Hammurabi was the sixth king of the First Babylonian dynasty of the Amorite tribe reigning from c. 1792 BC to c. 1750 BC. He was preceded by Sin-Muballit, who abdicated due to failing health. During his reign, he conquered Elam and the city-states of Larsa and Mari, he ousted Ishme-Dagan I, the king of Assyria, forced his son Mut-Ashkur to pay tribute, bringing all of Mesopotamia under Babylonian rule. Hammurabi is best known for having issued the Code of Hammurabi, which he claimed to have received from Shamash, the Babylonian god of justice. Unlike earlier Sumerian law codes, such as the Code of Ur-Nammu, which had focused on compensating the victim of the crime, the Law of Hammurabi was one of the first law codes to place greater emphasis on the physical punishment of the perpetrator, it prescribed specific penalties for each crime and is among the first codes to establish the presumption of innocence. Although its penalties are harsh by modern standards, they were intended to limit what a wronged person was permitted to do in retribution.
The Code of Hammurabi and the Law of Moses in the Torah contain numerous similarities. Hammurabi was seen by many as a god within his own lifetime. After his death, Hammurabi was revered as a great conqueror who spread civilization and forced all peoples to pay obeisance to Marduk, the national god of the Babylonians, his military accomplishments became de-emphasized and his role as the ideal lawgiver became the primary aspect of his legacy. For Mesopotamians, Hammurabi's reign became the frame of reference for all events occurring in the distant past. After the empire he built collapsed, he was still revered as a model ruler, many kings across the Near East claimed him as an ancestor. Hammurabi was rediscovered by archaeologists in the late nineteenth century and has since become seen as an important figure in the history of law. Hammurabi was an Amorite First Dynasty king of the city-state of Babylon, inherited the power from his father, Sin-Muballit, in c. 1792 BC. Babylon was one of the many Amorite ruled city-states that dotted the central and southern Mesopotamian plains and waged war on each other for control of fertile agricultural land.
Though many cultures co-existed in Mesopotamia, Babylonian culture gained a degree of prominence among the literate classes throughout the Middle East under Hammurabi. The kings who came before Hammurabi had founded a minor City State in 1894 BC, which controlled little territory outside of the city itself. Babylon was overshadowed by older and more powerful kingdoms such as Elam, Isin and Larsa for a century or so after its founding. However, his father Sin-Muballit had begun to consolidate rule of a small area of south central Mesopotamia under Babylonian hegemony and, by the time of his reign, had conquered the minor city-states of Borsippa and Sippar, thus Hammurabi ascended to the throne as the king of a minor kingdom in the midst of a complex geopolitical situation. The powerful kingdom of Eshnunna controlled the upper Tigris River while Larsa controlled the river delta. To the east of Mesopotamia lay the powerful kingdom of Elam, which invaded and forced tribute upon the small states of southern Mesopotamia.
In northern Mesopotamia, the Assyrian king Shamshi-Adad I, who had inherited centuries old Assyrian colonies in Asia Minor, had expanded his territory into the Levant and central Mesopotamia, although his untimely death would somewhat fragment his empire. The first few years of Hammurabi's reign were quite peaceful. Hammurabi used his power to undertake a series of public works, including heightening the city walls for defensive purposes, expanding the temples. In c. 1801 BC, the powerful kingdom of Elam, which straddled important trade routes across the Zagros Mountains, invaded the Mesopotamian plain. With allies among the plain states, Elam attacked and destroyed the kingdom of Eshnunna, destroying a number of cities and imposing its rule on portions of the plain for the first time. In order to consolidate its position, Elam tried to start a war between Hammurabi's Babylonian kingdom and the kingdom of Larsa. Hammurabi and the king of Larsa made an alliance when they discovered this duplicity and were able to crush the Elamites, although Larsa did not contribute to the military effort.
Angered by Larsa's failure to come to his aid, Hammurabi turned on that southern power, thus gaining control of the entirety of the lower Mesopotamian plain by c. 1763 BC. As Hammurabi was assisted during the war in the south by his allies from the north such as Yamhad and Mari, the absence of soldiers in the north led to unrest. Continuing his expansion, Hammurabi turned his attention northward, quelling the unrest and soon after crushing Eshnunna. Next the Babylonian armies conquered the remaining northern states, including Babylon's former ally Mari, although it is possible that the conquest of Mari was a surrender without any actual conflict. Hammurabi entered into a protracted war with Ishme-Dagan I of Assyria for control of Mesopotamia, with both kings making alliances with minor states in order to gain the upper hand. Hammurabi prevailed, ousting Ishme-Dagan I just before his own death. Mut-Ashkur, the new king of Assyria, was forced to pay tribute to Hammurabi. In just a few years, Hammurabi succeeded in uniting all of Mesopotamia under his rule.
