Harlequinade is a British comic theatrical genre, defined by the Oxford English Dictionary as "that part of a pantomime in which the harlequin and clown play the principal parts". It developed in England between the mid-19th centuries, it was a slapstick adaptation or variant of the Commedia dell'arte, which originated in Italy and reached its apogee there in the 16th and 17th centuries. The story of the Harlequinade revolves around a comic incident in the lives of its five main characters: Harlequin, who loves Columbine. A mime act with music and stylised dance, the harlequinade employed some dialogue, but it remained a visual spectacle. Early in its development, it achieved great popularity as the comic closing part of a longer evening of entertainment, following a more serious presentation with operatic and balletic elements. An elaborate magical transformation scene, presided over by a fairy, connected the unrelated stories, changing the first part of the pantomime, its characters, into the harlequinade.
In the late 18th and 19th centuries, the harlequinade became the larger part of the entertainment, the transformation scene was presented with spectacular stage effects. The harlequinade lost popularity towards the end of the 19th century and disappeared altogether in the 1930s, although Christmas pantomimes continue to be presented in Britain without the harlequinade. During the 16th century, commedia dell'arte spread from Italy throughout Europe, by the 17th century adaptations of its characters were familiar in English plays. In English versions, harlequinades differed in two important respects from the Commedia original. First, instead of being a rogue, Harlequin became romantic lead. Secondly, the characters did not speak. Although this constraint was only temporary, English harlequinades remained visual, though some dialogue was admitted. By the early years of the 18th century, "Italian night scenes" presented versions of Commedia traditions in familiar London settings. From these, the standard English harlequinade developed, depicting the eloping lovers Harlequin and Columbine, pursued by the girl's foolish father and his comic servants.
The basic plot remained the same for more than 150 years. In the first two decades of the century, two rival London theatres, Lincoln's Inn Fields Theatre and the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane, presented productions that began with classical stories with elements of opera and ballet and ended with a comic "night scene". In 1716 John Weaver, the dancing master at Drury Lane, presented "The Loves of Mars and Venus – a new Entertainment in Dancing after the manner of the Antient Pantomimes". At Lincoln's Inn, John Rich performed as Harlequin in similar productions; the theatre historian David Mayer explains the use of the "batte" or slapstick and the "transformation scene": Rich gave his Harlequin the power to create stage magic in league with offstage craftsmen who operated trick scenery. Armed with a magic sword or bat, Rich's Harlequin treated his weapon as a wand, striking the scenery to sustain the illusion of changing the setting from one locale to another. Objects, were transformed by Harlequin's magic bat.
Rich's productions were a hit, other producers, like David Garrick, began producing their own pantomimes. For the rest of the century this pattern persisted in London theatres; when producers ran short of plots from Greek or Roman mythology they turned to British folk stories, popular literature and, by 1800, nursery tales. But whatever the story shown in the first part of the entertainment, the harlequinade remained the same. At the end of the first part, stage illusions were employed in a spectacular transformation scene, initiated by a fairy, turning the pantomime characters into Harlequin and their fellows. In the early 19th century, the popular comic performer Joseph Grimaldi turned the role of Clown from "a rustic booby into the star of metropolitan pantomime". Two developments in 1800, both involving Grimaldi changed the pantomime characters: For the pantomime Peter Wilkins: or Harlequin in the Flying World, new costume designs were introduced. Clown traded in his tatty servant's costume for a colourful one.
