Hampstead Heath

Hampstead Heath is a large, ancient London heath, covering 320 hectares. This grassy public space sits astride a sandy ridge, one of the highest points in London, running from Hampstead to Highgate, which rests on a band of London Clay; the heath is rambling and hilly, embracing ponds and ancient woodlands, a lido, a training track, it adjoins the former stately home of Kenwood House and its estate. The south-east part of the heath is Parliament Hill, from which the view over London is protected by law. Running along its eastern perimeter are a chain of ponds – including three open-air public swimming pools – which were reservoirs for drinking water from the River Fleet; the heath is a Site of Metropolitan Importance for Nature Conservation, part of Kenwood is a Site of Special Scientific Interest. Lakeside concerts are held there in summer; the heath is managed by the City of London Corporation, lies within the London Borough of Camden with the adjoining Hampstead Heath Extension and Golders Hill Park in the London Borough of Barnet.

The heath first entered the history books in 986 when Ethelred the Unready granted one of his servants five hides of land at "Hemstede". This same land is recorded in the Domesday Book of 1086 as held by the monastery of St. Peter's at Westminster Abbey, by is known as the "Manor of Hampstead". Westminster held the land until 1133 when control of part of the manor was released to one Richard de Balta. Manorial rights to the land remained in private hands until the 1940s when they lapsed under Sir Spencer Pocklington Maryon Wilson, though the estate itself was passed on to Shane Gough, 5th Viscount Gough. Over time, plots of land in the manor were sold off for building in the early 19th century, though the heath remained common land; the main part of the heath was acquired for the people by the Metropolitan Board of Works. Parliament Hill was purchased for the public for £300,000 and added to the park in 1888. Golders Hill was added in 1898 and Kenwood House and grounds were added in 1928. From 1808 to 1814 Hampstead Heath hosted a station in the shutter telegraph chain which connected the Admiralty in London to its naval ships in the port of Great Yarmouth.

The City of London Corporation has managed the heath since 1989. Before that it was managed before that by the London County Council. In 2009, the City of London proposed to upgrade a footpath across the heath into a service-road; the proposal met with protests from local residents and celebrities, did not proceed. The heath sits astride a sandy ridge, it runs from east to its highest point being 134 metres. As the sand was penetrated by rainwater, held by the clay, a landscape of swampy hollows and man-made excavations was created. Hampstead Heath contains the largest single area of common land in Greater London, with 144.93 hectares of protected commons. Public transport near the heath includes London Overground railway stations Hampstead Heath and Gospel Oak and London Underground stations at Hampstead and Belsize Park to the south, Golders Green to the north-west, Highgate and Archway to the east. Buses serve several roads around the heath; the heath's 320 hectares include a number of distinct areas.

Hampstead Heath has over 25 ponds. Whitestone Pond is a triangular pond, centrally located on the heath's south side and north-northwest of the former Queen Mary's House care home, across busy Heath Street. A small dew pond called the Horse Pond, it was renamed after a waypoint stone and is artificially fed, it has an exposed location surrounded by roads, which limits its recreational use. It is the heath's best known body of water, many people's introduction to Hampstead Heath's ponds. Highgate Ponds are a series of eight former reservoirs, on the heath's east side, were dug in the 17th and 18th centuries, they include two single-sex swimming pools, a model boating pond, two ponds which serve as wildlife reserves: the Stock Pond and the Bird Sanctuary Pond. Fishing is allowed in some of the ponds, although this is threatened by proposals to modify the dams; the ponds are the result of the 1777 damming of Hampstead Brook, by the Hampstead Water Company, formed in 1692 to meet London's growing water demands."Boudicca's Mound", near the present men's bathing pond, is a tumulus where, according to local legend, Queen Boudicca was buried after she and 10,000 Iceni warriors were defeated at Battle Bridge.

However, historical drawings and paintings of the area show no mound other than a 17th-century windmill. The Hampstead Ponds are three ponds in the heath's south-west corner, towards South End Green. Hampstead Pond # 3 is the mixed bathing pond. In 2004 the City of London Corporation, rejected a proposal by the Hampstead Heath Winter Swimming Club to allow "early-morning, self-regulated swimming in the mixed sex pond on Hampstead Heath"; the swimmers challenged this in the High Court, which in 2005 ruled that members of the swimming club had the right to swim


Cyanotrama is a fungal genus in the Hymenochaetales order. The genus is monotypic, containing the single species Cyanotrama rimosa distributed in western North America, it has been collected in single occasions in Ethiopia and Iran. The fungus causes a white rot in conifers junipers. C. rimosa was named Poria rimos in 1920 by William Alphonso Murrill, known as Diplomitoporus rimosus. Molecular work revealed that the species was aligned not with the polyporoid fungi as assumed, but rather with the hymenochaetoid fungi, Cyanotrama was created to contain it; the genus name refers to the strong cyanophilic reaction of the skeletal hyphae noticeable in the trama

Susan Kay

Susan Kay is a British writer, the author of two award-winning novels: Legacy and Phantom. Kay was born on 1952 in England, she worked as a primary school teacher until leaving to bring up a family, now lives with her husband and two children in Cheshire. Kay’s first novel was Legacy, about the life of Queen Elizabeth I and won a Georgette Heyer Historical Novel Prize and a Betty Trask Award in 1985, her second novel, expands upon the history of Erik, the hideous, brilliant character from Gaston Leroux's The Phantom of the Opera, in an episodic format of seven chapters from different characters' points of view – first Erik's mother revolted by her own son. She did not travel to Iran to research the novel, although she did research in person at the Paris Opera House; the novel won the Romantic Novel of the Year Award by the Romantic Novelists' Association in 1991. Legacy Phantom "Susan Kay's Phantom Plans Info on book". Archived from the original on 1 March 2009. "Susan Kay interview by Ladyghost".

Archived from the original on 2 January 2011. Susan Kay at FantasticFiction, 14 July 2012