Pantomime is a type of musical comedy stage production designed for family entertainment. It was developed in England and is performed throughout the United Kingdom, Ireland and in other English-speaking countries during the Christmas and New Year season. Modern pantomime includes songs, slapstick comedy and dancing, it employs gender-crossing actors and combines topical humour with a story more or less based on a well-known fairy tale, fable or folk tale. Pantomime is a participatory form of theatre, in which the audience is expected to sing along with certain parts of the music and shout out phrases to the performers. Pantomime has a long theatrical history in Western culture dating back to classical theatre, it developed from the 16th century commedia dell'arte tradition of Italy and other European and British stage traditions, such as 17th-century masques and music hall. An important part of the pantomime, until the late 19th century, was the harlequinade. Outside Britain, the word "pantomime" is understood to mean miming, rather than the theatrical form discussed here.
The word pantomime was adopted from the Latin word pantomimus, which in turn derives from the Greek word παντόμιμος, consisting of παντο- meaning "all", μῖμος, meaning a dancer who acted all the roles or all the story. The Roman pantomime drew upon the Greek tragedy and other Greek genres from its inception, although the art was instituted in Rome and little is known of it in pre-Roman Greece; the English word came to be applied to the performance itself. According to a lost oration by Aelius Aristides, the pantomime was known for its erotic content and the effeminacy of its dancing. Roman pantomime was a production based upon myth or legend, for a solo male dancer—clad in a long silk tunic and a short mantle, used as a "prop"—accompanied by a sung libretto rendered by a singer or chorus. Music was supplied by flute and the pulse of an iron-shod shoe called a scabellum. Performances might be in a private household, with minimal personnel, or else lavish theatrical productions involving a large orchestra and chorus and sometimes an ancillary actor.
The dancer danced all the roles, relying on masks, stock poses and gestures and a hand-language so complex and expressive that the pantomime's hands were compared to an eloquent mouth. Pantomime differed from mime by its more artistic nature and relative lack of farce and coarse humour, though these were not absent from some productions. Roman pantomime was immensely popular from the end of the first century BC until the end of the sixth century AD, a form of entertainment that spread throughout the empire where, because of its wordless nature, it did more than any other art to foster knowledge of the myths and Roman legends that formed its subject-matter – tales such as those of the love of Venus and Mars and of Dido and Aeneas – while in Italy its chief exponents were celebrities the protegés of influential citizens, whose followers wore badges proclaiming their allegiance and engaged in street-fights with rival groups, while its accompanying songs became known. Yet, because of the limits imposed upon Roman citizens' dance, the populism of its song-texts and other factors, the art was as much despised as adored, its practitioners were slaves or freedmen.
Because of the low status and the disappearance of its libretti, the Roman pantomime received little modern scholarly attention until the late 20th century, despite its great influence upon Roman culture as perceived in Roman art, in statues of famous dancers, graffiti and literature. After the renaissance of classical culture, Roman pantomime was a decisive influence upon modern European concert dance, helping to transform ballet from a mere entertainment, a display of technical virtuosity, into the dramatic ballet d'action, it became an antecedent which, through writers and ballet-masters of the 17th and 18th centuries such as Claude-François Ménestrier, John Weaver, Jean-Georges Noverre and Gasparo Angiolini, earned it respectability and attested to the capability of dance to render complex stories and express human emotion. In the Middle Ages, the Mummers Play was a traditional English folk play, based loosely on the Saint George and the Dragon legend performed during Christmas gatherings, which contained the origin of many of the archetypal elements of the pantomime, such as stage fights, coarse humour and fantastic creatures, gender role reversal, good defeating evil.
Precursors of pantomime included the masque, which grew in pomp and spectacle from the 15th to the 17th centuries. The development of English pantomime was strongly influenced by the continental commedia dell'arte, a form of popular theatre that arose in Italy in the Early Modern Period; this was a "comedy of professional artists" travelling from province to province in Italy and France, who improvised and told comic stories that held lessons for the crowd, changing the main character depending on where they were performing. Each "scenario" used some of the same stock characters; these included the innamorati. Italian masque performances in the 17th century sometimes included the Harlequin character. In the 17th century, adaptations of the commedia characters became familiar in English entertainments. From these, the sta
Diana Pavlac Glyer is an American author and teacher whose work centers on C. S. Lewis, J. R. R. Tolkien, the Inklings. Glyer was born in Aberdeen and grew up in the suburbs of Cleveland, she received a B. S. in Education and a B. A. in English and Fine Arts from Bowling Green State University. She received her master's degree in Education from Northern Illinois University, her Ph. D in English from the University of Illinois at Chicago, she is a Professor of English at Azusa Pacific University in California. Glyer has published including contributions to The Pilgrim's Guide: C. S. Lewis and the Art of Witness, edited by David Mills, she co-edited, with David Weeks, The Liberal Arts in Higher Education: Challenging Assumptions, Exploring Possibilities. She is a featured author on HarperCollins' HarperOne C. S. Lewis Blog, her best-known work is The Company They Keep, which describes the interaction and creative influence of Lewis and the Inklings. It features an appendix by scholar David Bratman. Published in 2007, the book overturned assumptions held for the past 30 years.