In Harlequin Amulet. Clown now appeared from the rival suitor to household cook or nurse. Grimaldi's popularity changed the balance of the evening's entertainment, with the first serious, section soon dwindling to what Mayer calls "little more than a pretext for determining the characters who were to be transformed into those of the harlequinade." In the 19th century, theatrical presentations ran for four hours or more, with the pantomime and harlequinade concluding the evening after a long drama. The pantomimes had double titles, describing the two unconnected stories such as "Little Miss Muffet and Little Boy Blue, or Harlequin and Old Daddy Long-Legs." In an elaborate scene initiated by Harlequin's "slapstick", a Fairy Queen or Fairy Godmother transformed the pantomime characters into the characters of the harlequinade, who performed the harlequinade. Throughout the 19th century, as
A Notification LED is a small RGB or monochrome LED light present on the front-facing screen bezel of smartphones and feature phones whose purpose is to blink or pulse to notify the phone user of missed calls, incoming SMS messages, notifications from other messaging apps etc. It pulses in a continuous way to draw the attention of the user, it is a part of the device's notification system that uses a cloud-powered push notification service to relay remote notification messages to the user or local notifications. In any mobile phone or smartphone, battery life is an important consideration and the display is the component that consumes the maximum battery when it is lit up. In regular usage, a user may only want to turn on his phone to check if anything requires his or her attention. By blinking unobtrusively, the notification LED light discreetly conveys to the user of any important message or call; this way, the whole display does not have to be turned on every time a message arrives, thus saving the battery.
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With any pixel on an OLED screen being a notification LED, software can be used to customize its appearance. It can blink or pulse like a light continuously, or some phone manufacturers light up the display's pixels like a ring or have edge lighting
Rou Shi was a prominent left-wing Chinese writer and member of the May Fourth Movement. Executed on either 7 or 8 February 1931 by the Kuomintang government in Shanghai for his pro-Communist activities, he is considered one of the Five Martyrs of the League of Left-Wing Writers. Rou Shi was born Zhao Pingfu on 28 September 1902 in Zhejiang province. In 1918 he entered Hangzhou No. 1 Normal School in the provincial capital Hangzhou. After graduating in 1923, he became a teacher at Pudi Elementary School in Zhejiang. In 1925 he published his first collection of Mad Man. In 1925 Rou Shi studied at Peking University, but returned to Zhejiang in the spring of 1926, teaching in Hangzhou and Zhenhai. In the summer of 1927 he returned to his hometown Ninghai and taught at Ninghai High School, a local Communist base. After the failed Communist rebellion in May 1928, he took refuge in Shanghai, where he was introduced to the leading leftist writer Lu Xun who lived nearby him. Together with Lu Xun and others, he cofounded the Morning Flower Society, which published several progressive journals.
Lu Xun stated that the purpose of the Society was to "introduce literature from Eastern and Northern Europe and import foreign woodcuts." In January 1929 he succeeded Lu Xun as the editor of the journal Tattler. During this period he wrote the novel February and another collection of short stories entitled Hope, he translated works by foreign writers such as Maxim Gorky. In March 1930, the League of Left-Wing Writers was established in Shanghai. Rou Shi attended its inaugural meeting, became an executive and standing committee member in charge of the League publication Meng Ya, he joined the Communist Party of China in May 1930, published the short story, A Slave Mother. On 17 January 1931, while attending a secret Communist Party meeting at the Oriental Hotel in the Shanghai International Settlement, Rou Shi was arrested along with 35 other attendees by the Shanghai Municipal Police, they were held in prison for three weeks. On 7 February 1931, the Kuomintang executed 23 Communists in Shanghai.
The five members of the Left League executed on that day, Rou Shi, Li Weisen, Hu Yepin, Yin Fu, Feng Keng, are called the Five Martyrs of the League of Left-Wing Writers by the Communist Party. Among the executed were three women, one pregnant, they were executed either by being buried alive. According to Frank Moraes, Rou Shi was in the latter group, but an article on Xinhua says he was killed by gunshots. In the essay "Remembrance for the Sake of Forgetting", Lu Xun states that Rou Shi was shot ten times. One of Rou Shi's best known short stories, A Slave Mother, was first translated to English by Edgar Snow in 1936. In 1963, his novel February was adapted to the critically acclaimed film Early Spring in February, directed by Xie Tieli and starred Sun Daolin, Shangguan Yunzhu, Xie Fang. In 2003, A Slave Mother was adapted to a television film starring He Lin, who won the Best Actress award of the 2005 International Emmy Award for her performance in the film, he wrote various proses and essays, including'A Wife’s Farewell'.
On the 100th anniversary of his birth in 2002, Rou Shi's hometown Ninghai restored his former residence and opened it as a museum in his memory. In addition, the county opened the newly built Rou Shi Park covering an area of 250 mu