A hardcover or hardback book is one bound with rigid protective covers. It has a sewn spine which allows the book to lie flat on a surface when opened. Following the ISBN sequence numbers, books of this type may be identified by the abbreviation Hbk. Hardcover books are printed on acid-free paper, they are much more durable than paperbacks, which have flexible damaged paper covers. Hardcover books are marginally more costly to manufacture. Hardcovers are protected by artistic dust jackets, but a "jacketless" alternative has increased in popularity: these "paper-over-board" or "jacketless hardcover" bindings forgo the dust jacket in favor of printing the cover design directly onto the board binding. If brisk sales are anticipated, a hardcover edition of a book is released first, followed by a "trade" paperback edition the next year; some publishers publish paperback originals. For popular books these sales cycles may be extended, followed by a mass market paperback edition typeset in a more compact size and printed on thinner, less hardy paper.

This is intended to, in part, prolong the life of the immediate buying boom that occurs for some best sellers: After the attention to the book has subsided, a lower-cost version in the paperback, is released to sell further copies. In the past the release of a paperback edition was one year after the hardback, but by the early twenty-first century paperbacks were released six months after the hardback by some publishers, it is unusual for a book, first published in paperback to be followed by a hardback. An example is the novel The Judgment of Paris by Gore Vidal, which had its revised edition of 1961 first published in paperback, in hardcover. Hardcover books are sold at higher prices than comparable paperbacks. Books for the general public are printed in hardback only for authors who are expected to be successful, or as a precursor to the paperback to predict sale levels. Hardcovers consist of a page block, two boards, a cloth or heavy paper covering; the pages are sewn together and glued onto a flexible spine between the boards, it too is covered by the cloth.

A paper wrapper, or dust jacket, is put over the binding, folding over each horizontal end of the boards. Dust jackets serve to protect the underlying cover from wear. On the folded part, or flap, over the front cover is a blurb, or a summary of the book; the back flap is. Reviews are placed on the back of the jacket. Many modern bestselling hardcover books use a partial cloth cover, with cloth covered board on the spine only, only boards covering the rest of the book. Book size

Hodaka Maruyama

Hodaka Maruyama is a Japanese politician, elected to the House of Representatives in 2012 as a member of Nippon Ishin no Kai. He was forced out of the party in 2019 after making remarks suggesting the need for Japan to wage war with Russia, joined The Party to Protect the People from NHK. Maruyama was born in Sakai and got a bachelor of Economics from the University of Tokyo in 2006. After graduating from University, he entered the Ministry of Economy and Industry of Japan. In 2009, he joined The Matsushita Institute of Management. In 2012, he was elected to the Japan restoration party as a committee of Osaka district for the first time, he was re-elected in 2014, when he was appointed Vice-Chairman for the policy research council and was a member of the Diet Affairs Committee of the party, for a third term in 2017. In 2019, during a visit to the Russia Kunashir Island, he was reported to have been drunk and shouted "Do you think there is any way other than war" to the residence, quoting the Kuril Islands dispute.

This has resulted in extended criticism in the Japanese media and led to him being expelled from the party. A unanimous Impeachment decision against him was approved by the House of Representatives, he is contrary to the introduction of the selective wife system. He agrees with the revision of the Constitution of Japan, he agreed to review the Statutory interpretation of the Cabinet Legislation Bureau, which prohibits the exercise of Collective defence. He said, he opposes the establishment of a female emperor. He agrees with the TPP agreement

Saturday of Souls

Saturday of Souls is a day set aside for the commemoration of the dead within the liturgical year of the Eastern Orthodox and Byzantine Catholic Churches. Saturday is a traditional day of prayer for the dead, because Christ lay dead in the Tomb on Saturday; these days are devoted to prayer for departed relatives and others among the faithful who would not be commemorated as saints. The Divine Services on these days have special hymns added to them to commemorate the departed. There is oftena Panikhida either after the Divine Liturgy on Saturday morning or after Vespers on Friday evening, for which Koliva is prepared and placed on the Panikhida table. After the Service, the priest blesses the Koliva, it is eaten as a memorial by all present. Another Memorial Day, does not fall on a Saturday, but on either Monday or Tuesday of the second week after Pascha. Radonitsa does not have special hymns for the dead at the Divine Services. Instead, a Panikhida will follow the Divine Liturgy, all will bring paschal foods to the cemeteries to greet the departed with the joy of the Resurrection.

There are several Soul Saturdays throughout the year: The Saturday of Meatfare Week The second Saturday of Great Lent The third Saturday of Great Lent The fourth Saturday of Great Lent Radonitsa The Saturday before Pentecost Demetrius Saturday. All Orthodox and Byzantine Catholics observe Soul Saturdays on Meatfare Saturday. In the Bulgarian Orthodox Church there is a commemoration of the dead on the Saturday before the feast of Saint Michael the Archangel on 8 November instead of the Demetrius Soul Saturday; the Russians observe memorials on the Saturdays closest to 26 October and 23 September. In the Serbian Orthodox Church there is a commemoration of the dead on the Saturday closest to the Conception of St. John the Baptist—23 September. In Slavic and Greek Churches, all of the Lenten Soul Saturdays are observed. In some of the Churches of the Eastern Mediterranean, Meatfare Saturday and the Saturday before Pentecost are observed. Prayer for the dead Panikhida Koliva All Souls Day Radonitsa Photo: Ektenia during Panikhida Photo: Blessing Kolyva at the end of a Panikhida