It was recognized as a landmark study. The Company They Keep won the Mythopoeic Scholarship Award and was a finalist for the 2008 Hugo Award for Best Related Work at Denvention 3, the 66th World Science Fiction Convention. Glyer is the author of Clay in the Potter's Hands and Bandersnatch: C. S. Lewis, J. R. R. Tolkien, the Creative Collaboration of the Inklings. Bandersnatch, published in 2016, applies the scholarly work of The Company They Keep to creative writing groups, it encourages them to function collaboratively. Glyer has received the Marion E. Wade Center's Clyde S. Kilby Research Grant, Azusa Pacific University's Chase Sawtell Inspirational Teaching Award and Scholarly Achievement Award, she was the Scholar Guest of Honor for the 40th Annual Mythopoeic Conference, UCLA 2009. Glyer has worked on dozens of conventions. In 1998, she chaired Mythcon 29, the C. S. Lewis Centenary Celebration at Wheaton College in Wheaton, Illinois Diana Pavlac Glyer
USS Guadalcanal, the third Iwo Jima-class amphibious assault ship, was launched by the Philadelphia Naval Shipyard 16 March 1963, sponsored by Zola Shoup, wife of General Shoup, the former Commandant of the Marine Corps. It was the second ship in the Navy to bear the name. Upon completion of sea trials and outfitting, Guadalcanal departed Philadelphia to join the Amphibious Forces, U. S. Atlantic Fleet. One of a new class of ships designed from the keel up to embark and land assault marines by means of helicopters, she lent new strength and flexibility to amphibious operations. After departing Norfolk 23 October 1963 for six weeks' shakedown training at Guantanamo Bay, Guadalcanal steamed to Onslow Beach, North Carolina, 6 December for practice amphibious landings, she carried on training and readiness operations with the Atlantic Fleet, based in Norfolk until departing for Panama 11 February 1964. Following 2 months on station as flagship for Commander PhibRon 12 with the 12 Marine Expeditionary Unit embarked and ready to land anywhere needed.
Guadalcanal entered Philadelphia Naval Shipyard 26 May, but was deployed again 7 October as a unit of Operation "Steel Pike 1", a NATO landing exercise on the beaches of southern Spain. Career highlights include 21 July 1966, when she recovered the Gemini X astronauts and their spacecraft after they landed in the Atlantic east of Cape Kennedy, 13 March 1969, when she recovered Apollo 9 off the Bahamas. In October 1985 the ship logged its 100,000th aircraft landing. In 1987 Guadalcanal was leading minesweeping operations in the Persian Gulf when she encountered Iran Ajr laying mines in the shipping lanes. Helicopters from Guadalcanal attacked the ship. Guadalcanal provided the Marines for the first wave of Operation Provide Comfort, the Kurdish relief operations in Northern Iraq following the Persian Gulf War in 1991. Guadalcanal was decommissioned in 1994, stored as part of the James River Reserve Fleet until she was used as a target and sunk in the Virginia Capes area on 19 May 2005. On 1 November 1966, a UH-2B Seasprite helicopter assigned to the ship crashed as it was taking off from the flight deck.
Guadalcanal was in the Naval Shipyard in VA to start a major overhaul at the time. Three Navy men and one civilian shipyard worker were killed and 12 others were hospitalized. Nine more sailors and civilians were treated for minor injuries. On 9 May 1968 she floated adrift off North Carolina due to a burned out bearing in the propulsion system. On 27 January 1976 she went aground in Augusta Bay, Sicily on a peak of coral which pushed in areas on either side of the bow, but did not crack or hole the ship. Three days with cargo, personnel and fuel off-loaded to assist the effort, the ship was refloated. On 17 September 1981 near Sardinia, Italy, a USMC CH-53D helicopter crashed while attempting to land aboard the ship during training exercises killing all five crewmen. On 24 September 1981 Guadalcanal and the USNS Waccamaw, collided during underway replenishment south of Sardinia, causing minor damage but no injuries. On 25 May 1993 Guadalcanal and the USS Monongahela, collided during underway replenishment off of Cape Hatteras, North Carolina when Guadalcanal's main gyrocompass failed.
Five crew suffered $1.635 M in damage was caused to the two ships. During service Guadalcanal received the Joint Meritorious Unit Award, Navy Unit Commendation, Navy Meritorious Unit Commendation, Navy Battle "E" Ribbon, Navy Expeditionary Medal, National Defense Service Medal, Armed Forces Expeditionary Medal, Southwest Asia Service Medal and Humanitarian Service Medal; this article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships