Fitzroy Football Club
The Fitzroy Football Club, nicknamed the Lions or the Roys, is an Australian rules football club formed in 1883 to represent the inner-Melbourne suburb of Fitzroy and was a foundation member club of the Victorian Football League on its inception in 1897. The club experienced some early success in the league and was the first club to win a VFL Grand Final, it achieved a total of eight VFL premierships between 1898 and 1944, more three VAFA promotions in 2009, 2012 and 2018. The club ran into financial difficulties in the 1980s after decades of poor on-field performance and was forced to merge its AFL playing operations with the Brisbane Bears at the end of the 1996 season to form the Brisbane Lions. Despite this, the club survived in its own right and the Fitzroy Football Club Ltd came out of administration in late 1998. For a brief time it experimented in partnerships with other semi professional and amateur clubs before incorporating the Fitzroy Reds to play in the Victorian Amateur Football Association.
Fitzroy resumed its original VFL-AFL identity through its continued use of their 1975–1996 VFL-AFL jumper, their theme song and their 1884–1966 home ground at the Brunswick Street Oval. Fitzroy began in the D1 section of the VAFA in 2009, since the club has achieved multiple promotions and the 2018 premiership to be playing in the Premier B division as of the 2019 season, it is notable for being one of only three clubs to have played in the VFA, VFL/AFL and VAFA competitions of Australian rules football. In 2015 Fitzroy fielded its first women's team under the name of Fitzroy-ACU in partnership with the Australian Catholic University. In 2016, Fitzroy-ACU fielded two women's teams in the Victorian Women's Football League VWFL. From 2017, all Fitzroy teams play in the VAFA with the women playing in the VAFA's inaugural women's competition; the Fitzroy Football Club was formed at a meeting at the Brunswick Hotel on 26 September 1883, at a time when Melbourne's population was increasing. The Victorian Football Association made changes to their rules, allowing Fitzroy to join as the seventh club in 1884, playing in the maroon and blue colours of the local Normanby Junior Football Club.
They became one of the most successful clubs, drawing large crowds to their home at the Brunswick Street Oval in Edinburgh Gardens, in the top four and winning the VFA premiership in 1895. Fitzroy's season-by-season records throughout its thirteen seasons at VFA level are given below.. In 1897, Fitzroy were one of the eight clubs who broke away from the VFA to form the Victorian Football League. Despite winning only four games and finishing sixth in the first season, the Maroons, as they were known, won the premiership the following year, winning the VFL's first "Grand Final" against Essendon. Fitzroy was the most successful club in the first 10 years of the VFL, winning four premierships and finishing runners-up on three occasions. Despite internal problems after the 1906 season which led to the players and set the club back for several seasons, the 1913 team won the flag after winning 16 of 18 matches in the home and away season, earning the nickname "Unbeatables". In contrast, the 1916 Fitzroy team only won 2 home and away matches and finished last in a competition reduced by the effects of World War I to four teams.
All four teams qualified for the finals, Fitzroy won their next three games to win one of the strangest VFL premierships. The Maroons won their seventh premiership in 1922, a year season which included four rough games against eventual runners-up Collingwood. However, after this their fortunes waned, they did not make the finals at all from 1925 to 1942. During this time, highlights for the club were individual achievements of their players Haydn Bunton, Sr. A source of controversy, lured to Fitzroy with an illegal £222 payment, subsequently not allowed to play in the 1930 season, Bunton became one of the game's greatest players, winning three Brownlow Medals while at Fitzroy. Brownlow Medals were won by Wilfred Smallhorn and Dinny Ryan, while Jack Moriarty set many goalkicking records, it was during this time. Football was less affected by World War II than it had been in 1916, by 1944 was starting to return to its normal level, it was in this year, under captain-coach Fred Hughson, that the Gorillas won their eighth VFL flag against Richmond in front of a capacity crowd at Junction Oval.
