
1995 Gothenburg
details
 Andrey Abduvaliyev (TJK)  Igor Astapkovich (BLR)  Tibor Gécsek (HUN)
1997 Athens
details
 Heinz Weis (GER)  Andriy Skvaruk (UKR)  Vasiliy Sidorenko (RUS)
1999 Seville
details
 Karsten Kobs (GER)  Zsolt Németh (HUN)  Vladyslav Piskunov (UKR)
2001 Edmonton
details
 Szymon Ziółkowski (POL)  Koji Murofushi (JPN)  Ilya Konovalov (RUS)
2003 Saint-Denis
details
 Ivan Tsikhan (BLR)  Adrián Annus (HUN)  Koji Murofushi (JPN)
2005 Helsinki
details
 Szymon Ziółkowski (POL)  Markus Esser (GER)  Olli-Pekka Karjalainen (FIN)
2007 Osaka
details
 Ivan Tsikhan (BLR)  Primož Kozmus (SLO)  Libor Charfreitag (SVK)
2009 Berlin
details
 Primož Kozmus (SLO)  Szymon Ziółkowski (POL)  Aleksey Zagornyi (RUS)
2011 Daegu
details
 Koji Murofushi (JPN)  Krisztián Pars (HUN)  Primož Kozmus (SLO)
2013 Moscow
details
 Paweł Fajdek (POL)  Krisztián Pars (HUN)  Lukáš Melich (CZE)
2015 Beijing
details
 Paweł Fajdek (POL)  Dilshod Nazarov (TJK)  Wojciech Nowicki (POL)
2017 London
details
 Paweł Fajdek (POL)  Valeriy Pronkin (ANA)  Wojciech Nowicki (POL)

Women[edit]

Championships Gold Silver Bronze
1999 Seville
details
 Mihaela Melinte (ROU)  Olga Kuzenkova (RUS)  Lisa Misipeka (ASA)
2001 Edmonton
details
 Yipsi Moreno (CUB)  Olga Kuzenkova (RUS)  Bronwyn Eagles (AUS)
2003 Saint-Denis
details
 Yipsi Moreno (CUB)  Olga Kuzenkova (RUS)  Manuela Montebrun (FRA)
2005 Helsinki
details
 Yipsi Moreno (CUB)  Tatyana Lysenko (RUS)  Manuela Montebrun (FRA)
2007 Osaka
details
 Betty Heidler (GER)  Yipsi Moreno (CUB)  Zhang Wenxiu (CHN)
2009 Berlin
details
 Anita Włodarczyk (POL)  Betty Heidler (GER)  Martina Hrašnová (SVK)
2011 Daegu
details
 Tatyana Lysenko (RUS)  Betty Heidler (GER)  Zhang Wenxiu (CHN)
2013 Moscow
details
 Tatyana Lysenko (RUS)  Anita Włodarczyk (POL)  Zhang Wenxiu (CHN)
2015 Beijing
details
 Anita Włodarczyk (POL)  Zhang Wenxiu (CHN)  Alexandra Tavernier (FRA)
2017 London
details
 Anita Włodarczyk (POL)  Wang Zheng (CHN)  Malwina Kopron (POL)

Season's bests[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ "Hammer Throw - Introduction". IAAF. Retrieved 12 December 2011. 
  2. ^ Phil Minshull (9 August 2015). "Fajdek throws 83.93m in Szczecin". IAAF. Retrieved 10 August 2015. 
  3. ^ "All-time women's best hammer throw". IAAF. 7 May 2017. Retrieved 7 May 2017. 
  4. ^ "Wlodarczyk extends hammer world record in Warsaw". IAAF. 28 August 2016. Retrieved 28 August 2016. 
  5. ^ Roy Jordan (24 June 2018). "Price breaks North American hammer record on third day of US Championships". IAAF. Retrieved 24 June 2018. 
  6. ^ Jon Mulkeen (8 June 2018). "Berry and Nowicki topple hammer favourites in Chorzow". IAAF. Retrieved 11 June 2018. 
  7. ^ "Women's Hammer Final Results" (PDF). 2017.taipei. 26 August 2017. Retrieved 26 August 2017. 
  8. ^ 2004 Olympic Hammer Throw Medalists. Olympic.org. Retrieved on 2014-04-19.
  9. ^ a b Engeler, Elaine (June 10, 2010). "CAS Reinstates Medals for Hammer Throwers". Yahoo! Sports. Associated Press. Retrieved 2010-06-15. 

External links[edit]