Park and ride
Park and ride facilities are parking lots with public transport connections that allow commuters and other people heading to city centres to leave their vehicles and transfer to a bus, rail system, or carpool for the remainder of the journey. The vehicle is retrieved when the owner returns. Park and rides are located in the suburbs of metropolitan areas or on the outer edges of large cities. A park and ride that only offers parking for meeting a carpool and not connections to public transport may be called a park and pool. Park and ride is abbreviated as "P+R" on road signs in the UK, is styled as "Park & Ride" in marketing. In Sweden, a tax has been introduced on the benefit of free or cheap parking paid by an employer, if workers would otherwise have to pay; the tax has reduced the number of workers driving into the inner city, increased the usage of park and ride areas in Stockholm. The introduction of a congestion tax in Stockholm has further increased the usage of ride. In Prague and ride parking lots are established near some metro and railway stations.
These parking lots offer low prices and all-day and return tickets including the public transport fare. Park and ride facilities allow commuters to avoid a stressful drive along congested roads and a search for scarce, expensive city-centre parking, they may well reduce congestion by assisting the use of public transport in congested urban areas. There is not much research on the cons of park and ride schemes, it has been suggested that there is "a lack of clear-cut evidence for park and ride's assumed impact in reducing congestion". Park and ride facilities help commuters who live beyond practical walking distance from the railway station or bus stop, they may suit commuters with alternative fuel vehicles, which have reduced range, when the facility is closer to home than the ultimate destination. They are useful as a fixed meeting place for those carsharing or carpooling or using "kiss and ride"; some transit operators use park and ride facilities to encourage more efficient driving practices by reserving parking spaces for low emission designs, high-occupancy vehicles, or carsharing.
Many park and rides toilets. Travel information, such as leaflets and posters, may be provided. At larger facilities, extra services such as a travel office, food shop, car wash, or cafeteria may be provided; these are encouraged by municipal operators to encourage use of park and ride. Park and ride facilities, with dedicated parking lots and bus services, began in the 1960s in the UK. Oxford operated the first such scheme with an experimental service operating part-time from a motel on the A34 in the 1960s and on a full-time basis from 1973. Better Choice Parking first offered an airport park and ride service at London Gatwick Airport in 1978. Oxford now operates ride from 5 dedicated parking lots around the city; as of 2015, Oxford has the biggest urban park & ride network in the UK with a combined capacity of 5,031 car parking spaces. One of the largest park and rides in Saudi Arabia is located at Kudai in Mecca, it helps people go the Masjid al-Haram. There is a Shuttle Service operated by SAPTCO that takes people during Ramadan from the Kudai Parking to the Masjid al-Haram.
Some railway stations are promoted as a park and ride facility for a town some distance away, for instance Liskeard for Looe and Lelant Saltings for St Ives, both in Cornwall, England. Names of stations in the UK with large parking lots outside the main urban area are suffixed with "Parkway", such as Bristol Parkway, Tiverton Parkway, Oxford Parkway. At Luton Airport Parkway and Southampton Airport Parkway, the stations are there to serve air as well as road passengers. In the United States, it is common for outlying rail stations to include automobile parking with hundreds of spaces. Boston, for example, has built several large parking facilities at its commuter rail and metro stations near major highways and large arterial surface roads around the periphery of the city: Alewife, Forest Hills, Hyde Park, Quincy Adams, Route 128, Woburn; the local transit operator, the MBTA, offers ride spaces. B & R is a name for using cycle boxes or racks near public transport terminals together with P & R parking lots.
This system can be promoted through integrated fare and tickets with public transport system. Many railway stations and airports feature a "kiss-and-ride" or "kiss-and-fly" area in which cars can stop to discharge or, less pick up passengers; the term first appeared in a 20 January 1956 report in the Los Angeles Times. It refers to the nominal scenario whereby a passenger is driven to the station by partner. Deutsche Bahn has announced that it will be changing the English expressions for Kiss and Ride, Service Points and Counters to German ones. In Italy the new Bologna Centrale railway station uses the "ride" signs; some high-speed railway stations in Taiwan have signs outside stations reading "Kiss and Ride" in English, with Chinese characters above the words that read "temporary pick-up and drop-off zone". Kiss and Ride are getting popular in Poland. Cities with such areas include Kraków, Warsaw or Toruń. Locally they are known by its English name, i.e. "Kiss and ride" and while the sign is non-standardized, all of them contain the letters K+R.
Park and ride schemes do not necessarily
Los Angeles Metro Busway
Metro Busway is a system of limited-stop bus services with bus rapid transit features that operate along exclusive or semi-exclusive roadways known locally as a "busway" or "transitway." There are two lines in the system, the Orange Line in the San Fernando Valley, the Silver Line between El Monte, Downtown Los Angeles and San Pedro. The Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority operates the system; the first route to open was the Orange Line, a BRT service which began operating on October 29, 2005, runs along the exclusive Orange Line Busway. The Silver Line, a freeway express route which runs along the pre-existing Harbor Transitway & El Monte Busway, began operating on December 13, 2009. Metro Busway routes are designed to mimic Metro Rail services, in both the vehicle's design and their operation. Buses on both lines use a silver livery, passengers can board at any door, vehicles receive priority at intersections. Like Metro Rail, Metro Busway operates on a proof-of-payment system, passengers who have a fare product loaded onto a TAP card can board from any door.
TAP cards can be purchased at ticket vending machines located at most stations. Metro Busway lines are designated with colored squares; these colors and square icons are used to distinguish the lines on Metro's maps. Metro uses colors for its Metro Rail lines but designates rail lines with colored circle icons. Two Metro Busway lines operate in Los Angeles County: These services operate on three corridors: Orange Line Busway El Monte Busway Harbor Transitway/Harbor Freeway These are Metro's maintenance facilities that facilitates the Liner buses: Division 8 Division 9 Division 18 The following table shows the timeline of BRT expansions: Notes: List of Los Angeles County Metro Liner stations
Redondo Beach station
Redondo Beach is an elevated light rail station on the Los Angeles County Metro Rail. It is served by the Green Line. Located on Marine Avenue in Redondo Beach, California, it is the western terminus of the Green Line; the station platforms are situated above Marine Avenue. The original name for the station was Marine/Redondo; the station was rebranded as Redondo Beach station in 2005, when the station signs were changed on the platform and on street level. An extension beyond Redondo Beach into Torrance is the planning stages; the station is notable for its appearance as the light rail station in the opening montage to the 1995 film Heat. The station appeared in the closing moments of another film directed by Michael Mann, Collateral. Green Line service hours are from 5:00 a.m. until 12:45 a.m. daily. Metro Local: 126, 215 LADOT Commuter Express: 438, 574 Lawndale Beat: Residential, Express Beach Cities Transit: 102 Gardena Transit: 1X Media related to Redondo Beach at Wikimedia Commons Metro website
Metro Local is a bus service type in Los Angeles County operated by the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority. This retronym designation was placed to differentiate it from the Metro Rapid service. Metro Local buses cover both local, limited-stop, shuttle bus services. Metro Local buses are distinguished by their prominent orange color. Based on availability of equipment, units in non-Metro Local livery may be placed into service on lines that use Metro Local buses. There are bus lines that are operated under contract with MV Transportation, Southland Transit, Transdev. Metro Local buses can be found on 400-series and 500-series routes, which are Metro Express routes with different fare structures and routing. Metro buses are given line numbers; this method was devised by the SCRTD, Metro's predecessor. All service operated by Metro as of 28 June 2018. Local bus service to/from other areas; the line numbering begins at line 2 and proceeds counterclockwise around Downtown Los Angeles, ending at line 96 East/west service, not serving Downtown Los Angeles.
North/south service, not serving Downtown Los Angeles. Limited-stop versions of traditional local routes, which make fewer stops and operate during peak times. Most limited-stop routes are designated by placing a 3 before a main line number. Most limited-stop routes have been replaced by Metro Rapid routes. Shuttles, special routes and local service within one or two adjacent neighborhoods and/or jurisdictions. Former Metro Local Routes
Orange County Transportation Authority
The Orange County Transportation Authority is the public sector transportation planning body and mass transit service provider for Orange County, California in the Los Angeles metropolitan area. The agency is the second-largest public transportation provider in the metropolitan area after Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority Its ancestor agencies include not only the prior Orange County Transit District but such diverse entities as the Pacific Electric Railway and the South Coast Transit Corporation. In 2005, OCTA was judged America's Best Public Transportation System by the American Public Transportation Association, for its record gains in bus and Metrolink commuter trains ridership that it operates or funds. OCTA operates the 91 Express Lanes; the Authority's administrative offices are located in the city of Orange and it maintains bus operations bases in the cities of Garden Grove, Santa Ana. First Transit operates about 40 % of OCTA's Fixed Routes out of the Irvine bases.
