SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Hans Egede

Hans Poulsen Egede was a Dano-Norwegian Lutheran missionary who launched mission efforts to Greenland, which led him to be styled the Apostle of Greenland. He established a successful mission among the Inuit and is credited with revitalizing Dano-Norwegian interest in the island after contact had been broken for hundreds of years, he founded Greenland's capital Godthåb, now known as Nuuk. Hans Egede was born into the home of a civil servant in Harstad, nearly 150 miles north of the Arctic Circle, his paternal grandfather had been a vicar in Vester Egede on Denmark. Hans was schooled by a clergyman in a local Lutheran Church. In 1704 he travelled to Copenhagen to enter the University of Copenhagen, where he earned a Bachelor's degree in Theology, he returned to Hinnøya Island after graduation, in April 1707 he was ordained and assigned to a parish on the remote archipelago of Lofoten. In 1707 he married Gertrud Rasch, 13 years his senior. Four children were born to the marriage -- two girls. At Lofoten, Egede heard stories about the old Norse settlements on Greenland, with which contact had been lost centuries before.

Beginning in 1711, he sought permission from Frederick IV of Denmark to search for the colony and establish a mission there, presuming that it had either remained Catholic after the Danish Reformation or been lost to the Christian faith altogether. Frederick gave consent at least to re-establish a colonial claim to the island. Egede established the Bergen Greenland Company with $9,000 in capital from Bergen merchants, $200 from the Danish king, a $300 annual grant from the Royal Mission College; the company was granted broad powers to govern the peninsula, to raise its own army and navy, to collect taxes and to administer justice. Haabet and two smaller ships departed Bergen on 2 May 1721 bearing Egede, his wife and four children, forty other colonists. On 3 July they reached Nuup Kangerlua and established Hope Colony with the erection of a portable house on Kangeq Island, which Egede christened the Island of Hope. Searching for months for descendants of the old Norse colonists, he found only the local Inuit people and began studying their language.

Missionising among them required some imagination as, for instance, the Inuit had no bread nor any idea of it, requiring the Lord's Prayer to be translated as "Give us this day our daily seal". By the end of the first winter, many of the colonists had been stricken with scurvy and most returned home as soon as they could. Egede and his family remained with a few others and in 1722 welcomed two supply ships the king had funded with the imposition of a new tax, his explorations found no Norse survivors along the western shore and future work was misled by the two mistaken beliefs – both prevalent at the time – that the Eastern Settlement would be located on Greenland's east coast and that a strait existed nearby communicating with the western half of the island. In fact, his 1723 expedition found the churches and ruins of the Eastern Settlement, but he considered them to be those of the Western. At the end of the year, he helped establish a whaling station on Nipisat Island. In 1724 he baptized his first child converts, two of whom would travel to Denmark and there inspire Count Zinzendorf to begin the Moravian missions.

In 1728, a royal expedition under Major Claus Paarss arrived with four supply ships and moved the Kangeq colony to the mainland opposite, establishing a fort named Godt-Haab, the future Godthåb. The extra supplies allowed Egede to build a proper chapel within the main house. More scurvy led to forty deaths and abandonment of the site not only by the Danes but by the Inuit as well. Egede's book The Old Greenland's New Perlustration appeared in 1729 and was translated into several languages, but King Frederick had lost patience and recalled Paarss's military garrison from Greenland the next year. Egede, encouraged by his wife Gertrud, remained with ten sailors. A supply ship in 1733 brought three missionaries and news that the king had granted 2,000 rixdollars a year to establish a new company for the colony under Jacob Severin; the Moravians were allowed to establish a station at Neu-Herrnhut and in time a string of missions along the island's west coast. The ship returned one of Egede's convert children with a case of smallpox.

By the next year, the epidemic was raging among the Inuit and in 1735 it claimed Gertrud Egede. Hans carried her body back to Denmark for burial the next year, leaving his son Poul to carry on his work. In Copenhagen, he was named Superintendent of the Greenland Mission Seminary and in 1741 the Lutheran Bishop of Greenland. A catechism for use in Greenland was completed by 1747, he died on 5 November 1758 at the age of 72 in Stubbekøbing at Denmark. Egede became something of a national "saint" of Greenland; the town of Egedesminde commemorates him. It was established by Niels, in 1759 on the Eqalussuit peninsula, it was moved to the island of Aasiaat in 1763, the site of a pre-Viking Inuit settlement. Statues of Hans Egede stand watch over Greenland's capital in Nuuk and outside of Frederik's Church in Copenhagen, his grands

Falstad concentration camp

Falstad concentration camp was situated in the village of Ekne in what was the municipality of Skogn in Norway. It was used for political prisoners from Nazi-occupied territories; the boarding school for boys at Falstad was founded as part of the general movement in Europe and Norway in particular, to reform the penal system for children. Prison director Anders Daae took the initiative in founding a private institution in Trøndelag, to be modeled after similar schools in Europe, he raised funds through the Trondhjems Brændevinssamlag and Trondhjems Sparebank and acquired the farm known as Nedre Falstad for 80,000 kr in 1895, along with the farm buildings. It was explicitly originated to serve the needs of the "misguided" rather than criminal youth through education, a "Christian spirit."The main building burned down the same year the institution was established. New buildings were constructed, in 1910, the Norwegian government took over the operations of the school. In 1921, there was another fire, the new brick structures that followed were based on 19th century prison designs, with a courtyard in the middle of a rectangular building.

Nazi German authorities first visited Falstad in August 1941 with the hope of making it a center for the Lebensborn program in Norway, but found it unsuitable for this task. However, they decided to put it to use as a prison camp in September 1941; the inhabitants of Ekne were put under severe restrictions, the first prisoners arrived—about 170 Danes who had volunteered and reneged on being a part of the Todt Organisation. The Danish inmates spent three months in the camp, using the time to start construction of the barbed wire fence and watch towers. Within the command structure of the German occupying authorities in Norway, Falstad came under the civilian authority of Reichskommissar Josef Terboven through Wilhelm Rediess, in charge of all German police, including the SS and Gestapo, Heinrich Fehlis, "Befehlshaber der Sicherheitspolizei und des Sicherheitsdienst," conveniently abbreviated to BdS. For reasons that remain unclear, Falstad was part of the Fifth Section, known as the "Kriminalpolizei," or criminal police.

For all practical purposes, Falstad became the personal prison of Gerhard Flesch, the leader of the regional Einsatzkommando V, with the title KdS Drontheim. The camp inmate population grew new buildings were erected. Prison barracks were built southeast of the main building, utility buildings were constructed around the center, the commander's quarters were erected nearby on the other side of the river. In all, the grounds were monitored from three watchtowers; the camp authorities burned what documents they could before the liberation of 1945, but it is estimated that at least 4,500 prisoners passed through Falstad. Citizens of at least 13 countries were among these inmates. Although the camp was intended for political prisoners, several thousand prisoners of war were kept there. Most of them were sent to other camps in Germany or Poland, or to Grini concentration camp, in Norway; the camp became notorious for its use as a transit camp for the deportation of Norwegian Jews to Auschwitz. Forty-seven Jewish men were imprisoned at Falstad at another.

One, Ephraim Wolff Koritzinsky, died of cancer at Levanger Hospital on 15 May 1942. At least eight were murdered at Falstad; the main characteristic of the camp was forced and meaningless labor. Degradations and abuse were commonplace under the administration of SS-Hauptscharführer Gogol and Edward F. Lambrecht, a prison guard known among the prisoners as Gråbein —an appellation used in reference to wolves; the camp commanders used the nearby forest as a site for extrajudicial executions of POWs, following show trials of political and Jewish prisoners. The first executions took place on 7 March 1942, when Olav Sverre Benjaminsen, Abel Lazar Bernstein, David Isaksen, Wulf Isaksen, David Wolfsohn were shot. All of these, except Benjaminsen, were Jewish. In June 1942, Ljuban Vukovic, a Yugoslav POW, was made the first grave digger in the forest, he became an important witness in the post-war trials. On 6 October 1942, the Nazi authorities imposed martial law on sections of central Norway, at least 170 non-Norwegian prisoners and 34 Norwegian political prisoners were killed in the forest just south of Falstad.

Among these were Hirsch Komissar, Jewish. On 13 November 1942, Moritz Abrahamsen, Kalman Glick, Herman Schidorsky, all Jewish, were killed. On 16 February 1943, Toralf Berg—a resistance fighter—was executed. During the summer of 1943, a change in the command of the camp led to improved conditions for the remaining prisoners. Throughout all this, more than 150 unnamed POWs were shot in the forest. During 4–5 May 1945, the camp authorities sought to exhume and hide the bodies of their victims, sinking about 25 in the fjord near the camp. Efforts to find, exhume and bury the victims are ongoing; the original estimate of 202 dead is considered low. There were six camp commandants at Falstad during the war: Paul Schöning, Paul Gogol, Werner Jeck, Georg Bauer, Karl Denk. None of these were prosecuted for war crimes in Norway, though Denk may have faced trial in Germany for unrelated charges. Gerhard Flesch, Kommandeur der Sicherheitspolizei und des SD Trondheim 1941 to 1945 was sentenced to death during the Legal purge in Norway after World War II.

