A hand axe is a prehistoric stone tool with two faces, the longest-used tool in human history. It is made from flint or chert, it is characteristic of middle Palaeolithic periods. Its technical name comes from the fact that the archetypical model is bifacial Lithic flake and almond-shaped. Hand axes tend to be symmetrical along their longitudinal axis and formed by percussion; the most common hand axes have a pointed end and rounded base, which gives them their characteristic shape, both faces have been knapped to remove the natural cortex, at least partially. Hand axes are a type of the somewhat wider biface group of two-faced weapons. Hand axes were the first prehistoric tools to be recognized as such: the first published representation of a hand axe was drawn by John Frere and appeared in a British publication in 1800; until that time, their origins were thought to be supernatural. They were called thunderstones, because popular tradition held that they had fallen from the sky during storms or were formed inside the earth by a lightning strike and appeared at the surface.
They are used in some rural areas as an amulet to protect against storms. Hand axe tools were used to butcher animals. Four classes of hand axe are: Large, thick hand axes reduced from cores or thick flakes, referred to as blanks Thinned blanks. While form remains rough and uncertain, an effort has been made to reduce the thickness of the flake or core Either a preform or crude formalized tool, such as an adze Finer formalized tool types such as projectile points and fine bifacesWhile Class 4 hand axes are referred to as "formalized tools", bifaces from any stage of a lithic reduction sequence may be used as tools. French antiquarian André Vayson de Pradenne introduced the word biface in 1920; this term co-exists with the more popular hand axe, coined by Louis Laurent Gabriel de Mortillet much earlier. The continued use of the word biface by François Bordes and Lionel Balout supported its use in France and Spain, where it replaced the term hand axe. Use of the expression hand axe has continued in English as the equivalent of the French biface, while biface applies more for any piece, carved on both sides by the removal of shallow or deep flakes.
The expression Faustkeil is used in German. It is the same in Dutch where the expression used is vuistbijl which means "fist axe"; the same locution occurs in other languages. However, the general impression of these tools were based on ideal pieces that were of such perfect shape that they caught the attention of non-experts, their typology broadened the term's meaning. Biface hand axe and bifacial lithic items are distinguished. A hand axe need not be a bifacial item and many bifacial items are not hand axes. Nor were hand axes and bifacial items exclusive to the Lower Palaeolithic period in the Old World, they appear throughout the world and in many different pre-historical epochs, without implying an ancient origin. Lithic typology was abandoned as a dating system. Examples of this include the "quasi-bifaces" that sometimes appear in strata from the Gravettian and Magdalenian periods in France and Spain, the crude bifacial pieces of the Lupemban culture or the pyriform tools found near Sagua La Grande in Cuba.
The word biface refers to something different in English than biface in French or bifaz in Spanish, which could lead to many misunderstandings. Bifacially carved cutting tools, similar to hand axes, were used to clear scrub vegetation throughout the Neolithic and Chalcolithic periods; these tools were a cheaper alternative to polished axes. The modern day villages along the Sepik river in New Guinea continue to use tools that are identical to hand axes to clear forest. "The term biface should be reserved for items from before the Würm II-III interstadial", although certain objects could exceptionally be called bifaces. Hand axe does not relate to axe, overused in lithic typology to describe a wide variety of stone tools. At the time the use of such items was not understood. In the particular case of Palaeolithic hand axes the term axe is an inadequate description. Lionel Balout stated, "the term should be rejected as an erroneous interpretation of these objects that are not'axes'". Subsequent studies supported this idea those examining the signs of use.
Hand axes are made of flint, but rhyolites, phonolites and other coarse rocks were used as well. Obsidian, natural volcanic glass and was used. Most hand axes have a sharp border all around, No academic consensus describes their use; the pioneers of Palaeolithic tool studies first suggested that bifaces were used as axes or at least for use in demanding physical activities. Other uses showed; the different forms and shapes of known specimens led them to be described as the Acheulean "Swiss Army knife". Each type of tool could have been used for multiple tasks. Wells proposed in 1899 that hand axes were used as missile weapons to hunt prey – an interpretation supported by Calvin, who suggested that some of the rounder specimens of Acheulean hand axes were used as hunting projectiles or as "killer frisbees" meant to be thrown at a herd of animals at a water hole so
The Smith & Wesson Model 1 1⁄2 was Smith & Wesson's second.32 caliber revolver, intended to combine the small size and convenience of the.22 caliber Model 1 with the larger caliber of the 6-shot "belt sized" Model 2, introduced in 1860. Chambered in.32 Rimfire, its cylinder held 5 shots. It was produced in three varieties from 1865 through 1892, with total production exceeding 223,000; the Model 1 1⁄2 had three issues. The first two were "tip-up" revolvers with the barrel release catch located on the side of the frame in front of the trigger, while the third was a "top-break", with the barrel release catch located on the top of the frame, just in front of the hammer; the first issue of the Model 1 1⁄2 can be identified by its smooth cylinder, the square shape of the grip butt. Models were available in blued or nickel-plated finishes, the majority were produced with 3 1⁄2-inch barrels. A less common 4-inch barrel variety was sold. Serial numbers range from 1 through to 26,300; the second issue of the Model 1 1⁄2 can be identified by its fluted barrel and the rounded shape of the grip butt.
Like the 1st Issue, it was produced in blued steel and nickel-plated varieties, with most models having a 3 1⁄2-inch barrel. It is estimated. There is a transitional model 2nd issue that uses the unfluted 1st issue barrels; the serial numbers for these transitional models span 27,200 through 28,800. The third issue of the Model 1 1⁄2 is known as the "Model No. 1 1⁄2 Single Action Revolver". It differs from the first two issues by breaking at the top, consistent with the design of the Safety Hammerless or S&W.38 Single Action. It can be distinguished from the first two issues by its lack of ejector rod under the barrel, the large hinge in front of, just below the barrel, the extractor that ejects spent cartridges when the barrel is hinged downward; the grip is rounded at the butt, is similar in appearance to that on the 2nd Issue. This revolver marked the debut of the.32 S&W centerfire cartridge. Serial numbers ranged from 1 to 97,500
The 2015 Qatar motorcycle Grand Prix was the first round of the 2015 Grand Prix motorcycle racing season. It was held at the Losail International Circuit in Lusail, Qatar on 29 March 2015. In the MotoGP class, Ducati's Andrea Dovizioso took the first pole position of the season, it was an eventful race in which the lead was contested between the Movistar Yamaha and Ducati teams. For the first time since the 2006 Japanese Grand Prix, the podium was swept by Italian riders, as Yamaha's Valentino Rossi – in his 20th Grand Prix season – took his first season-opening victory since 2010, ahead of Dovizioso, his teammate Andrea Iannone, who achieved his first MotoGP podium in third place. Reigning world champion Marc Márquez had a good start position, third on the grid, but went off track and hit Jorge Lorenzo and Bradley Smith. After he fell to the rear of the field due to the first-lap incident, Márquez overtook several riders and was able to finish fifth, behind Lorenzo. Dani Pedrosa dropped to sixth place due to issues with arm-pump.
Álvaro Bautista was forced to retire after his bike was hit by Márquez, breaking his left brake lever and front sensor. Rookie Jack Miller – graduating from Moto3 – crashed with Karel Abraham with one lap remaining; the weekend saw the début of the new Aprilia RS-GP, used by Gresini Racing after the team switched from Honda at the end of 2014. This was Aprilia's first race in MotoGP as a factory team since the 2004 Valencian Grand Prix. Below constructors after round one has concluded. Note: Only the top four positions are included for all sets of standings