While MV Transportation operates OCTA's paratransit base for the authority’s ACCESS service in Irvine. OCTA's predecessor agency, the Orange County Transit District, was created in August 1972 by a referendum of county voters, it started as Santa Ana Transit, a small transit agency with five bus routes operating in Orange County. Santa Ana Transit merged with other, smaller agencies throughout the county leading to the formation of OCTD; the routing system was formed over the course of about 15 years and was held in place until the merge to OCTA. In 1991, OCTA was created under state law, combining the seven separate Orange County agencies that managed transportation planning: Orange County Transportation Commission Orange County Transit District Consolidated Transportation Services Agency Orange County Local Transportation Authority Orange County Service Authority for Freeway Emergencies Orange County Congestion Management Agency Orange County Service Authority for Abandoned VehiclesPark-and-ride facilities, public transportation and other transportation related administrative offices merged into one organization.
OCTA administers funds from the half-cent transportation sales tax. Measure M was passed in 1990 and renewed in 2006, it has paid for the expansion on most freeways within Orange County, street improvements and repairs, traffic signal synchronization, increased Metrolink service. In 1995, OCTA suffered tremendously during the Orange County bankruptcy and never recovered; the agency lost $202 million in revenue over 17 years due to the bankruptcy. As a result, bus service was reduced. In October 2015, OCTA rebranded its bus services as "OC Bus" and launched the OC Bus 360° plan, which aims to consolidate routes into more frequent service and increase ridership. OCTA plans to replace 40% of its bus fleet with compressed natural gas-powered vehicles; the change was approved by the OCTA board on February 22, 2016. OCTA has been involved in various labor disputes between itself and its drivers, members of the Teamsters Union Local 952 and United Transportation Union Local 19, including strikes in 1981, 1986 and 2007.
In April 2007, drivers threatened to strike again over the current contract. OCTA offered a 13% raise over three years, but union sources said that it only came out to 8% after factoring in inflation; the drivers voted to strike. California governor Arnold Schwarzenegger intervened, he first issued a one-week cool-off, extended it to 60 days, while talks continued. Negotiations over wage and pension issues failed, the union started to strike on July 7, 2007, at the end of the cooling-off period; this conflict was resolved on July 2007 when the union ratified a new contract. Within a few days, the bus system was running at full capability. OCTA operates 65 bus lines; some of the lines serve the Los Angeles County border communities of Lakewood, La Mirada, Hawaiian Gardens and Long Beach along with express service to Los Angeles, the Riverside County city of Riverside via the La Sierra Metrolink Station. 1-99 are the fixed routes that cover every city in Orange County. Buses operate on most major arterial streets.
Route 1 is a "special case" in that it is the only single-digit route, acquiring the number from the Pacific Coast Highway and internally to the transit authority the route number is 95. Routes 53, 57, 64 feature Xpress bus service with limited stop service between 6am and 6pm on weekdays; these buses are differentiated by adding an X to the end of each respective route. 100-199 routes descended from the old RunAbout service that served residential neighborhoods, or provide service to portions of 1-99 routes which have reduced demand. Three routes are routes that were truncated from routes 29, 43, 47, 53 and 59 as a result of the March 2010 service changes. 200-299 routes are intra-county express routes branded "OC Express" which travel within Orange County and utilize the county's freeways. These routes run from park-and-rides and transit terminals to back; these routes operate only during weekday rush hours. 400-499 routes are StationLink routes, Metrolink shuttles which travel from the Metrolink stations to business districts and vice versa.
These routes do not operate reverse peak services. 500-599 Bravo! Express; these are routes that operate on used routes. They make limited stops and only stop at transfer points to other routes. Routes 543 and 560 are in use, 543 operates on Harbor Blvd. from the Fullerton Transportation Center to MacArthu
An island platform is a station layout arrangement where a single platform is positioned between two tracks within a railway station, tram stop or transitway interchange. Island platforms are popular on twin-track routes due to cost-effective reasons, they are useful within larger stations where local and express services for the same direction of travel can be provided from opposite sides of the same platform thereby simplifying transfers between the two tracks. An alternative arrangement is to position side platforms on either side of the tracks; the historical use of island platforms depends upon the location. In the United Kingdom the use of island platforms is common when the railway line is in a cutting or raised on an embankment, as this makes it easier to provide access to the platform without walking across the tracks. Island platforms are necessary for any station with many through platforms. Building small two-track stations with a single island platform instead of two side platforms does have advantages.