However, it was to be their last senior premiership, as the club, which became known as the Lions in 1957, entered one of the least successful periods any VFL/AFL club has had. The club finished in the bottom three 11 times in the 1960s and 1970s, including three wooden spoons in four years and going winless in 1964, but still continued to produce great individual players, including Brownlow Medallists Allan Ruthven and Kevin Murray. By the mid 1960s, Fitzroy's traditional home ground, the Brunswick Street Oval was in a state of disrepair. However, the ground managers were the Fitzroy Cricket Club; the Football Club had to pay the Cricket Club to use the ground. Despite pressure from the Lions and other VFL clubs, the Cricket Club refused to make the needed upgrades; the Fitzroy City Council, despite repeated requests from the Football Club refused to help rejecting the idea of a $400,000 loan to Fitzroy Football Club, a 40-year lease of the ground so they could make some repairs. The football club put forward various ideas to try and change the situation, i
A football is a ball inflated with air, used to play one of the various sports known as football. In these games, with some exceptions, goals or points are scored only when the ball enters one of two designated goal-scoring areas; the first balls were made of natural materials, such as an inflated pig bladder put inside a leather cover, which has given rise to the American slang-term "pigskin". Modern balls are designed by teams of engineers to exacting specifications, with rubber or plastic bladders, with plastic covers. Various leagues and games use different balls, though they all have one of the following basic shapes: a sphere: used in association football and Gaelic football a prolate spheroid either with rounded ends: used in the rugby codes and Australian football or with more pointed ends: used in American football and Canadian footballThe precise shape and construction of footballs is specified as part of the rules and regulations; the oldest football still in existence, thought to have been made circa 1550, was discovered in the roof of Stirling Castle, Scotland, in 1981.
The ball is made of a pig's bladder. It has a diameter of between 14–16 cm, weighs 125 g and is on display at the Smith Art Gallery and Museum in Stirling. In the United States and Canada, the term football refers to a ball made of cow hide leather, required in professional and collegiate football. Footballs used in recreation and in organized youth leagues may be made of rubber or plastic materials. Since 1941, Horween Leather Company has been the exclusive supplier of leather for National Football League footballs; the arrangement was established by Arnold Horween, who had played and coached in the NFL. Horween Leather Company supplies leather to Spalding, supplier of balls to the Arena Football League. Leather panels are tanned to a natural brown color, required in professional leagues and collegiate play. At least one manufacturer uses leather, tanned to provide a "tacky" grip in dry or wet conditions. White footballs have been used in games played at night so that the ball can be seen more however, improved artificial lighting conditions have made this no longer necessary.
At most levels of play, white stripes are painted on each end of the ball, halfway around the circumference, to improve nighttime visibility and to differentiate the college football from the pro football. However, the NFL once explored the usage of white-striped footballs – in Super Bowl VIII. In the CFL the stripes traverse the entire circumference of the ball; the UFL used a ball with lime-green stripes. The XFL used a novel color pattern, a black ball with red curved lines in lieu of stripes, for its footballs. A ball with red and blue panels was introduced in the American Indoor Football League in 2005 and used by its successors, as well as the Ultimate Indoor Football League of the early 2010s and the Can-Am Indoor Football League during its lone season in 2017. Footballs used in gridiron-style games have prominent points on both ends; the shape is credited to official Hugh "Shorty" Ray, who introduced the new ball in 1934 as a way to make the forward pass more effective. Law 2 of the game specifies that the ball is an air-filled sphere with a circumference of 68–70 cm, a weight of 410–450 g, inflated to a pressure of 0.6 to 1.1 atmospheres "at sea level", covered in leather or "other suitable material".
The weight specified for a ball is the dry weight, as older balls became heavier in the course of a match played in wet weather. There are a number of different types of football balls depending on the match and turf including: training footballs, match footballs, professional match footballs, beach footballs, street footballs, indoor footballs, turf balls, futsal footballs and mini/skills footballs. Most modern Association footballs are stitched from 32 panels of waterproofed leather or plastic: 12 regular pentagons and 20 regular hexagons; the 32-panel configuration is the spherical polyhedron corresponding to the truncated icosahedron. The first 32-panel ball was marketed by Select in the 1950s in Denmark; this configuration became common throughout Continental Europe in the 1960s, was publicised worldwide by the Adidas Telstar, the official ball of the 1970 World Cup. This design in referenced when describing the truncated icosahedron Archimedean solid, carbon buckyballs, or the root structure of geodesic domes.
