Hanoi is the capital of Vietnam. It covers an area of 3,328.9 square kilometres. With an estimated population of 8.1 million as of 2019, it is the second largest city in Vietnam. The metropolitan area, encompassing nine additional neighbouring provinces, has an estimated population of 16 million. Located in the central area of the Red River Delta, Hanoi is the commercial and educational centre of Northern Vietnam. Having an estimated nominal GDP of US$32.8 billion, it is the second most productive economic centre of Vietnam, following Ho Chi Minh City. A small settlement along the banks of the Red River, the city was founded as Thăng Long, the capital of Imperial Vietnam, in 1010 by monarch Lý Thái Tổ. Thăng Long would remain the most important political and cultural centre of Vietnam until 1802, when the Nguyễn dynasty, the last imperial dynasty of Vietnam, moved the capital to Huế. Thăng Long renamed to its current name Hanoi in 1831. In 1873, Hanoi was conquered by the French, from 1883 to 1945, the city was the administrative centre of French Indochina.
The French colonisation left a lasting impact on the city's architecture, visible today, as showcased through the juxtaposition of French-styled avenues, bridges and traditional Vietnamese architecture. From 1940 to 1945, Hanoi was occupied by the Japanese forces. On 6 January 1946, the National Assembly of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam designated Hanoi as the capital of the newly-independent country, which would last during the First Indochina War and the Vietnam War. Following North Vietnamese victory in 1975, Hanoi has been the capital of a reunified Vietnam since 1976, it hosts various venerable educational institutions and cultural venues of national significance, including the National University, the Mỹ Đình National Stadium, the National Museum of Fine Arts. On 16 July 1999, the UNESCO presented the title "City for Peace" to Hanoi. Hanoi joined UNESCO's Network of Creative Cities as a Design City on October 31, 2019 on the occasion of World Cities’ Day. Hanoi had many unofficial names throughout history.
During the Chinese occupation of Vietnam, it was known first as Long Biên Tống Bình and Long Đỗ. Long Biên gave its name to the famed Long Biên Bridge, built during French colonial times, more to a new district to the east of the Red River. Several older names of Hanoi feature long, linked to the curved formation of the Red River around the city, symbolized as a dragon. In 866, it was named Đại La.. This gave it the nickname La Thành. Both Đại La and La Thành are names of major streets in modern Hanoi; when Lý Thái Tổ established the capital in the area in 1010, it was named Thăng Long. Thăng Long became the name of a major bridge on the highway linking the city center to Noi Bai Airport, the Thăng Long Boulevard expressway in the southwest of the city center. In modern time, the city is referred to as Thăng Long – Hà Nội, when its long history is discussed. During the Hồ dynasty, it was called Đông Đô. During the Minh dynasty, it was called Đông Quan. During the Lê dynasty, Hanoi was known as Đông Kinh.
This gave the name to Gulf of Tonkin. A square adjacent to the Hoàn Kiếm lake was named Đông Kinh Nghĩa Thục after the reformist Tonkin Free School under French colonization. After the end of the Tây Sơn had expanded further south, the city was named Bắc Thành. Minh Mạng renamed the city Hà Nội in 1831; this has remained its official name until modern times. Several unofficial names of Hanoi include: Kẻ Chợ, Tràng An, Hà Thành, Thủ Đô. Hanoi has been inhabited since at least 3000 BC; the Cổ Loa Citadel in Đông Anh District served as the capital of the Âu Lạc kingdom founded by the Thục emigrant Thục Phán after his 208 BC conquest of the native Văn Lang. In 179 BC, the Âu Lạc Kingdom was annexed by Nanyue, which ushered in more than a millennium of Chinese domination. By the middle of the 5th century, in the center of ancient Hanoi, the Liu Song dynasty set up a new district called Songping, which became a commandery, including two districts Yihuai and Suining in the south of the Red River with a metropolis in the present inner Hanoi.
By the year 679, the Tang dynasty changed the region's name into Annan, with Songping as its capital. In order to defeat the people's uprisings, in the half of the 8th century, Zhang Boyi, a Tang dynasty viceroy, built Luocheng. In the earlier half of the 9th century, it was further called Jincheng. In 866, Gao Pian, the Chinese Jiedushi and named it Daluocheng, the largest citadel of ancient Hanoi at the time. In 1010, Lý Thái Tổ, the first ruler of the Lý dynasty, moved the capital of Đại Việt to the site of the Đại La Citadel. Claiming to have seen a dragon ascending the Red River, he renamed the site Thăng Long – a name still used poetically to this day. Thăng Long remained the capital of Đại Việt until 1397, when it was moved to Thanh Hóa known as Tây Đô, the "Western Capital". Thăng Long became Đông Đô, the "East
Cale Douglas Makar is a Canadian professional ice hockey defenceman playing for the Colorado Avalanche of the National Hockey League. He was selected in the first round, fourth overall, by the Avalanche in the 2017 NHL Entry Draft. Makar, a Calgary native, first played within the Crowchild Blackhawks minor-hockey program before moving to play with the NWCAA Bruins at the Bantam level in 2011, he played bantam with the Calgary Flames before moving to minor midget with the NWCAA Stampeders. Makar was drafted at the major junior level by the Western Hockey League's Medicine Hat Tigers in the eighth round, 164th overall, of the 2013 WHL Bantam Draft. Having returned to the Calgary Flames for the minor midget level, in his only full season with the club in 2014–15, Makar led the team in scoring with 23 points in 34 league games, being named the team's Most Valuable Player and selected to the Alberta Midget Hockey League First All-Star Team. To retain his NCAA eligibility, Makar joined as an affiliate player to the Brooks Bandits of the Alberta Junior Hockey League at the tail end of the season, recording five points in three regular season games.
In helping the Bandits reach the finals, Makar was third among defenceman in scoring with 7 points in 20 games. Having agreed to return with the Bandits in the forthcoming seasons, Makar announced his commitment to play collegiate hockey with the University of Massachusetts–Amherst of the Hockey East NCAA conference on August 29, 2015; as a 17-year-old, Makar established himself as a standout defenceman with the Bandits in 2015–16, logging 55 points in 54 games, en route to earning AJHL All-League and All-Rookie recognition. He scored 14 points in 13 games to help the Bandits claim the AJHL championship, his productive season collected AJHL and CJHL Rookie of the Year Awards, the Western Canada Cup Top Defenceman Award, the RBC Cup Top Defenceman, Top Scorer and Most Valuable Player awards. Makar sustained and built upon his previous success in the 2016–17 season to lead all defencemen and finished sixth among all skaters in the AJHL with 75 points in 54 games, collecting the league's MVP and top defenceman accolades.
He had 16 points in 13 playoff games to help Brooks to a second straight AJHL championship and six points in five games to help the Bandits to a second-place finish in the Royal Bank Cup. He was chosen as the RBC Cup Top Defenceman and Most Valuable Player, the first player to be named RBC Cup MVP in back-to-back seasons, he received the CJHL Most Valuable Player Award and won the prestigious RBC National Junior A Player of the Year Award. Through Makar's rapid rise up the rankings prior to the 2017 NHL Entry Draft, he was considered a top prospect and one of the top defencemen available, he was described as a dynamic skater. Makar was selected fourth overall by the Colorado Avalanche, the second defenceman selected in the draft, after third overall selection Miro Heiskanen. Makar became the highest drafted player to come straight from the AJHL, just the second in the first round since Joe Colborne in 2008. Despite his blue-chip prospect status, Makar opted to remain loyal to his commitment in joining the rebuilding UMass Minuteman program for the 2017–18 season.
As a freshman, he assumed a top-pairing role, alongside Jake McLaughlin, recorded his first collegiate point in his debut against Arizona State University on October 6, 2017. He recorded his first goal in a 4–0 victory over Merrimack College on October 27, 2017. While showing an adjustment period to the collegiate level, Makar raised his game through the new year to help the Minutemen to turnaround their program to make the post-season before suffering a 7–2 defeat to the hands of Northeastern University, he finished fifth on the team in scoring, second amongst defenceman, with 5 goals and 16 assists for 21 points in 34 games. He was selected with co-Rookie of the Year honors by the New England Hockey Writers Association and by finishing ninth in defenceman scoring in the Hockey East, he was selected to the conference's All-Rookie and Third All-Star Teams. With the season concluded and despite interest from the Colorado Avalanche in turning pro, Makar opted to continue his development in returning for his sophomore season with UMass in 2018–19.
That season, Makar became the first Minutemen honored as Hockey East Player of the Year after he led the league in scoring and finished second in the conference. Makar was selected for the Hockey East First All-Star Team and named a Hobey Baker Award finalist. On April 12, Makar was announced the winner of the Hobey Baker; the following night and the Minutemen lost 3–0 to University of Minnesota Duluth in the Frozen Four final. On April 14, 2019, the Avalanche signed Makar to a entry-level contract, he scored his first career NHL goal with his first shot in the league in his debut a day during Game 3 of the first round of the 2019 Stanley Cup playoffs against the Calgary Flames. In so doing, he became the first defenseman to score a playoff goal in his NHL debut. Makar made the Avalanche opening line up for the 2019–20 season and he scored his first career regular season goal in a 6–1 win over the Golden Knights, he was subsequently named a Third Star of the Week for the week of November 10, becoming the first Avalanche rookie to earn the honor.
On November 12, 2019 in a 4–0 road win against the Winnipeg Jets, Makar became the second Avalanche defenceman to record 18 points in 18 games as a rookie. However, he suffered an upper body injury in a game against the Boston Bruins on December 7 and was listed as day-to-day. At the time of his injury, he was leading rookies in scoring with 28 points in 29 games. Makar returned to the Avalan
The South African Hypnosis Network was founded on April 20, 2012. SAHN is a modern non-profit, non-affiliated and democratic organisation established as a professional resource for all Hypnosis Professionals in South Africa. SAHN was founded by a South African Hypnosis Trainer and Practitioner. In 2012, SAHN created the first Hypnosis Census for South African Hypnosis Professionals in order to get a clear understanding of the current state of the hypnosis profession in South Africa. SAHN has created legal resources which are available for Hypnotherapists regarding the legalities of Hypnosis Practice in South Africa and many other such resources are available in the SAHN Hypnosis Toolbox. SAHN works with other organisation with similar aims, such as, The Hypnosis Guild of Southern Africa, a non-profit and non-aligned organisation that hosts regular premiere hypnosis events across the three major cities of South Africa. SAHN has created a free directory of hypnotherapists based in South Africa, a resource for the South African public to better find a Hypnosis Professional near them.
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