Walter Hollack, Gestapo officer who acted as "prosecutor" during the tribunals in 1942, was sentenced to a life te

Wes Hall

Sir Wesley Winfield Hall is a Barbadian former cricketer and politician. A tall and powerfully built man, Hall was a genuine fast bowler and despite his long run up, he was renowned for his ability to bowl long spells. Hall played 48 Test matches for the West Indies from 1958 to 1969. Hall's opening bowling partnership with fellow Barbadian Charlie Griffith was a feature of the strong West Indies teams throughout the 1960s. Hall was one of the most popular cricketers of his day and was popular in Australia, where he played two seasons in the Sheffield Shield with Queensland. A wicket-keeper/batsman as a schoolboy, Hall did not take up fast bowling until late, he was included in the West Indies squad to tour England in 1957 having only played one match of first-class cricket. He made his Test cricket debut against India in 1958 and was successful, he took a Test hat-trick in Pakistan in 1959. Hall bowled the final over in two famous Test matches, the Tied Test against Australia in 1960 and the Lord's Test against England in 1963.

Years of non-stop cricket and resultant injury reduced Hall's effectiveness in the latter part of his Test career. After his playing days Hall entered Barbadian politics, serving in both the Barbados Senate and House of Assembly and appointed Minister of Tourism in 1987, he was involved in the administration of West Indies cricket as a selector and team manager and served as President of the West Indies Cricket Board from 2001 to 2003. Hall was ordained a minister in the Christian Pentecostal Church, he is a member of the West Indies Cricket Hall of Fame. In 2012 he was created a Knight Bachelor for services to the community. Hall was born in Saint Michael, Barbados—"just outside the walls of Glendairy"—to a teenaged mother, his father a sometime light-heavyweight boxer. Hall began his schooling at St Giles' Boys' School and obtained a place at the renowned Combermere School thanks to a free scholarship. At Combermere, he played for the school cricket team as a wicketkeeper/batsman. At the time the leading schools in Barbados played against grown men in the elite Division 1 of the Barbados Cricket Association and Hall was exposed to a high standard of cricket at an early age.

One of his teammates at Combermere was the school groundskeeper, the West Indian Test cricketer Frank King. After completing his schooling, Hall found employment with the cable office in Bridgetown. Hall played for the Cable Office cricket team and it was there that Hall took up fast bowling. In a match against Wanderers, Hall was asked to fill in when his team's regular opening bowler was absent, he decided that bowling would be his path to the West Indies team. His talent was soon recognised and in 1956 he was included in the Barbados team to play E. W. Swanton's XI in 1956. Hall, still young and inexperienced, did not take a wicket in the match, his first-class cricket debut. Hall was unlucky, not to pick up a wicket having Colin Cowdrey dropped by Kenneth Branker at first slip. Despite the lack of success Hall did catch the eye of Swanton who marked him down as a bowler of "great promise". Based on this promise, Hall was selected in the West Indian squad to tour England in 1957. Despite great enthusiasm, Hall struggled in the unfamiliar surroundings, unable to pitch the ball anywhere near the wicket.

Hall remarked "When I hit the softer wickets I was like a fish out of water." Hall did not play in any of the Test matches and in first-class matches on the tour as a whole took 27 wickets at an average of 33.55. Hall's lack of success in England saw him overlooked for the entire home Test series against Pakistan in 1957–58. Left out of the West Indies team to tour India and Pakistan in 1958–59, Hall was called into the team as a back up for the Trinidadian Jaswick Taylor after the all-rounder Frank Worrell withdrew from the team at a late stage. Hall met with some success an early match against Baroda, taking 5 wickets for 41 runs in Baroda's second innings; this performance saw Hall overtake Taylor to become the first-choice partner of Roy Gilchrist in the Test team. The pair had a successful Test series against the Indians with Wisden Cricketers' Almanack describing the duo as "two fearsome opening bowlers reminiscent of the days of Martindale and Constantine."Hall made his debut in the first Test against India at Brabourne Stadium at Bombay and met with instant success.

He dismissed the Indian opener Nari Contractor for a duck and followed than with the wickets of Pankaj Roy and Vijay Manjrekar. In what ended as a dour draw, Hall finished with 3/35 in 1/72 in the second; when Gilchrist was dropped from the second Test at Modi Stadium in Kanpur, Hall—in only his second Test match—was given the responsibility of leading the West Indies bowling attack. Hall was equal to the task, playing "a decisive part in India's downfall" taking 11 wickets in the match. Over the entire five Test series—won by the West Indies three Tests to nil—Hall and Gilchrist terrorised the Indian batsman, who had neither the "experience or the physical capacity" to stand up to the West Indian fast bowling duo; the West Indies were not as successful in the three Test series against Pakistan, losing the first two Tests before winning the final Test—the first time Pakistan had lost a Test match at home. Hall bowled well in both the matches, however. In the second Test at Dacca, Hall relied on movement through the air rather than sheer pace and had Pakistan reeling on stage, five wickets down for only 22 runs made In the third Test at Bagh-e-Jinnah in Lahore, Hall made history by becoming the