The football used in Australian football is similar to a rugby ball but slightly smaller and more rounded at the ends, but more elongated in overall appearance, being longer by comparison with its width than a rugby ball. A regulation football is 720–730 millimetres in circumference, 545–555 mm transverse circumference, inflated to a pressure of 62–76 kPa. In the AFL, the balls are red for day matches and yellow for night matches; the first games of Australian football were played with a round ball, because balls of that shape were more available. In 1860, Australian football pioneer Tom Wills argued that the oval rugby ball travelled further in the air and made for a more exciting game, it became customary in Australian footba
A set shot in Australian rules football is a kick for goal in which the player can'set' themselves, rather than have to react during the play. A set shot occurs when a player has been awarded a free kick, or has taken a mark within kicking range of the goal. There is always one opponent allowed to be "on the mark", who can attempt to distract the kicker by gesticulation or verbal intimidation; the game clock continues to run during the preparation for a set shot, although time on may temporarily be blown to return the football to the kicker. Players are given up to thirty seconds to begin their approach for a set shot; this rule was introduced in 2006. From 2016 in the Australian Football League, the thirty seconds will be counted down on a shot clock visible on some ground scoreboards. Kicks after the siren in Australian rules football
Heath Scotland is a former Australian rules footballer in the Australian Football League. He played for Collingwood and Carlton, appearing in two AFL Grand Finals during his time with Collingwood, he was awarded the Best and Fairest for the Carlton Football Club in 2012. His professional career ended in 2014. Scotland grew up and played his junior football for the Darley Football Club in the Riddell District Football League, he played TAC Cup football for the Western Jets, he featured in the National Under 18s Championships for Vic Metro in 1998. He was recruited to the Australian Football League by the Collingwood Football Club with its third round selection in the 1998 AFL Draft. Scotland was given guernsey No. 44, he switched to No. 29 in 2001. He made his debut in Round 3 of 1999 and played twelve senior matches in his debut season, including Collingwood's Round 22 match, the last game it played at its traditional home ground, Victoria Park, he played another ten in 2000, but managed only two senior games in 2001 – in the first and last rounds of the season.
His performance in that final round match, to that stage a career-best with twenty-eight disposals, arguably saved his Collingwood career, with coach Mick Malthouse stating that he had matured as a footballer over that season. Scotland became a regular for the Magpies in 2002, playing 19 matches through the season, including fourteen consecutively after Round 12, he played including the Grand Final loss against Brisbane. In 2003, he fell out of favour again. In his five seasons at Collingwood, Scotland was characterised as a midfielder or half-back flanker at a club which had several players of similar ability capable of filling that role. Scotland decided that his long-term opportunities at Collingwood would be limited under Malthouse, after discussions with Carlton coach Denis Pagan, he requested to be traded to the rival club at the end of 2003, he had considered a move to the Kangaroos after playing only two games in 2001. At the end of the 2003 season Scotland was traded to Carlton in exchange for a third round draft pick in the 2003 AFL Draft.
At the time, the trade was considered to be good value for Carlton, He was given the No. 29 guernsey, the same number he had worn at Collingwood. Scotland was a regular player throughout most of his time at Carlton, he appeared in every game in five of those seasons. As at Collingwood, Scotland played as a midfielder, rotating into a sweeping half-back role. In Round 9, 2005, Scotland played in Carlton's team in the last game it played at its traditional home ground at Princes Park. In 2006, Scotland finished third in the Robert Reynolds Trophy, had the second-most disposals of any player in the AFL, he improved again in 2007, collecting a career-high 41 disposals in a match in Round 22 against Melbourne, finishing a close second for the Robert Reynolds Trophy, polling a club-high 12 Brownlow Medal votes. In the young Carlton teams he played in, Scotland was one of the most experienced players, he featured in the club's leadership group from 2007 until 2010, before voluntarily stepping down in 2011.
He continued to play reliable football through this time. In 2011, Scotland played his 200th game and became the oldest player on the Carlton list, turning 31 during the year, he was awarded life membership of the Carlton Football Club in December 2011. Scotland played well again in 2012, although he attracted less wider acclaim around the league, he won the John Nicholls Medal for the first time in his career. In 2014, at age 33, Scotland was moved from Carlton's senior list to its rookie list, by being delisted and redrafted as a rookie, he played four games off the rookie list, before announcing his retirement from the AFL on 20 May 2014, citing a degenerative ankle complaint. Scotland was described by Tony Shaw, who coached him in his first season with Collingwood, as a skilful player, capable of kicking on with both feet, with good durability and a good football brain. Scotland is married to wife Alisha, they have two sons and Riley. During January 2012, Scotland was involved in a brawl at the Mulwala Ski Club near Yarrawonga, which left one man unconscious.