Island platforms allow facilities such as shops and waiting rooms to be shared between both tracks rather than being duplicated or present only on one side. An island platform makes it easier for wheelchair users and other people with physical limitations to change services between tracks or access facilities. If the tracks are above or below the entrance level, an island platform layout requires only one staircase and one elevator be built to access the platforms. Building the tracks and entrance at the same level creates a disadvantage. If an island platform is not wide enough to cope with passenger numbers, overcrowding can be a problem. Examples of stations where a narrow island platform has caused safety issues include Clapham Common and Angel on the London Underground. An island platform requires the tracks to diverge around the center platform, extra width is required along the right-of-way on each approach to the station on high-speed lines. Track centers vary for rail systems throughout the world but are 3 to 5 meters.
If the island platform is 6 meters wide, the tracks must slew out by the same distance. While this requirement is not a problem on a new line under construction, it makes building a new station on an existing line impossible without altering the tracks. A single island platform makes it quite difficult to have through tracks, which are between the local tracks. A common configuration in busy locations on high speed lines is a pair of island platforms, with slower trains diverging from the main line so that the main line tracks remain straight. High-speed trains can therefore pass straight through the station, while slow trains pass around the platforms; this arrangement allows the station to serve as a point where slow trains can be passed by faster trains. A variation at some stations is to have the slow and fast pairs of tracks each served by island platforms A rarer layout, present at Mets-Willets Point on the IRT Flushing Line, 34th Street – Penn Station on the IRT Seventh Avenue Line and 34th Street – Penn Station on the IND Eighth Avenue Line of the New York City Subway, uses two side platforms for local services with an island in between for express services.
The purpose of this atypical design was to reduce unnecessary passenger congestion at a station with a high volume of passengers. Since the IRT Seventh Avenue Line and IND Eighth Avenue Line have adjacent express stations at 42nd Street, passengers can make their transfers from local to express trains there, leaving more space available for passengers utilizing intercity rail at Pennsylvania Station; the Willets Point Boulevard station was renovated to accommodate the high volume of passengers coming to the 1939 World's Fair. Many of the stations on the Great Central Railway were constructed in this form; this was. If this happened, the lines would need to be compatible with continental loading gauge, this would mean it would be easy to change the line to a larger gauge, by moving the track away from the platform to allow the wider bodied continental rolling stock to pass while leaving the platform area untouched. Island platforms are a normal sight on Indian railway stations. All railway stations in India consist of island platforms.
In Toronto, 29 subway stations use island platforms. In Sydney, on the Eastern Suburbs Railway and the Epping Chatswood Railway, the twin tunnels are spaced and the tracks can remain at a constant track centres while still leaving room for the island platforms. A slight disadvantage is. In Edmonton, all 18 LRT stations on the Capital Line and Metro Line use island platforms; the Valley Line under construction, utilizes the new low-floor LRT technology, but will only use island platforms on one of the twelve stops along the line. In southern New Jersey and Philadelphia, PATCO uses island platforms in all of its 13 s
Los Angeles the City of Los Angeles and known by its initials L. A. is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of four million, Los Angeles is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California; the city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity and the entertainment industry, its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America. Los Angeles is in a large basin bounded by the Pacific Ocean on one side and by mountains as high as 10,000 feet on the other; the city proper, which covers about 469 square miles, is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is the principal city of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second largest in the United States after that of New York City, with a population of 13.1 million. It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area the nation's second most populous area with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.
Los Angeles is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index; the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $1.044 trillion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the event for a third time in 2028; the city hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1990 and 2006, was one of 9 American cities to host the 1994 FIFA men's soccer World Cup and one of 8 to host the 1999 FIFA women's soccer World Cup, hosting the final match for both tournaments. Home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California.
The city was founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood; the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California assured the city's continued rapid growth; the Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Chumash tribes. A Gabrieleño settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning "poison oak place". Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America.
Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles,'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'; the present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic Archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African and European ancestry; the settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico.
During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000; the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. Due to clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent city and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles.
Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones; the new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were