The Assyrian kingdom survived but was forced to pay tribute during his reign, of the major city-states in the region, only Aleppo and Qatna to the west in the Levant maintained their independence. However, one stele of Hammurabi has been found as far north as Diyarbekir, where he claims the title "King of the Amorites". Vast numbers of contrac
Hari Seldon is a fictional character in Isaac Asimov's Foundation series. In his capacity as mathematics professor at Streeling University on the planet Trantor, Seldon develops psychohistory, an algorithmic science that allows him to predict the future in probabilistic terms. On the basis of his psychohistory he is able to predict the eventual fall of the Galactic Empire and to develop a means to shorten the millennia of chaos to follow; the significance of his discoveries lies behind his nickname "Raven" Seldon. In the first five books of the Foundation series, Hari Seldon made only one in-the-flesh appearance, in the first part of the first book, although he did appear at other times in pre-recorded messages to reveal a "Seldon Crisis". After writing five books in chronological order, Asimov went back in time and added two books to expand on the genesis of psychohistory; the two prequels—Prelude to Foundation and Forward the Foundation—describe Seldon's life in considerable detail. He is the central character of the Second Foundation Trilogy written after Asimov's death, which are set after Asimov's two prequels.
Galactic Empire First Minister and psychohistorian Hari Seldon was born in the 10th month of the 11,988th year of the Galactic Era and died 12,069 GE. He was born on the planet Helicon in the Arcturus sector where his father worked as a tobacco grower in a hydroponics plant, he shows incredible mathematical abilities at a early age. He learns martial arts on Helicon that help him on Trantor, the principal art being Heliconian Twisting. Helicon is said to be "less notable for its mathematics, more for its martial arts". Seldon is awarded a Ph. D. in mathematics for his work on turbulence at the University of Helicon. There he becomes an assistant professor specializing in the mathematical analysis of social structures. Seldon is the subject of a biography by Gaal Dornick. Seldon is Emperor Cleon I's second and last First Minister, the first being Eto Demerzel/R. Daneel Olivaw, he is deposed as First Minister after Cleon I's assassination. Seldon, Hari—... found dead, slumped over desk in his office at Streeling University in 12,069.
Seldon had been working up to his last moments on psychohistorical equations. According to Seldon’s instructions, the instrument was shipped by his colleague Gaal Dornick who had emigrated to Terminus. Seldon's body was jettisoned into space in accordance with instructions he’d left; the official memorial service on Trantor was simple. It was worth noting that Seldon's old friend. Demerzel had not been seen since his mysterious disappearance following the Joranumite Conspiracy during the reign of Emperor Cleon I. Attempts by the Commission of Public Safety to locate Demerzel in the days following the Seldon memorial proved to be unsuccessful. Wanda Seldon, Hari Seldon’s granddaughter, did not attend the ceremony, it was rumored that she had refused all public appearances. To this day, her whereabouts from on remain unknown, it has been said that Hari Seldon left this life as lived it, for he died with the future he created unfolding all around him. Using psychohistory, Seldon mathematically determines what he calls The Seldon Plan—a plan to determine the right time and place to set up a new society, one that would replace the collapsing Galactic Empire by sheer force of social pressure, but over only a thousand-year time span, rather than the ten-to-thirty-thousand-year time span that would have been required, thus reduce the human suffering from living in a time of barbarism.
The Foundation is placed on Terminus, a resource-poor planet populated by scientists and their families. The planet—or so Seldon claimed—was occupied to create the Encyclopedia Galactica, a vast compilation of the knowledge of a dying galactic empire. In reality, Terminus had a much larger role in his Plan, which he had to conceal from its inhabitants at first. Seldon visits Trantor to attend the Decennial Mathematics Convention, he presents a paper which indicates that one could theoretically predict the Galactic Empire's future. He is able to show, he does. At first, Seldon has no idea how this could be done in practice, he is confident that no one could fulfill the possibility. Shortly after his presentation, he becomes a lightning rod for political forces who want to use psychohistory for their own purposes; the rest of the novel tells of his flight, which lasts for a year and which takes him through the complex and variegated world of Trantor. During his flight to escape the various political factions, he discovers how psychohistory can be made a practical science.
It is in this novel that he meets his future wife Dors Venabili, future adopted son Raych Seldon, future partner Yugo Amaryl. This novel is told as a sequence of short stories, they take place at intervals a decade or more apart, tell the story of Hari's life, starting about ten years after Prelude and ending with his death. The stories contrast his successful professional life with his unsuccessful personal life. Seldon becomes involved in politics when
Tau Films is an American visual effects and animation company with locations in the United States, India and Canada. Tau Films was founded in 2014 by John Hughes, Mandeep Singh, Walt Jones. In 2015, it was nominated for Outstanding Visual Effects in a Special Venue Project at the 13th Visual Effects Society Awards for its work on the amusement park special venue-ride film The Lost Temple, it has since produced other special venue-ride films such as The Forbidden Caves and Racing Legends at Ferrari Land. It created Delusion: Lies Within. Tau has worked on films such as Evil Nature, Baahubali: The Beginning, 2.0, Crazy Alien, the 2019 Nicolas Cage film Primal, Skyfire, directed by Simon West. 2019Skyfire Primal Crazy Alien20182.0 Delusion: Lies Within2017WildAid: Jackie Chan & Pangolins Racing Legends at Ferrari Land 2015Evil Nature Baahubali: The Beginning Everest Hogwarts Express - London The Forbidden Caves 2014The Lost Temple 2015: Nominated - Outstanding Visual Effects in a Special Venue Project, 13th Visual Effects Society Awards.
The Lost Temple Official website Tau Films on IMDb