In April 2012, he was formally charged with common assault, assault occasioning actual bodily harm and violent disorder relating to the incident. At the court hearing in October 2012, he pleaded guilty to assault, was placed on a two-year good behaviour bond without a conviction. Heath Scotland's profile on the official website of the Carlton Football Club Heath Scotland's playing statistics from AFL Tables Heath Scotland Player Profile at Nicks Collingwood Page Heath Scotland profile in Blueseum
Victorian Football League
The Victorian Football League is the major state-level Australian rules football league in Victoria. The league evolved from the former Victorian Football Association, has been known by its current name since 1996. For historical purposes, the present VFL is sometimes referred to as the VFA/VFL, to distinguish it from the present day Australian Football League, known until 1990 as the Victorian Football League and is sometimes referred to as the VFL/AFL; the VFA was formed in 1877 and is the second-oldest Australian rules football league, replacing the loose affiliation of clubs, the hallmark of the early years of the game. Serving a administrative function, the VFA premiership served as the top level of club competition in Victoria until 1896; the VFA became the secondary level of club competition from 1897 after its eight strongest clubs seceded to form the VFL. From 1897 until 1995, the VFA remained independent from the VFL as Victoria's secondary senior club competition. Although always much less popular than the VFL/AFL, the VFA enjoyed peaks of popularity in the 1940s with a faster-paced rival code of rules, in the 1970s bolstered by playing on Sundays at a time when the VFL was played on Saturdays.
Since 1995, the league has been administered by AFL Victoria, serves as one of the second-tier regional Australian semi-professional competitions which sits underneath the professional Australian Football League. From the 2018 season it will comprise 15 teams from throughout Victoria, nine of which have a continuous VFA heritage. Since 2000, the VFL has served as a reserves competition for the AFL, with some Victorian-based clubs fielding their reserves teams in the VFL and others affiliated such that their reserves player can play in VFL teams. AFL Victoria operates a women's football competition under the Victorian Football League brand, known as the VFL Women's, established in 2016; the Victorian Football Association was founded on 17 May 1877 at the meeting of club secretaries preceding the 1877 season. It was formed out of a desire to provide a formal administrative structure to the governance of the sport, it had the power to impose binding decisions on its members on matters including the Laws of the Game, player eligibility and other disputes, as well as to facilitate intercolonial football.
Decisions were made based on a vote of the Board of Management, composed of two delegates from each senior club, a structure, retained until the late 1980s. It replaced a system under which the secretaries of the senior clubs met at the beginning of each year to decide on matters of mutual interest, but the system was informal and disputes went unresolved; the five foundation senior clubs in the Melbourne metropolitan area were Albert-park, Hotham, Melbourne and St Kilda. Provincial clubs were eligible for senior representation on the Association though most played matches against the metropolitan teams. There was no formal system of promotion and relegation between the senior and junior levels, with it at a club's discretion whether or not it joined the Association as a paying senior member; the affiliation fee for senior clubs was set at one guinea. Through the first decade of the VFA's existence, the structure of the football season did not change from the informal system which had evolved over previous years.
Setting of fixtures was the responsibility of club secretaries rather than the Association itself, in a typical season, a club could play against other VFA teams, non-VFA clubs, at odds against junior teams, in some seasons against intercolonial teams. Prior to the 1888 season, there was no formally endorsed system for awarding a VFA premiership: as had been the case since the early 1870s, the premier club was determined by public and press consensus, which by the mid-1880s was conventionally but informally understood to be the senior club which suffered the fewest losses during the season. Premierships won under this then-informal method are now considered official, consensus was uncontroversial. In 1888, the VFA first took responsibility for the onfield competition, introduced its first formal premiership system by adopting a system of premiership points; the Association's influence over the on-field competition grew, from 1894, the Association assumed responsibility for centrally setting the fixtures and standardising the number of games played by each team.
After the formal introduction of the premiership, the often-changeable collection of senior clubs in the VFA soon became settled at twelve premiership-eligible clubs: Carlton, Fitzroy, Geelong, North Melbourne, Port Melbourne, Richmond, St Kilda, South Melbourne and Williamstown. Three Ballarat-based clubs – Ballarat, Ballarat Imperial and South Ballarat – were voting members of the VFA through this time, but were not involved in the onfield premiership. During the 1890s, there was an off-field power struggle within the VFA between the stronger and weaker clubs, as the stronger clubs sought greater administrative control commensurate with their relative financial contribution to the game; this came to a hea
Rugby refers to the team sports rugby league and rugby union. Legend claims that rugby football was started about 1845 in Rugby School, Warwickshire, although forms of football in which the ball was carried and tossed date to medieval times. Rugby split into two sports in 1895 when twenty-one clubs split from the original Rugby Football Union, to form the Northern Union in the George Hotel, Northern England over the issue of payment to players, thus making rugby league the first code to turn professional and pay its players, rugby union turned professional in 1995. Both sports are run by their respective world governing bodies World Rugby and the Rugby League International Federation. Rugby football was one of many versions of football played at English public schools in the 19th century. Although rugby league used rugby union rules, they are now wholly separate sports. In addition to these two codes, both American and Canadian football evolved from rugby football. Following the 1895 split in rugby football, the two forms rugby league and rugby union differed in administration only.
Soon the rules of rugby league were modified. After 100 years, in 1995 rugby union joined rugby league and most other forms of football as an professional sport; the Olympic form of rugby is known as Rugby 7s. In this form of the game, each team has 7 players on the field at one time playing 7 minute halves; the rules and pitch size are the same as rugby union. The Greeks and Romans are known to have played many ball games, some of which involved the use of the feet; the Roman game harpastum is believed to have been adapted from a Greek team game known as "ἐπίσκυρος" or "φαινίνδα", mentioned by a Greek playwright and referred to by the Christian theologian Clement of Alexandria. These games appear to have resembled rugby football; the Roman politician Cicero describes the case of a man, killed whilst having a shave when a ball was kicked into a barber's shop. Roman ball games knew the air-filled ball, the follis. Episkyros is recognised as an early form of football by FIFA. In 1871, English clubs met to form the Rugby Football Union.
In 1892, after charges of professionalism were made against some clubs for paying players for missing work, the Northern Rugby Football Union called the Northern Union, was formed. The existing rugby union authorities responded by issuing sanctions against the clubs and officials involved in the new organization. After the schism, the separate clubs were named "rugby league" and "rugby union". Rugby union is both a professional and amateur game, is dominated by the first tier unions: New Zealand, Wales, South Africa, Argentina, Scotland and France. Second and third tier unions include Belgium, Canada, Fiji, Germany, Hong Kong, Kenya, the Netherlands, Romania, Samoa, Tonga, the United States and Uruguay. Rugby Union is administered by World Rugby, whose headquarters are located in Ireland, it is the national sport in New Zealand, Fiji, Tonga and Madagascar, is the most popular form of rugby globally. The Olympic Games have admitted the seven-a-side version of the game, known as Rugby sevens, into the programme from Rio de Janeiro in 2016 onwards.
There was a possibility sevens would be a demonstration sport at the 2012 London Olympics but many sports including sevens were dropped. In Canada and the United States, rugby union evolved into gridiron football. During the late 1800s, the two forms of the game were similar, but numerous rule changes have differentiated the gridiron-based game from its rugby counterpart, introduced by Walter Camp in the United States and John Thrift Meldrum Burnside in Canada. Among unique features of the North American game are the separation of play into downs instead of releasing the ball upon tackling, the requirement that the team with the ball set into a set formation for at least one second before resuming play after a tackle, the allowance for one forward pass from behind the site of the last tackle on each down, the evolution of hard plastic equipment, a smaller and pointier ball, favorable to being passed but makes drop kicks impractical, a smaller and narrower field measured in customary units instead of metric, a distinctive field with lines marked in five-yard intervals.
Rugby league is both a professional and amateur game, administered on a global level by the Rugby League International Federation. In addition to amateur and semi-professional competitions in the United States, Lebanon, Serbia and Australasia, there are two major professional competitions—the Australasian National Rugby League and the Super League. International Rugby League is dominated by Australia and New Zealand. In Papua New Guinea it is the national sport. Other nations from the South Pacific and Europe play in the Pacific Cup and European Cup respectively. Distinctive features common to both rugby codes include the oval ball and throwing the ball forward is not allowed so that players can gain ground only
Gaelic football referred to as football or Gaelic, is an Irish team sport. It is played between two teams of 15 players on a rectangular grass pitch; the objective of the sport is to score by kicking or punching the ball into the other team's goals or between two upright posts above the goals and over a crossbar 2.5 metres above the ground. Players advance the football, a spherical leather ball, up the field with a combination of carrying, kicking, hand-passing, soloing. In the game, two types of scores are possible: goals. A point is awarded for kicking or hand-passing the ball over the crossbar, signalled by the umpire raising a white flag. A goal is awarded for kicking the ball under the crossbar into the net, signalled by the umpire raising a green flag. Positions in Gaelic football are similar to that in other football codes, comprise one goalkeeper, six backs, two midfielders, six forwards, with a variable number of substitutes. Gaelic football is one of four sports controlled by the Gaelic Athletic Association, the largest sporting organisation in Ireland.
Along with hurling and camogie, Gaelic football is one of the few remaining amateur sports in the world, with players and managers prohibited from receiving any form of payment. Gaelic football is played on the island of Ireland, although units of the Association exist in other areas of the British Isles and continents such as North America and Australia; the final of the All-Ireland Senior Championship, held annually at Croke Park, draws crowds of more than 80,000 people. Outside Ireland, football is played among members of the Irish diaspora. Gaelic Park in New York City is the largest purpose-built Gaelic sports venue outside Ireland. Three major football competitions operate throughout the year: the National Football League and the All-Ireland Senior Championship operate on an inter-county basis, while the All-Ireland Club Championship is contested by individual clubs; the All-Ireland Senior Championship is considered the most prestigious event in Gaelic football. Under the auspices of the GAA, Gaelic football is a male-only sport.
Similarities between Gaelic football and Australian rules football have allowed the development of international rules football, a hybrid sport, a series of Test matches has been held since 1998. While Gaelic football as it is known today dates back to the late 19th century, various kinds of football were played in Ireland before this time; the first legal reference to football in Ireland was in 1308, when John McCrocan, a spectator at a football game at Novum Castrum de Leuan was charged with accidentally stabbing a player named William Bernard. A field near Newcastle, South Dublin is still known as the football field; the Statute of Galway of 1527 allowed the playing of "foot balle" and archery but banned "'hokie'—the hurling of a little ball with sticks or staves" as well as other sports. By the 17th century, the situation had changed considerably; the games had grown in popularity and were played. This was due to the patronage of the gentry. Now instead of opposing the games it was the gentry and the ruling class who were serving as patrons of the games.
Games were organised between landlords with each team comprising 20 or more tenants. Wagers were commonplace with purses of up to 100 guineas; the earliest record of a recognised precursor to the modern game date from a match in County Meath in 1670, in which catching and kicking the ball was permitted. However "foot-ball" was banned by the severe Sunday Observance Act of 1695, which imposed a fine of one shilling for those caught playing sports, it proved difficult, if not impossible, for the authorities to enforce the Act and the earliest recorded inter-county match in Ireland was one between Louth and Meath, at Slane, in 1712, about which the poet James Dall McCuairt wrote a poem of 88 verses beginning "Ba haigeanta". A six-a-side version was played in Dublin in the early 18th century, 100 years there were accounts of games played between County sides. By the early 19th century, various football games, referred to collectively as caid, were popular in Kerry the Dingle Peninsula. Father W. Ferris described two forms of caid: the "field game" in which the object was to put the ball through arch-like goals, formed from the boughs of two trees, and.
"Wrestling", "holding" opposing players, carrying the ball were all allowed. During the 1860s and 1870s, rugby football started to become popular in Ireland. Trinity College, Dublin was an early stronghold of rugby, the rules of the Football Association were codified in 1863 and distributed widely. By this time, according to Gaelic football historian Jack Mahon in the Irish countryside, caid had begun to give way to a "rough-and-tumble game", which allowed tripping. Association football started to take hold in Ulster, in the 1880s. Limerick was the stronghold of the native game around this time, the Commercials Club, founded by employees of Cannock's Drapery Store, was one of the first to impose a set of rules, adapted by other clubs in the city. Of all the Irish pastimes the GAA set out to preserve and promote, it is fair to say that Gaelic football was in the worst sh